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accurate and extensive, we can determine the relative propor. the currents were flowing from below to above. The meaning tions of those parts of the force which are due to causes wholly of the result would be that, within the region considered, the external or internal respectively. It is only lately that a further upward were stronge than the downward currents, and that, if attempt has been made to discover whether, in addition to these, the excess were uniformly distributed over the whole of the currents from earth to air and from air to earth also exist. The surface to which the calculation applied, an average current of credit of this attempt is due to Dr. A. Schmidt, who, taking the such and such a magnitude would be produced. most recent and the most accurate facts at his disposal, deduced Turning from the method of detecting the vertical currents to from them the conclusion that about one-fortieth part of the the question as to whether they exist, there are, apart from the magnetic force is due to causes wholly external to the earth, and calculations of Schmidt and Bauer, some experimental and that a slightly larger fraction is produced by vertical currents ; theoretical reasons which support an affirmative answer. We the origin of the remaining thirty-eight fortieths being traced to know that earth currents traverse the soil beneath us. The internal causes only.

Aurora is evidence of electrical discharge in the atmosphere. It And now it becomes necessary to say a few words as to the is conceivable that there are cross connections between these method by which the vertical earth-air currents may be detected. two systems. Again, if the immediate surroundings of the If we could perform the impossible operation of severing the carth are electrically conducting, the mere rotation of the huge north pole of a magnet from the remainder without immediately magnetic mass of the earth itself would cause the production of producing poles of the opposite kind in the broken fragments, currents which at sonie points would flow out of, and at others the isolated pole thus manufactured would be urged northwards would flow into the surface. The late Prof. Hertz calculated by the magnetic forces which are in play near the surface of the the forms of the paths of such currents for the case of a uniearth. If therefore a traveller were to carry such a pole with formly magnetised sphere rotating about its magnetic axis, and, him, he would be assisted when going northwards, retarded though the fact that the magnetism of the earth is irregularly when returning to the south. If the tour ended at the starting. distributed forbids us to apply his calculation directly to the point, the advantage gained when moving in one direction globe, yet the principle holds good, though the distribution of would in general be exactly compensated by the disadvantage of the currents would be more complex. Dr. Bauer has deduced being compelled to oppose the magnetic forces during the from the calculations already remainder of the journey.

referred to the average direction To this rule there is one exception. If the migrations of the of flow between different latimagnetic pole carried it round an electrical current, so that its tudes. course passed through the circuit in which the current flows, as The result is shown in Fig. 1. a thread might pass through a ring, and if the route finally led The directions and magnitudes back to the starting point without again passing through the cir. of the supposed vertical currents cuit of the current, the exact equilibrium of loss and gain would are indicated by arrows, and be destroyed, and when the journey was over the wandering points at which there are pole would either have added to or drawn upon any store of such currents occur at lat. 43° N. energy which it might at first have possessed.

and 40° S. Whether the result would be a loss or a gain would depend Up to this point, therefore, upon the direction in which the journey was performed relatively the argument seems all in favour to the direction of the current. On this point it is unnecessary of the actual existence of curto dwell. Suffice it to say that if the amount of the loss or gain rents from earth to air, but the experienced by a given pole is known, the magnitude and results of calculations such as direction of the current, whose circuit had been traversed, can these must be accepted with very be calculated. The result would not be affected by whether the great caution. Our knowledge current Aowed from all parts of the district which the path of of the magnetic state of the the pole had encircled, or was confined to a few points only ; earth is very imperfect ; we know the total Aow would be registered without reference to how it but little of the oceans as comwas distributed. If some of the currents flowed in opposite pared with the land, and of the directions the excess of one set over the other would be land but little of the less civi. measured.

lised regions. Whatever be the If now a currerit passes at a certain point from earth to air lines of latitude chosen they it must return from air to earth elsewhere, completing the circuit must pass over sea, or desert, or through the soil. The course of the unburied portion may be both; and if the assumptions made as to the magnetic conregarded as an aerial arch, and from what has been said it will diions of these regions are incorrect, it may be that the results be evident that if a magnetic pole were carried round a leg of are due not to the physical existence of the currents, but to the this arch the circuit of the current would be pierced, and the inaccuracy of the data to which the formulæ were applied. total upward or downward flow would be determined. The It therefore becomes important to check such large scale experiment, as thus described, is impossible, but, by an appro- calculations by others which depend only on the comparatively priate method, we can determine the force which would be small areas which have been minutely studied. exerted at any point on the detached north pole of a magnet of In 1895, Dr. Carlheim-Gyllenskiöld applied the test for the given strength, and, if this be known for a sufficient number of existence of vertical currents to Sweden, for which comparatively points on the path, we can calculate what the result would be numerous observations could be utilised. The conclusion at if the imaginary conditions of the journey could be realised. which he arrived was that there was no evidence for the existence

The calculations of Dr. Schmidt as to the existence of earth- of the currents, except in those parts of the country where air currents were based upon this principle, and were applied to the data were so untrustworthy as to make any conclusion the earth as a whole. Their general accuracy has been con- valueless. firmed by Dr. Bauer, who supposed the hypothetical isolated In 1896 similar calculations were made for this country. Dr. magnetic pole to be carried along lines of latitude right round the Thorpe and I have recently completed a magnetic survey of the earth. I!, for instance, the journey were made along latitude United Kingdom which is, I believe, the most complete of any 511, beginning and ending at London, the resulting work would which has hitherto been made of an equally large area.

All our show the total amount of the currents which traverse the observations were made within a few years, and, therefore, the northern portions of the Northern Hemisphere between that corrections for secular change were comparatively unimportant. latitude and the geographical pole. If the same operation were The survey was divided into two parts, in one of which we repeated, say on latitude 45°, a similar result would be obtained, depicted the magnetic state of the kingdom in 1886 ; while the and the difference between the two would give the average flow other part was devoted to a similar investigation for the epoch of the currents which traverse the surface of the earth between 1891. We were thus able to compare the results obtained at these two latitudes.

two periods, separated by a few years only, and by their conOf course, it must be remembered that by such a calculation cordance or disagreement to judge of the value of our conclusions. we can only arrive at a mean result. If, for instance, we had As these appear to be of some importance with regard to the proved that between these latitudes there was, on the whole, an question we are now discussing, I have recently repeated the upward current, it would by no means follow that at all points calculations in a somewhat different way, and have determined on the vast surface included between the selected boundaries the average value of the currents Rowing through all the districts

Fig. 1.

in the United Kingdom which are bounded by lines of latitude north, in the west and south, while in the midlands and the and longitude corresponding to whole degrees.

east the general tendency is from above to below. Thus, if starting on the meridian of Greenwich a traveller But in spite of this apparent agreement, I am very doubtful were to go due north from lat. 51° to 52°, that is from mid- whether these conclusions can be trusted. In the first place the Sussex to the north of Hertsordshire, then were to go due west currents are very minute. The whole flow of electricity passing until long. 1° W. was reached near Buckingham, thence due through an area of 2800 square miles is less than that consouth along long. 1°, until when near Petersfield he turned centrated by Prof. Moissan in a few square inches within an homewards due east along lat, 51°, his route would include an electric furnace. The forces to be measured are so small that area of, in round numbers, 2800 square miles, or of about 7000 they must be seriously affected by the inevitable errors of square kilometres. In each such circuit the average current

observation and reduction. expressed in hundredths of an ampere per square kilometre has Again, the observations which were made at nearly 900 places been determined, and the results are shown on maps both for scattered all over the kingdom, are affected by local disturb1886 and for 1891.

ances, due to quite other causes than those we are now discussing, These maps are given in Fig. 2, A and B. The numbers and the magnetic state of the whole area, such as it would be if indicate the average flow in hundredths of an ampere per square these disturbances were removed, can only be deduced by an

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kilometre. The figures are underlined where the flow of the

elaborate system of averaging the results obtained at different current is from above to below. In other cases the direction is

places. This process of taking means is least accurate near the upwards.

boundaries of the survey, and thus the larger currents which Fig. 2, A, shows the result for January 1, 1886, deduced from are indicated near the shores of our islands have probably no the 200 stations which were then available. In Fig. 2, B, all

real physical existence, but are due only to the relative unthe facts obtained in the two surveys are worked up to a final certainty of our knowledge of the magnetic state of the parresult for the date January 1, 1891.

ticular localities in which they appear to flow. From this point If we compare the two maps thus obtained from the two

of view, therefore, it appears to be unsafe to trust to any surveys, the conclusions arrived at are, in some respects, not particular figure, and that a better result will be obtained if we

In both the larger currents occur near the deal with larger areas and content ourselves with taking the boundaries of the land area to which the observations were

mean of all the currents which appear to flow within them necessarily confined,

If the maps are to be trusted, the through the surface of the earth. largest currents exist in the extreme north of Scotland, in the

Adopting this plan, the general conclusions to be drawn from east of England, and in the far west of Ireland. It is also in

the two maps are very nearly identical.

If for the moment we favour of the trustworthiness of the results that in both cases

neglect the question as to whether the currents are Aowing up the upward currents occur in the same parts of the kingdom. The figures indicate that the currents flow upwards in the far United Kingdom is about five-hundredths of an ampere per

or down, their average magnitude in any considerable area in the

very different.

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square kilometre. Is, however, we take account, as we are bound A PROPOSED SIVEDISH EXPEDITION TO to do, of the difference of direction, treating those which How

THE ARCTIC REGIONS. upwards as positive and those which flow down as negative. ihe result would show that the mean current in the United

A YEAR since, Dr. A. G: Nathorst, of Stockholm, read a

paper before the Swedish Society for Anihropology and Kingdom is about five thousandths of an ampere per square kilometre. Of course, if we deal with considerable but smaller

Geology, entitled “ Återblick på Polarforskningens närvarende areas, the precise value obtained depends upon the district

Ställning samt Förslag till en Svensk Polarexpedition " (a rechosen, but this does not affect the conclusion to any important project for a Swedish Polar expedition), which has since been

view of the present position of Polar investigation, with a extent. Thus, for the reason I have already given, it is prob; published in Ymer (Argång 1896, Heft 4, pp. 267-286), the able that our knowledge of the magnetic state of the central journal of the Society. At the time of reading the paper, districts is better than our information as to the borders, and if there seemed but little probability of a near realisation of the we confine ourselves to the centre of the kingdom, we find that the average current is downwards in both cases, and that in

projected scheme; but, during the present year, the King 1886 it was apparently a little larger, and in 1891 a little less

of Sweden and certain wealthy merchants of Stockholm and

Gothenburg have generously come forward and provided the than one-hundredth of an ampere per square kilometre.

funds necessary for carrying it out, and Dr. Nathorst, who will Even these concordant conclusions are rendered more doubt.

act as the scientific leader of the expedition, is now engaged in ful if the two completely independent sets of results obtained

preparations for a start next year (1898). by means of the two surveys for 1886 to 1891, respectively, are

As the result of Nansen's voyage, Dr. Nathorst thinks that reduced to the same date. It is true that the magnitudes of the

there is but little probability of the discovery of fresh land areas calculated currents are larger than those shown in the map

in the vicinity of the Pole, and that the aim of future expeditions given above, but on the whole they are so opposed in direction

to the Arctic regions should be a thorough scientific investiga. that the comparison compels us to reject the hypothesis of their

tion of those lands, of which at present but little is known physical reality.

beyond the fact of their existence. Under this head may be I therefore feel justified in asserting that no evidence that can

mentioned the west coast of Ellesmere Land and Grinnell Land be relied upon points to the existence of any flow of electric and the neighbouring islands ; also the shores of Jones Sound, currents through the surface of the British Isles, whether from in Arctic America. °Further, large tracts of the north-eastern below to above or from above to below. The quantities are so

and north-western coasts of Greenland remain to be examined, minute that if they existed they could barely be measured, and

in spite of the admirable work of the Danish, Austrian, and the results are too discordant to command assent.

other exploring expeditions. But it is with Spitsbergen and Since the survey of the United Kingdom was completed, my friend Dr. Van Rijckevorsel has made a minute magnetic survey

the region east of it that previous Polar explorations on the part

of Sweden have been most closely connected ; and though no of Holland. In the case of so small a district it is more difficult

fewer than twelve different Swedish expeditions, led by such to eliminate the effects of local disturbances than when the area

men as Torell, Nordenskiold, Nathorst, de Geer, and others, to be dealt with is larger, and thus I doubt whether conclusions

have visited this region since 1858, and that it has been the as to the flow of electrical currents drawn from Holland alone

field of work for expeditions from other countries as well, the could be regarded as trustworthy. Taking them, however, for

most recent being that under Sir Martin Conway in 1896, it what they are worth, they indicate an upward current of about

yet offers, in Nathorst's opinion, a rich harvest for scientific one-tenth of an ampere per square kilometre for that country.

investigation. All these quantities are less than the currents which Dr.

The west coast of Spitsbergen is now fairly well known, but Schmidt's calculations demand. In the neighbourhood of the

owing to the ice coming from the east and blockading the eastern United Kingdom the flow should, according to his calculations,

coasts of the island, nothing has as as yet been ascertained of be upwards and the magnitude about fifteen-hundredths of an

their geological structure. The same obstacle has also prevented ampere per square kilometre. This is l approached by the

observations on Stans Foreland (Edge Island), Barentz Land, flow in Holland, but from ten to twenty times greater

North East Land, Kung Karls Land, and Ny Island ; but it is than the average obtained over large areas in the United

probable, that given favourable conditions of the ice, a steam Kingdom.

vessel would be able to approach sufficiently near these islands So far, then, the question as to whether such currents really

to allow of their geology at least to be made out.

The explora. exist appears to be doubtful. The calculations of Schmidt and

tion of these lands between Spitsbergen and Franz Josef Bauer lead to the conclusion that when the world as a whole

Land is the main object of the expedition ; but should this be is investigated the answer is affirmative, but all the more accurate investigations which have hitherto been made in small

frustrated by the prevalence of the ice, the research work would

be carried on in Spitsbergen itself, and more particularly a study areas combine to prove either that the currents do not exist, or

would be made of the raised shell-banks and terraces, evidencing that they are less than Dr. Schmidt's theory demands. This

a comparatively recent elevation of the land, and of the remark. fact, taken by itself, is not conclusive, as sweden, the United able quaternary deposits which show that the climate of the Kingdom, and Holland are all in the west of Europe, and it

island, for a certain interval after the Ice age, was warmer than might well be that this happened to be a district in which the

at the present time. Promising botanical results might be currents were exceptionally small; but, on the other hand,

also expected from an examination of the valleys extending from the doubt thus raised is formidable. Dr. von Bezold has

the heads of the fiords, as, for example, those in Sassen Bay, recently stated to the Berlin Academy that Dr. Schmidt himself

Kol Bay, and Van Mijens Bay. must now be added to the list of doubters ; and von Bezold

A stout vessel of from 350 to 400 tons, and a crew of thirteen confirms this caution by figures which lead him to the conclusion

men, would, in Nathorst's opinion, be most suitable for the that in all probability the results obtained from calculations which embrace the whole globe are due rather to the want of accuracy

undertaking ; and the scientific staff would consist of a geologist,

a botanist, two zoologists, one hydrographer and meteorologist, of our knowledge than of the physical reality of currents from earth to air. I should myself be sorry to pronounce a final

and one for cartography and photography. It is not intended to

over-winter in the Arctic regions, but the vessel would be opinion, but I must confess that I seriously doubt whether the horizontal magnetic force has been determined with adequate provisioned for a year, in case of accidents. The estimated cost

of the expedition is about 4000l. It is proposed to reach Spits. accuracy at a sufficient number of places in the vast regions

bergen in the beginning of June, and work there until the middle which are covered with the sea to enable us to draw any final conclusion from areas which include them, and I certainly con.

of August, when it is hoped the ice will allow Kung Karls Land

and ihe other islands near it to be examined. sider that the balance of evidence is at present opposed to the physical reality of the currents. Before we can accept the opposite proposition some evidence must be produced based on THE USE OF KITES IN WEATHER surveys as complete as those of England and Holland. Before

PREDICTION. long we shall probably have full information as to France and Maryland, and it is possible that one or other of these may THE systematic exploration of the upper air by means of furnish positive evidence sufficient to outweigh the negative

kites is referred to by Prof. Cleveland Abbe in the Monthly results which have hitherto been obtained.

Il’eather heview, at the end of a long article upon the experi

ments made previous to 1893. It is pointed out that at (To be continued.)

that time the Malay kite and the free balloon were merely looked upon as the means Coccas onally obtaining isolated The following resolution has been unanimously passed by the items of information from the upper regions; the world had not lecturers and teachers in the medical school of Guy's Hospital: then awakened to the possibility of the work inaugurated by “ That the medical school of Guy's Hospital earnestly reques: Prof. Moore in July 1895, which looks to the compilation of a Her Majesty's Government to reintroduce into Parliament the daily map of simultaneous observations high above the earth’s i London University Commission Bill of 1897, and to pass it into surface and over a large portion of the United States, for study law during the ensuing Session." in connection with the map of surface conditions. Observations i

AMONG the institutions created during the last half-century of the air at a single station can have but little value compared for the promotion of scientific research and education, the with the international balloon work of Europe, or the extended

Sheffield Scientific School of Yale College, New Haven, holds national kite work of the U.S. Weather Bureau.

an honourable place. A review of the foundation of the School, In an address at Toronto, before the British Association, Prof. Moore is reported by the Review to have said :

and of the work of the distinguished investigators who have

been connected with it, was given in a discourse delivered by “For twenty-seven years the forecasters of the Weather Bureau have studied the inception, development, and progression held.

President Gilman at the semi-centennial anniversary recently

It was in 1847 that Profs. Silliman and Norton opened of these different classes of atmospheric disturbances. From a

a laboratory on the College grounds for the purpose of knowledge personally gained by many years' service as an official practical instruction in the applications of science to the arts forecaster, I do not hesitate to express the opinion that we have long since reached the highest degree of accuracy in the making of Yale University. At first chemistry was alone ; engineering

and agriculture. Thus was born the Sheffield Scientific School of forecasts possible to be attained with surface readings. It is

soon found a place; mathematics, physics and astronomy joined patent that we are extremely ignorant of the mechanics of the storm ; of the operations of those vast yet subtle forces in free geography, zoology, botany and physiology found a welconie ;

the oligarchy; in due time, mineralogy, geology, physical air which give inception to the disturbance, and which supply modern languages and literature, history and economics, became the energy necessary to continue the same. Long having

strong allies. While this evolution was going on, not a word realised this, I determined at once, on coming to the control of

was spoken in disparagement of classical culture, nor a word of the United States Weather Bureau, to systematically attack the religious controversy. From the beginning onwards the instituproblem of upper-air exploration, with the hope ultimately of

tion has been the department of a University which never being able to construct a daily synoptic weather chart from

suffered its love of letters to blind its eyes to the value of science. simultaneous readings taken in free air at an altitude of not less

The School largely owes its success to its association with the than one mile above the earth. It appeared to me that all

fame, the fortune, and the followers of a great alma mater. previous plans for investigating the upper air, by means of free and uncontrollable balloons, by observers in balloons, or by offspring; and the present high position which the School

Substantial advantages were bestowed by the mother upon her isolated kite stations or mountain observatories, were of little occupies shows that the child has deserved the encouragement value in getting the information absolutely necessary to the

it has received. improvement of our methods of forecasting. Simultaneous observations, at a uniform high level, from many co-operating

A MEETING was held at the University of London on Tuesday kite stations, was the fundamental feature of the plan that i afternoon, the Chancellor (Lord Herschell) presiding, to discuss inaugurated for the prosecution of this important investigation.

the proposed legislation on the University of London question. " Prof. Marvin was assigned to the difficult task of devising The Times reports that there were present, besides the Viceappliances and making instruments, and I am pleased to say Chancellor (Sir Henry Roscoe), representatives of the Corthat we have improved on kite flying to such an extent that poration of the City, the Technical Education Board of the apparatus is now easily sent up to a height of one mile in only a London County Council, the Royal Colleges of Physicians and moderate wind. We have made an automatic instrument that, Surgeons, the various medical schools, University College, while weighing less than two pounds, will record temperature, King's College, Bedford College, the Royal College of Science, pressure, humidity, and wind velocity. By January next we and the City and Guilds of London Institute. The Chancellor expect to have not less than twenty stations placed between the invited expression of opinion on the London University Com. Rocky Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean taking daily readings mission Bill which the Government propose te reintroduce early at an elevation of one mile or more.

in the Session. He said that the Bill embodied the compromise “We shall then construct a chart from the high-level readings between the various parties hitherto in conflict, and that it was obtained at these twenty stations, and study the same in con- to receive the support of the Senate, as also of both parties in nection with the surface chart made at the same moment. As Convocation. The Chancellor further explained why no prowe shall thus be able to map out not only, as now, the horizontal, posal for any new charter was within the range of practical gradients for the lower surface conditions, but in addition the politics, reconstitution at the hands of a statutory commission simultaneous gradients for the upper level, and, what is of still being the only remaining course. He therefore urged the more importance, shall be able to deduce from these, for any acceptance of the compromise. Many of those present spoke in section of the atmosphere, the simultaneous vertical gradients of favour of the scheme, and urged that a deputation should wait temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind velocity, we may upon the Vice-President of Council at an early date. The only confidently hope to better understand the development of objection came from one of the smaller medical schools, which storms and cold waves, and eventually improve the forecasts of declared its preference for the creation of a second University in their future course, extent, and rate of movement. It will be a

London. The feeling of the conference was, however, entirely fascinating study to note the progress of cold waves at the upper

in favour of the reconstruction of the existing University. A and lower levels, and to determine whether the changes in : deputation to the Government will be appointed as suggested to temperature do not first begin above. I am anxious to know urge the passing of the Bill. the difterence in temperature between the surface and the upper stratum in the four quadrants of the cyclone, and also of the anticyclone, especially when the storm or cold-wave conditions are

SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. intense. The vertical distribution of temperature in the several quadrants may give a clue to the future direction of movement

Buielin of the American Malhematical Society, November of the disturbance."

1897.—The number opens with an account, by Prof. Osgood, of the proceedings at the International Congress oi Mathematicians held at Zürich in August last. The transactions of the Congress,

which was attended by about two hundred mathematicians, 10UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL gether with the papers read, or presented, are to be published INTELLIGENCE.

in full. - Prof. J. McMahon performs a like work for the Detroit London, has been appointed principal of the Royal Holloway Section is given. One of these communications was an account Miss EMILY PENROSE, principal of Bedford College, meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of

Science. An analysis of the twenty-one papers presented to the College, Egham.

of stereoscopic views of spherical catenaries and syroscopic MR. WM. H. SAGE and Dean Sage have presented to Cornell curves by Prof. Greenhill, who was present at the meeting, and University the large residence of the late Mr. Henry W. Sage, to whom the Section “is also indebted for instructive remarks at Ithaca, for a students' hospital, and will equip it and endow made in connection with many of the other papers.” Then itgwith 100,000 dols. The residence is valued at 80,000 dols. follow five papers read before the American Mathematical

Society, viz. before the Chicago Section (April 24, 1897): sputum, in daylight and in free currents of air is rapidly deprived Quaternions as members of four-elimensional space, by Prof. of virulence ; A. S. Hathaway. Note on the invariants of n points, by Dr. (2) That even in the dark, although the action is retarded, E. O. Lovett, is another communication which was made at the fresh air has still some disinfecting influence ; and same meeting. - Dr. Lovett contributes also a note on the (3) That in the absence of air, or in confined air, the bacillus fundamental theorems of Lie's theory of Continuous Groups retains its power for long periods of time. (October 30). The object of the note is to call attention to a These observations afforded an explanation of the immunity misapprehension, if not an error, in a paper, by J. E. Campbell, of certain places, and the danger of infection in others. They on a law of combination of operators bearing on the theory of show that where tuberculous sputum is exposed to sufficient continuous transformation groups, read at the March 11 meet. light and air, to deprive it of virulence before it can be dried up ing of the London Mathematical Society (Proc., vol. xxviii. and powdered into dust, no danger of infection need be dreaded. pp. 381-390). The fourth paper is one read at the Toronto It would appear further, from this research and others, that it is meeting, August 16. It is an interesting short note by Prof. T. only when there is sufficient organic material in the air, derived F Holgate, and is entitled, “A geometrical locus connected from impure ground air, or from the reek of human bodies, that with a system of coaxial circles.” The writer's object is to find the tubercle bacillus can retain its existence and its virulent the locus of points through which three lines can be drawn power. tangential to three circles of a coaxial system in pairs.--Con- But, in addition to the above mentioned researches, it seemed dition that the line common to n - I planes in an n space may desirable thai an attempt should be made to ascertain what part pierce a given quadric sursace in the same space, by Dr. V. was played respectively by the several forms of organic impurity Snyder, was read at the Detroit meeting mentioned above. The that are present in insanitary dwellings. It was determined, note is a generalisation of a proof recently given by the author therefore, to collect the aqueous vapours arising from the ground, (criteria for nodes in Dupin's cyclides) of the geometric signifi. or from human bodies, and to submit these products to the test cance of a certain determinant.-Dr. E. W. Brown gives a of trying whether they would serve as cultivating media for the valuable analysis of Prof. II. Lamb's Hydrodynamics. Of this bacillus of tubercle. the reviewer writes : The author is to be congratulated on the By means of a simple freezing mixture of ice and salt it was completion of a task which will earn him the gratitude of all easy to condense the aqueous vapour, both of the breath and those who are now, or may in the future be, interested in Hydro. that coming from ground air. dynamics.- In the Notes are particulars of the British Association Some evidence was obtained with simple glycerine agar that meeting at Toronto, in so far as it concerned mathematicians. the organic fluids facilitated cultivation to some extent. With

Other matters are a list of the mathematical courses for the the organic fluids there were only two failures, and growth was. winter semester (1897-98) in the Universities of Göttingen, fairly rapid. Leipzig, Munich, Vienna and Strassburg.

In the next series of trials, it was decided to use as the materiał In the Meteorologische Zeitschrift for November, Dr. J. Hann

bases some non-nitrogenous substance, and at length it was gives the daily range of the meteorological elements at Cairo, determined to use a particularly pure “ filter-paper. deduced from the observations of the five years 1891-5, as pub.

Some degree of success was attained in twelve out of fifteen lished in the Résumé Mensuel of the observatory at Abbassieh. specimens of the organic fluids. These values are of some interest, as Dr. Hann states that the The degree of growth was also much the same as in the previous monthly means contained in the tables give for the first time the series, though perhaps slightly less vigorous. true daily means for Cairo. The barometric range exhibits the

It was now determined to try to do without the help of the small amplitudes for the latitude that have been noticed in glycerine, which, as is well known, so greatly assists the ordinary other parts of the Mediterranean. The night minimum does cultivations of the bacillus. Accordingly, four tubes with simple not appear to fall below the daily mean throughout the year. filter-paper as the supporting medium, and condensed Auids, from The range of temperature shows no special peculiarities; it is

the breath of a healthy person, and from that of a phthisical greatest in June, and is greater in the dry spring than in the patient, as nutrient Huids, were inoculated, and no glycerine was damp autumn. The daily range of wind force is noteworthy,

added. In these tubes the same cultivation was used as in the especially during spring and autumn; during the year there is

previous experiments. only a very slight variation at night-time, but in the after- Shortly afterwards, two similar tubes with fluid from healthy noon there is a great increase in the force from winter to spring,

breath alone, but with 5 per cent. of glycerine, were sown with and from summer to autunn. During the winter half-year the

the same cultivation, and were left at the ordinary temperature nights are clear, while cloud prevails at the middle part of the

of the laboratory, about 21° C. day ; in the summer the morning hours are cloudiest, but from

All of the former group took on active growth within four about noon the sky is almost cloudless. The influence of the

weeks, and one of the latter. In other words, it was proved overflow of the Vile in the autumn naturally affects the range of

that pure filter-paper, moistened with these condensed fluids, humidity.

alone would suffice to nourish and promote the growth of the In the Journal of Botany for November and December, Mr.

bacillus, and, further, that this growth would take place at F. Townsend completes his monograph of the British forms of ordinary temperatures. It may hence be concluded that when Euphrasia, of which he makes fourteen “species” founded on

this organic Huid is present in ordinary dwellings, the bacillus von Wettstein's monograph of the genus. It is accompanied

may grow at the temperature of living rooms as well as at the by seven plates illustrating the habit of each “ species," and

temperature of 35 C. details of the form of the flowers and leaves. --In a paper on

Two sets of tubes were then prepared of condensed vapour “New and Critical Marine Algæ,” lr. E. A. L. Batiers glycerine was added ; bùt for the solid medium, in some in

from breath, and from ground air from a pure sandy soil. No describes a number of species new to science, together with a new genus, of Floridez, Porphyrodiscus, from Berwick, with the

stances, the pure filter-paper was employed ; in others, an orcrustaceous habit of Hildenbrandtia.

dinary lining paper, containing a little size, but carefully sterilised, was used.

Some of these were placed in the incubator at a temperature SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

of 37° C., others were left in the dark at the ordinary lemperaLONDON.

ture of the laboratory;

In many of the tubes a free growth was observed as early as Royal Society, November 25.—“On certain Media for the end of the first fortnight. the Cultivation of the Bacillus of Tubercle." I By Dr. Arthur

Out of the total number in this series of 37, in thirty six inRansome, F.R.S.

stances there was free growth on the medium employed, on both The following conclusions had been drawn from previous kinds of paper, and all kinds of condensed fluid. Eleven of experiments :

them were grown at a temperature of about 20° C. In only one (1) That finely divided tuberculous matter, such as pure instance was there complete failure (vapour from healthy cultures of the bacillus, or tuberculous matter derived from breath).

1 By permission of the Royal College of Physicians, this research, which The bearing of these researches upon the subject of the proforms a portion of the Weber-Parkes prize essay, is communicated to the phylaxis against tuberculosis seems to be of some importance. Royal Society before publication. The cost of the inquiry is defrayed by

They prove that any one of the various organically charged the Thrustan prize, presented to the author this year by Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

vapours, whether coming from healthy or from diseased lungs,

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