« PreviousContinue »
of this change seems to be that the temple service had become more complicated, and more time was required by the priests for their preparations. Every additional degree of sun depression would add about five minutes for that purpose. The maximum extra allowance in this group of temples is thirty-five minutes. F. C. PENROSE.
NATURE AND A CAMERA.1
THE HE remarkably favourable reception accorded by the public and the press to the earlier effort of the Messrs. Kearton has naturally tempted them to another venture; and the volume before us shows no falling off in the matter of interest and the exquisite execution of the illustrations from its predecessor. Only too frequently authors, having scored one success, are apt to think their hold on the public will permit of a very inferior second effort obtaining the same share of patronage as the first, and any odd scraps of new information they
FIG. 1.-Nightingale on Nest. (From "With Nature and a Camera.") may possess are, with the aid of abundant "padding," worked up to form a volume of the required dimensions. The present work displays in an equally marked degree the freshness and brightness so conspicuous in "British Birds' Nests"; and as covering a wider area is calculated to attract an even larger circle of readers. One of the best tests of a work of this nature is its capability of arousing the interest of young persons, and this, from practical experience, we find to be the case with the volume before us.
Photography in the hands of artists of the capacity and perseverance of Mr. Cherry Kearton is undoubtedly the only real method of portraying animals in their
"With Nature and a Camera, being the Adventures and Observations of a Field-Naturalist and an Animal Photographer." By R. Kearton, with Photographs by C. Kearton. 8vo. Pp. xvi + 368, illustrated. (London: Cassell and Co., Ltd., 1897.)
native haunts, and more especially birds on their nests; and in the truthful representations of objects of the latter class the present volume can fear few rivals. Nothing can be more exquisite than the illustration of a nightingale on her nest, which the publishers have permitted us to reproduce (Fig. 1); but this is only one among many of the same excellence and interest, those of the whitethroat and the chiffchaff being, if possible, even more beautiful. The only thing we miss in illustrations of this nature is colour, which would be of especial value in photographs, like the upper one on page 253, dealing with the protective resemblances of animals to supplied in the near future. their surroundings. Possibly even this want may be
alone that calls for commendation in the work; many of But it is by no means the beauty of the illustrations the observations in the text claim recognition from all interested in the habits of British animals, while some have a bearing on considerations of a higher nature. For instance, in regard to protective resemblance, Mr. Kearton says he is puzzled by the circumstance that while young terns instinctively recognise its value, some of their parents apparently do not and others do. This is exemplified as follows: "As a rule, Sandwich terns eggs harmonise closely with their surroundings, and even the experienced field naturalist has to exercise a great deal of care to avoid treading upon a clutch when visiting a breeding station. A friend of mine told me a few years back that he had once visited a colony of these birds on an island where the natural breeding accommodation was so limited that many of them had conveyed patches of pebbles on to the grass, and laid their eggs thereon. We both recognised this as a wonderful instance of the knowledge of the value of protective coloration; but I must confess that last summer at the Farne Islands my faith in the wisdom of these birds received a rude shock when I met with five or six clutches of eggs lying most conspicuously on small circular patches of broken mussel-shells, the dark blue of which contrasted violently with the golden grey of the sand." From this it would almost seem that the birds are unable to distinguish between a mussel-shell and a pebble, and that any cluster of small smooth objects looks to them equally suitable as a nesting site.
Although the greater portion of the work is devoted to birds in their haunts, the subjects treated of are diverse. To the general reader and tourist the chapters on the people and birds of St. Kilda will, perhaps, be the most interesting; while the sportsman will find much to attract him in those on gamekeepers and duckdecoying. To the amateur photographer the volume will appeal not only as a standard of excellence at which to aim as regards his own efforts, but more especially from the account given in the final chapter of Mr. Kearton's method of photographing. From this latter it will be apparent that the task of portraying many kinds of birds-especially when they inhabit lakes or beetling sea-cliffs in their native haunts, is no easy one, but rather one beset with numerous dangers to life and limb. In the preface the author deprecates the charge of foolhardiness, and the results obtained go far to justify the risks necessarily incurred.
In the chapter on sea-birds and their haunts will be found some of the matter most interesting to the ornithologist, and it is here that some of the most successful of the photographs occur. As an example, we select, partly on account of its small size, the figure of a solitary razorbill mounting guard over its egg reposing lower down on the side of a pinnacle of rock (Fig. 2). But for beauty of detail and execution we may refer to the gull's nest with egg and young, and the group of puffins on p. 269, and also to the nest of the black-headed gull on the following page. To obtain the photograph of gannets nesting on the Bass Rock, Mr. Cherry Kearton ran risks
which evoked the fear of even the adventurous natives was intimately connected with the onward growth and of the district. When once their haunts are gained, development of the science in many important direcgannets with young are however, according to our author, tions. His enterprise and ability were everywhere acvery easy birds to photograph, as they will permit the knowledged, and a long career of work and usefulness observer to walk among them with no more protest than seemed before him. But while he was still a coman occasional peck at his legs. Much has of late years paratively young man, the state of his health prevented been written on the destruction by human agency of our him from adding to the reputation he had established, sea-birds; and it is, therefore, of interest to note that and to-day his name is perhaps little more than a memory other causes likewise aid to no inconsiderable extent in to many, who, interested in newer problems and more the diminution of their numbers. “The mortality among sensational inquiries, may possibly undervalue the work sea-birds of all kinds,” writes our author, reckoning of an older school, which occupied itself mainly in the the loss of eggs and young ones, from purely natural astronomy of position. But wherever a just and comcauses alone, must be very great in the course of a prehensive view of astronomy as a whole is taken, season. We saw a great number of young terns lying Winnecke's work will be remembered with gratitude and dead everywhere upon these islands, and Watcher admiration. Darling told us that two years ago very few Arctic or Dr. Winnecke enjoyed the advantage of adınirable com:non terns got away. He picked up several dead mathematical training under competent teachers. The
school of Bessel was then in the ascendant, and the reputations of Encke and of Argelander were at their zenith ; while in the district of Hanover, where Winnecke passed his early years, the memory of Herschel was still treasured, and helped to give direction to his astronomical tastes. He received his training in practical astronomy mainly at Bonn, under Argelander, where he became a proficient in the use of the heliometer, and with this instrument effected a complete triangulation of the stars in the Præsepe cluster, together with a thorough examination of the necessary constants of reduction. This latter part of the work he prepared himself for publication, but never printed, and it forms a painful commentary on his enfeebled energies to remember that this work never saw the light till many years after, when Dr. Schur ! proved himself an able and sympathetic coadjutor, and arranged the numerical portion of the research for general
In 1858, Winnecke left Bonn for Pulkova, where he still interested himself extra-meridional work. The fine series of observations of the great comet of 1861, which he followed until May 1862, long after it had ceased to be observed in other telescopes, and on which the final orbit rests, is a proof of both his energy and his observational skill. Cometary astronomy always had for him great attractions, and besides the periodic comet which bears his name, he found several others, receiving the prize of the Vienna Academy of Sciences for his cometary discoveries. At Pulkova, too, he took some part in the geodetic work arranged between Dr. Otto Struve, Argelander, and the late Astronomer Royal, for
determining the differences of longitude between places FIG. 2,-Razorbill and Egg. (From " With Nature and a Camera.") on the great European arc of parallel, and, in conjunc
tion with Colonel Forsch and Captain Zylinski, carried ones with sand-eels in their bills, and concluded that through that portion of the scheme which connects Haverthere was no small fry for them, and that the eels, al
ford West with Nieuport and Bonn. though the natural diet of Sandwich terns, were too
Winnecke also bestowed some attention on the problem large for the young of the smaller species to swallow."
of the sun's distance, which forty years ago was a burning Most of us suppose that the eider is pre-eminent for question. Hansen and Le Verrier were contending for but in this
, according to our author, she is beaten by the come of mathematical investigations based on the lunar common wild duck. Did space allow, many other ob. and planetary theories, and were supported by the result servations of equal interest might be quoted, but for of Foucault's mechanical operations arranged to deterthese we must refer the reader to the work itself, which mine the velocity of light. Winnecke was among the will form a welcome Christmas gift to all, whether young first to perceive the importance of obtaining evidence or old, interested in wild nature.
R. L. from independent sources, and fully appreciated the
value of utilising the observations of Mars as a new element in the discussion. The result of his investigation
of the observations made at the 1862 opposition was to DR. FRIEDRICH A. T. WINNECKE.
assign to the Solar Parallax a value of 8":964, confirmed T is always a painful duty to review the life work of ' by Stone's result of 8"-932. those who have recently passed away, to estimate !
After leaving Pulkova, Winnecke settled for some years the position their names will occupy in the history of a in Karlsruhe, where he was an industrious observer of science, and to survey the grounds on which their repu
comets and variable stars. On the conclusion of the tation will finally rest. But in the case of Dr. Winnecke, Franco-German war, he was invited to take charge of whose death was recorded last week, the task becomes the new observatory at Strassburg. The equipment of both painful and difficult. Thirty years ago he occupied this observatory and the details of its arrangement are a prominent position among continental astronomers, and due to his superintendence, and it certainly ranks among
the best arranged of continental observatories. While in We learn from Science that Dr. George H. Horn, the eminent the position of Director, Winnecke's health finally broke entomologist, died at Philadelphia on November 25. He was down, and for a great many years he has been unable to one of the Secretaries of the Philosophical Society, and was take any part in the management of the establishment he formerly Corresponding Secretary of the Academy of Natural had so admirably fitted and equipped. W. E. P.
Sciences. He had been until recently professor in the University of Pennsylvania, though his connection with that institu.
tion was chiefly honorary. Dr. Horn was only fisty-eight years NOTES.
of age, and his death, following those of Cope and Allen, is a The Physico-Chemical Institute of the University of Leipzig,
further severe loss to the city of Philadelphia and to science in
America. of which Prof. W. Ostwald is director, will be formally opened by a ceremony to be held in the large lecture theatre of the
La Nature announces the death of Prof. A. Joly, director Institute on January 3.
of the chemical laboratory of the École normale Supérieure, and Dr. Hugh GALT, acting Professor of Forensic Medicine professor in the Paris Faculty of Sciences. Born at Fontenay: and Public Health at Glasgow University, has for some time sous-Bois in 1846, M. Joly entered the Normal School in 1866. back been engaged in a research upon the starches, which is
When he left this school he became attached to Saint-Claire likely to prove of value to the Department of Public Health. Deville's laboratory, and afterwards was professor of physics at
the lycée Henri IV., which post he occupied until he was MR. JOHN MILNE writes that arrangements have been made for the establishment of horizontal pendulums, with photographic The titular director of the laboratory at that time was M. Debray.
nominated sub-director of the laboratory of the Normal School. apparatus to record unfelt movements, at Toronto, Harvard,
M. Joly next became instructor (maître de conférences) in Philadelphia, Victoria, B.C., New Zealand (two), Batavia, Madras, Calcutta, Bombay, Mauritius, the Cape, Argentina, San chemistry at the Sorbonne, and then professor attached to the
Faculty of Sciences of Paris. His works refer principally to the Fernando, and Kew, whilst a number of other stations are under
rare metals (niobium among others) and acids of phosphorus, consideration. Seismograms have already been received from Toronto. At his station on the Isle of Wight, for purposes The first ordinary meeting of the Röntgen Society was held of comparison, Mr. Milne has also two horizontal pendulums on December 7, Dr. Gladstone, F.R.S., being in the chair. writing on smoked paper, and very shortly a Darwin biflar Mr. A. A. Campbell Swinton read a paper on “ Adjustable pendulum is to be established. To this will be added later a X-ray Tubes,” in which various methods were discussed for von Rebeur-Paschwitz apparatus, with which type of apparatus regulating the penetrative and other qualities of X-rays, and for Mr. Milne worked for many years in Japan.
compensating the unavoidable and troublesome variations in DR. CHARRIN has been appointed to succeed Prof. d'Arsonval
vacuum that are found to occur in practice. The paper was in the chair of Medicine of the Collège de France.
illustrated by numerous experiments, and several adjustable
tubes of Mr. Swinton's design, embodying the improvements A NEW branch of the Russian Geographical Society has just and principles enunciated, were shown in operation. been opened at Tashkend, for Turkestan.
The ninth Congress of Archäological Societies was held at On December 4 the friends and pupils of Dr. C. Cramer, the Burlington House on December 1, the Right Hon. Viscount professor of botany at Zürich, celebrated the fortieth anni
Dillon in the chair. The Hon. Secretary reported that the versary of his connection as teacher with the Polytechnic in Committee had authorised the completion of Mr. Gomme's that town.
Index of Papers from 1682, with a view to immediate Prof. Dr. Willi Ule has just taken over the editorship of publication. It was reported that a wish had been ex. the weekly scientific periodical Die Natur, which was founded pressed to have an index of the archæological articles in certain by Dr. Otto Ule and Dr. Karl Müller, and is now in its forty- journals and publications, other than the Transactions of sixth year of publication.
Societies. The Standing Committee had considered the subject,
and recommended that if anything were done it should be by We regret to see the announcement of the death of Mr.
adding a supplement to the Index as now published. After Gardiner G. IIubbard, President of the National Geographic discussion the question was referred to the Committee with power Society, Washington. The death is also announced of Dr.
to act, if they found they could do so to advantage and at Campbell Morfit, formerly professor of applied chemistry in the
reasonable expense. It was resolved, on the motion of Sir John University of Maryland, and one of the scientific advisers of Evans, K.C.B. : “That a memorandum be sent to the various the United States Government.
local Archäological Societies, suggesting the desirability of Ar the close of a lecture delivered by Lieut. Peary in Edin. placing themselves in communication with the Ordnance Survey burgh on Friday last, under the auspices of the Royal Scottish
officers for their districts so as to promote the record on the Geographical Society, Dr. J. N. Murray, on behalf of the surveys of the earthworks within their districts, and where pos• Council of the Society, presented him with the medal of the sible to determine their age by excavations.” Mr. C. Hercules Society in recognition of his work in the Arctic regions. Read, the Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, made a
statement as to the steps that had been taken by Government in A BROOKLYN correspondent sends this item of news :
response to the request of the Society of Antiquaries for infor* Prof. Langley and Prof. Elfreth Watkins have constructed
mation as to what is done in foreign countries for the protection a fying machine designed to draw a railroad car. This has of ancient and historical monuments. been tested for several days on the Medford branch of the
been obtained and would shortly be published in a Blue Book. Pennsylvania Railroad, near Mount Holly, N.J., and has drawn the car at the rate of six miles an hour. The machine is actuated given as in England. Mr. Hope read a draft report on the
It appears that in no country in Europe is so little protection by a gasoline engine, the power being applied to two propellers, best mode of indexing the Transactions of Societies ; this had about four feet long, which make 800 revolutions per minute.
been prepared by the Committee consisting of himself and Mr. It is expected that machines can be constructed on this principle, J. H. Round and Mr. Gomme. As it appeared that several which can draw cars at the usual railroad speed."
Societies were anxiously waiting for the recommendations, it was
Full information had
agreed that the report should be referred back to the Committee for final consideration, and that as soon as complete it should be issued to the Societies. The Hon. Secretary reported that a National Photographic Record Association had been formed under the presidency of Sir J. Benjamin Stone, M.P., who had been at the head of the original Warwickshire Survey. He was directed to communicate to the Association that "The Congress hears with great satisfaction of the formation of a National Photographic Record Society, and expresses its desire to assist the work in any way it can."
MR. W. A. KNIGHT, writing from Bruton, Somerset, informs us that on November 30, at 10.20 p.m., he was fortunate enough to observe there a splendid lunar rainbow. The moon was sufficiently near the horizon to give a large arc, and although it was scarcely quarter-full, the black clouds looming in the north-east made the bow appear quite bright. There appears to be no doubt that what Mr. Knight saw was a lunar rainbow and not a halo, for it was opposite the moon.
PROF. A. RIGGENBACH has sent us the results of seven years' rainfall observations at Basle, deduced from a selfrecording gauge. Of course the period is very short, and in dealing with monthly and annual means the author combines the values with those of an ordinary gauge, giving altogether a series of thirty-three years. But the principal object of the paper is to bring out some interesting details, which cannot well be obtained from an ordinary gauge. Among these we may mention the frequency and duration of very heavy showers, the great majority of which last only about twenty minutes. Sixty per cent. of these occur between 1h. and 7h. p.m., and 87 per cent. occur between June and September. In the yearly range the rainfall probability reaches a maximum in the early summer and in the late autumn, while the minima fall in midsummer and in the first months of the year. In the daily range the duration of rainfall reaches a maximum between 6h. and 8h. a.m., and falls to a shallow minimum at 7h. to 8h. p.m., after which it rises uniformly to the maximum again. The various phases are shown both in tabular and graphical form. Dr. Riggenbach is perhaps best known to English meteorologists by the success with which he has prosecuted cloud photography.
HERR OTTO BASCHIN contributes to the Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin an account of the fitting out and departure of Andrée's balloon expedition. The different possibilities as to the fate of the explorers are discussed, and the
conclusion reached that there is as yet no reason to give up hope of their return. Under the most favourable circumstances the balloon might easily deposit its passengers on a part of Northern Siberia, from which it would take months to reach the nearest telegraph station.
THE new number of the Mittheilungen von Forschungsreisenden und Gelehrten aus den deutschen Schutzgebieten contains some items of geographical interest. Dr. F. Stuhlmann contributes a paper on the German-Portuguese frontier in East Africa, with a new map of the mouth of the Ravuma. In the same region Lieut. Stadlbaur gives a short account of the Turu district and its people; whilst First Lieutenant Freiherr von Stein describes the Ossa or Lungasi lake, on a tributary of the Savaga in the Kameruns.
are these five contributions to human knowledge: the establishment of the principles of evolution; the establishment of the principle of the conservation of energy; the development of, mathematical science and its application to physics, mechanics, electricity and astronomy; the development of spectrum analysis and the consequent discoveries respecting light and electricity; and the discovery of the nature and functions of bacteria, and of their influence, for weal or woe, upon living organisms.
DIFFERENT minds place different estimates on the intellectual accomplishments of the past half-century. In ordinary conversation the men of the mart will point to an Eiffel tower, a suspension bridge, a continental express train, a man-of-war, or an Atlantic cable. But in a discourse recently delivered in commemoration of the jubilee of the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University, President Gilman remarked that perhaps | the greatest triumphs of the intellect during the last half-century
As the result of an investigation of the red spectrum of argon, Dr. J. R. Rydberg comes to the conclusion (Astrophysical Journal, November) that it belongs to one single element. Moreover, there seems to him to be no reason to doubt that the blue spectrum belongs to the same element, but corresponds to a higher temperature. As to the supposed displacement of a great number of the lines of the white spectrum towards the red end of the spectrum, it is remarked, "nothing seems to indicate that we have to do with a continuous displacement, but rather with the appearance of new lines on the red side of those of the other spectra, with which they ought to be closely related. In such a case it seems most probable that the interesting observation of Eder and Valenta depends on a change in the relative intensity of two sets of connected lines."
IN the Philosophical Magazine for December, Mr. J. D. Hamilton Dickson examines the relation between the electric resistance of a metallic wire and the temperature. Although it has been demonstrated that platinum is a suitable substance for determining temperatures over a very wide range, not much different probably from 2000° C., nevertheless, seeing that each platinum thermometer needs at least to have its constant specially and carefully determined, not by three, but by a series of observations, it cannot be too strongly urged that this work should in each case accompany the record of results when expressed in platinum temperatures; and no one will deny that to have these results expressed at once in terms of the normal airthermometer will permanently enhance the value of the work in such a manner as to amply recompense the extra labour. With the view of helping towards this desirable end, Mr. Dickson proposes a formula of the form (R+a)2 = p(t+b), where a, p, b are constants, and gives reasons for considering it as more representative of the connection between temperature and resistance than any formula hitherto proposed, and just as simple as any.
AN interesting extension to space of n dimensions of Euler's and Meunier's theorems on the curvature of surfaces has been
given by Signor Luigi Berzolari in the Atti dei Lincei, vi.
The author proves the following propositions :-Given in S, a form of n- I dimensions, the curvature (of Kronecker) at any point of any hyperplane section is equal to the curvature of the hyperplane section having the same trace on the tangent hyperplane at that point divided by the n-2th power of the cosine of the angle between the hyperplanes. The curvature of the normal hyperplane section at O is a maximum when the trace of the cutting hyperplane on the tangent hyperplane at O is one of the principal sections S,, - 2 of the indicatrix, and the sum of the curvatures of any # – 1 hyperplane normal sections mutually at right angles is constant.
DETERMINATIONS of the thermal conductivity of ice by different observers have hitherto exhibited a remarkable discrepancy of results, the values of this coefficient being, according to F. Neumann, 0°34; De la Rive, o'14; Forbes, o'134 and o 128, according to direction; and, according to Mittchel, 0.30, the centimetre, gramme, minute and degree Centigrade being taken as units. In the Atti dei Lincei, vi. 9, Signor Paolo Straneo describes a simple method of determining this coefficient. From observations on two different kinds of ice, taking two different cubes of each, the values obtained are 0 307, 0 309 for
one kind, o‘312 and 0.313 for the other. A further determina- hung up to dry, care being taken to choose a shady place, as the
The current number of the Annali d'Igiene Sperimental homogeneous amorphous ice the values for the vertical and
contains a note by Dr. Casagrandi on a yeast producing a red horizontal directions were found to be practically equal (0-312 pigment which, in many respects, resembles the one described and 0-308), but homogeneous non-amorphous ice gave for the
by Demme some years ago, and isolated by him from a cheese. same directions o‘328 and oʻ301 respectively in one experiment,
Demme stated that his variety was not endowed with any and 0-325 and 0-308 in another, showing that only ice which is fermentative properties ; that isolated by Casagrandi, on the connot persectly amorphous presents small differences in the co
trary, ferments glucose very readily. This fermentative power efficient of conductivity in different directions.
is not, however, a trustworthy one for establishing differences The physical aspect of the reversal of the photographic between very similar varieties of bacteria, for, as in other cases image is the subject of a suggestive paper by Captain Abney in so in this, Casagrandi has found that Demme's yeast can be inthe Journal of the Camera Club. To investigate the matter, a
duced to ferment glucose if particular precautions are adopted. series of photo-micrographs of sections of films which had been Both Demme's and Casagrandi's specimens are pathogenic to given known exposures was taken. From these sections it is guinea-pigs, rabbits and rats, when subcutaneously introduced seen that the part of the films in which reversal has taken place into these animals; whilst of much interest is the fact that when are markedly different at the upper and lower surfaces. Near grown in milk they are both capable of so modifying the character the upper surface the section shows comparatively fine grains of of this liquid that dogs and rabbits fed with such milk develop silver, whilst at the bottom surface it shows coarser grains. At diarrhrea, and the same symptoms have been observed in babies the top part of the film, where the light has acted strongly, the which had partaken of milk in which this red yeast had been reversal has taken place. At the bottom the light has not acted growing. This yeast appears to be present in our surroundings, much more than usual, owing to the shielding action of the top and may, therefore, at any time make its presence felt by obtainpart. When given areas of the film are examined, the numbers ing access to milk if the latter is left unduly exposed. We of separate silver particles are found to be very much the same already have one well-recognised red yeast, the so-called kosa in both cases, showing that there is a sort of normal number hefe, but Casagrandi does not claim that his variety is anything per volume which is subject to reduction, and that the main more than an offshoot from the second red yeast, known to us difference is in the size of the reduced particles. In the course as the Saccharomyces ruber discovered by Demme some seven of a discussion upon the subject of the paper, Dr. Armstrong, years ago. referring to the sections of the unreversed image, considered
No. 11, vol. iii., of Spelunca contains, among much other that Captain Abney had shown that to be the case which must
cavern-lore, an illustrated account of M. Martel's explorations be the case, and that so long as there was no reversal the
in the British Isles in 1895. particles must be practically as large as the bromide particles, and all of the same dimensions. By showing that the particles In the November number of the Irish Naturalist, Mr. G, H. in the reversed image were so very much smaller, Captain Abney Kinahan urges the importance of a careful study of quartz-rocks, had contributed in an important degree to the solution of the when not metamorphosed, with a view to the recognition of character of the change that took place ; it appeared to him structures that may prove some of them to be of organic origin, that it had been shown that there was in some way a re. like the modern sinter produced by the algæ of hot springs. conversion of the surface of the particle into soluble matter
MR. W. JEROME HARRISON has reprinted, from the that evidence had been adduced to prove that there must be a
Glacialists' Magazine, “ A Bibliography of Norfolk Glaciology," re-transference of the bromine back into the silver at the
on the lines of his similar work on the Midlands. Over four surface, leaving untouched the silver lower down in the particle, hundred papers are catalogued, in approximate order of publiand consequently that when the fixing solution was applied, cation, and short abstracts of the most important are given. the particle became reduced in size.
There is also a list of the Geological Survey maps, and an As article of perhaps no little interest to many persons in
author-index. A reproduction of a photograph of one of the this country, and of some substantial importance to Spanish great chalk-masses in the drift of Runton forms a frontispiece to industries, is the so-called gut from silkworms. This is useful
this useful reprint. for fishing purposes, partly on account of its great tenacity and
To commemorate the incorporation of the University College partly owing to its transparent quality, the line attaching the of Sheffield, a number of scientific papers by members of the hook when in the water not be visible. The manner of College have been brought together and printed in a volume for obtaining this threadlike gut is described in the Journal of the private distribution. The subjects of physical papers included Society of Arts as follows:-After the grub has eaten enough in the volume are :-The influence of carbon on iron, by Prof. mulberry leaves and before it begins to spin, which is during the J. O. Arnold ; the preparation of pure iron by electrolysis, by months of May and June, it is thrown into vinegar for several
Prof. W. M. Hicks, F.R.S., and Mr. L. T. O'Shea ; vortex hours. The insect is killed, and the substance which the grub, aggregates with gyrostatic quality, by Prof. Hicks; functions if alive, would have spun into a cocoon, is forcibly drawn out
connected with tesseral harmonics, by Prof. A. H. Leahy ; super. from the dead body into a much thicker and shorter silken thread.
heated steam-engine trials, by Prof. W. Ripper ; the amount of Two thick threads (from each grub) are placed for about four carbonic anhydride in the atmosphere, by Prof. W. Carleton hours in clear cold water, after which they are dipped for ten or Williams ; and contributions to the knowledge of the Triazole fifteen minutes in a solution of some caustic, for which purpose series, by Dr. George Young. In biological science there are soft soap dissolved in water is used. This serves to loosen a
papers on the comparative intellectual value of the anterior and fine outer skin, which is next removed by the hands while the posterior cerebral lobes, by Dr. C. Clapham; the development workman holds the thread between his teeth. The silk is then of the ovipositor in Periplaneta orientalis, by Prof. A. Denny :