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from the air of cellars, or from comparatively pure ground, in passing through a porous plug. He found that for any gas, forms an excellent cultivating medium for the bacillus of | kept at the same initial temperatur', the cooling effects were tubercle when kept away from the disinfecting influence of air proportional to the difference of pressure on the two sides of and light.

the plug.

He also found that, for any one gas, the cooling This power of promoting its growth is particularly manifest

effect per unit difference of pressure varies approximately as when the supporting substance is common wall-paper, though it the inverse square of the absolute temperature.

This rule is quite apparent when very pure filter-paper is used.

holds very well in the case of air ; it is not so satisfactory for It is further proved that, on these substances, the growth of carbonic acid ; it fails for hydrogen. With hydrogen there is the bacillus may take place at the ordinary temperatures of a heating effect that increases, if anything, when the temperature dwelling-rooms ; and, hence, that there is no safety against the rises. Mr. Rose-Innes proposes an empirical formula, containincrease of the organism in ordinary living rooms in which ing two disposable constants, a and B, characteristic of the gas active tuberculous dust is present, and in which the natural dis. in question. Denoting by T the absolute temperature, he finds infectants of the bacillus, fresh air and light, are not present in that, very approximately, the cooling effect is given by the exsufficient amount to destroy their virulence.

pression (a/T - B) This relation includes the three cases-air, Physical Society, December 10.- Mr. Shelford Bidwell, hydrogen, carbonic acid-under one form, and thus enables President, in the chair. -Mr. Albert Campbell exhibited : (1) An

them to be treated in one common investigation. Moreover, experiment to illustrate alternate exchange of kinetic energy,

the differential equation concerned in the thermo-dynamic scale Two brass spheres, each about one inch diameter, are suspended is thereby rendered more manageable; it leads to simpler from the same point by equal wires. One of them is then thrown algebraic results after integration. The paper discusses the so as to describe a circular orbit. The second sphere, starting thermo-dynamic correction for a constant-pressure gas-therfrom rest, gradually takes up motion from the first sphere, and

mometer, and the correction for a constant-volume gas-cherin turn describes a circular orbit. The first now comes to rest,

mometer; also an estimate of the absolute value of the freezing. and the reverse process takes place. This alternating action

point of water ; the results obtained take, for the most part, a repeats itself until all the energy is lost in the wires. (2) An

very simple shape, using the above expression for the cooling. experiment to illustrate the low heat-conductivity of glass, and

Dr. S. P. Thompson said the empirical expression, (a T - B., the expansion of glass by heat. A long tube is clamped at the indicated that at some particular temperature the cooling effect lower end, in a vertical position. One side of it is then heated

vanished ; that was a point suggestive of uselul results if inwith the fame of a Bunsen burner, and the glass is observed to

vestigated by experiment. Mr. J. Walker read a communicabend, moving over a fixed mark near the top of the tube. When

tion from Mr. Baynes on the paper, and remarked upon the the flame is withdrawn, the first position is quickly regained. Mr.

desirability of adopting two constants. He thought that further Campbell then read a paper on “ Temperature compensators experiments should be made to discover how specific heat at for standard cells.” Some account of the methods adopted by

constant temperature depends on temperature. The calculated the author has already been published, he now describes the

values for hydrogen were too few to be taken as evidence of the apparatus. The first compensating arrangement (3) can be used validity of the rule. Mr. Rose-Innes, in reply, said that from for keeping the potential difference between two points of a

what was known of hydrogen, it might be expected to behave conducting system constant at all room-temperatures. Or it can

at ordinary temperatures as air behaves at higher temperatures be adapted to modify the voltage of a standard cell to some con.

His object was, if possible, to include in one formula the case venient whole number. This arrangement (3) resembles a

of the three investigated gases. This was better than having a Wheatstone's bridge with the galvanometer-branch removed.

separate formula for each gas. Whether or not hydrogen was One pair of opposite arms is of copper, the other pair is of confirmatory with air and carbonic acid, might be considered as manganin. The bridge-battery is a Leclanché cell; this supplies

sub judice ; it required further experimental data to test the The auxiliary voltage, which is utilised at the two galvanometer

formula in that case. — The President proposed a vote of thanks points of the bridge, and is there applied in series with the

to the authors, and the meeting was adjourned until January 21, standarı cell. In an alternative method, suggested by Mr. C.

1898. Crawley, only one of the four arms is made of copper. The Chemical Society, November 18.-Prof. Dewar, President, second compensating arrangement (4) is intended to maintain in the chair.-The following papers were read :-On the deconstant potential between two points, at all room-temperatures. composition of camphoric acid by fusion with polash or soda, For this purpose, two wires, a and b, are connected in parallel. by A. W. Crossley and W. H. Perkin, jun. Camphoric acid, One of them, a, is all of manganin, the other, b, is partly when fused with alkali, gives a mixture of a number of fatty copper and partly manganin. Constant current is applied acids with dihydrocamphoric acid, C,H,804, pseudocamphoric at the ends of a and b. The various resistances are chosen acid, C10H60,, and an acid of the composition C,H160.; the

to give constant difference of potential between results are explained and constitutions assigned on the assumpthe ends of the manganin portion of b. By this method the tion that camphoric acid has the constitution, potential-difference can be maintained to within 1 in 2000. Mr.

CH,. CH (COOH), Swinburne said that twelve or thirteen years ago he had given a

CH, good deal of thought to compensation by wires of different

C Me..CME(COOH) temperature-coefficients. The first thing he tried was a Wheatstone's bridge. This was compensated by making the bridge

-Experiments on the synthesis of camphoric acid, by W. H. arms of wires whose temperature-coefficients differed-as, for

Bentley and W. H. Perkin, jun. The authors have prepared instance, platinoid and copper. He then applied the same

isobutylmethylhydroxyglutaric acid, CHM,.CH,CH(COOH). principle to the compensation of stardard cells, using a poten- CH..ĆMe(coomol, hoping that by loss of water it would tiometer method that gave direct readings, and to the com

give an acid of the constitution assigned in the previous paper to pensation of voltmeters and watt-meters. These results were

camphoric acid ; by loss of water, however, a lactonic acid or published between 1885 and 1890, in the electrical journals.

its derivatives were usually obtained. --Synthesis of an isomeride He believed that Mr. Evershed had also developed this'idea, by of camphoronic acid, by S. B. Schryver. --The action of putting

turns on voltmeters, and by other differential magnesium on cupric sulphate solution, by F. Clowes and R. M. devices. The details of Mr. Campbell's apparatus had a few

Caven. When magnesium acts on copper sulphate solution, points of special interest. The way in which he connected up hydrogen, cuprous oxide, and copper are produced: --- Properties the bridge (3) seemed particularly worthy of notice. Prof.

and relationships of dihydroxytartaric acid, by H. J. H. Fenton. Ayrton asked whether thermo-electric effects produced difficulty Dihydroxytartaric acid is readily prepared by oxidising, dihy. in the compounded arrangement. Mr. Campbell said the droxymaleic acid in aqueous solution; it gives a quantitative system was symmetrical, and the thermal currents were con

yield of tartronic acid on heating. The molecular association of sequently neutralised. Mr. Appleyard, referring to experiment liquids and its influence on the osmotic pressure, by H. Cromp(2), said it was identical with one that had been shown for the

The author shows that Planck and van Laar's demonstrapast eight years at lectures at Cooper's Hill College. It was

tions that association can have no effect on osmotic pressure are specially of interest as illustrating the detiection that occurs

invalid owing to faulty reasoning. with girders and bridges when exposed on one side to sunshine. Geological Society, December 1.-Dr. Henry Hicks, - Mr. J. Rose-Innes read a mathematical paper on Lord Kelvin's F.R.S., President, in the chair. -A revindication of the absolute method of graduating a thermometer.

Lord Kelvin Llanberis unconformity, by the Rev. J. F. Blake. In a paper has investigated the cooling effects exhibited by various gases published in the Quarterly Journal of the Society for 1893, ihe



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author of the present paper maintained that certain conglomerates

PARIS. and associated rocks occurring for some distance north east and south-west of Llanberis, which had hitherto been considered to

Academy of Sciences, December 6.-M. A. Chatin in the lie below the workable slates of the Cambrian rocks of that area,

chair. --On the stability of the Eiffel tower, by M. Bassot. The were in reality unconformable deposits of later date than those

paper is accompanied by four diagrams, showing the motion of

the summit of the tower. slates, In the year 1894 a paper appeared in the same journal,

The conclusion is drawn from these in which the authors maintained that in no case which had been

curves, that to verify by periodic observations any permanent examined could any valid evidence be found in favour of the

displacement undergone by the summit, the measurements alleged unconformity, and that in one (on the north-east side of

should be taken in the evening, two or three hours before sunset, Llyn Padarn) which they supposed to afford the most satis.

as at that time the irregular movements are at a minimum.-factory proof of it, the facts were wholly opposed to the notion.

On double integrals of the second species in the theory of alge

braic surfaces, by M. Emile Picard. - The first modifications The present paper was a reply to these authors, in which their objections, founded on general considerations, on field observa

which occur in the fixed cells of the cornea, in the neighbourtions, and on microscopic examination of rock-specimens, were

hood of wounds of that membrane, by V. L. Ranvier. A discussed, and the author gave the results of further observations

section is cut perpendicularly to the incisions made in the living on the rocks of the district. -The geology of Lamb uy Island, Co.

animal, and gold staining applied until the fixed cells are nearly Dublin, by Messrs. C. I. Gardiner and S. II. Reynolds. The

black. Those cells which have been cut by the knife at the end authors, who have previously described the neighbouring district

of twenty-four hours show budding prolongations by the edges of Portraine (Quari. Journ. Geol. Soc., December 1897), under

of the wound. These phenomena exhibited by the cells of the took an examination of this island, with the intention of com

cornea of the rabbit are of the same order as the extension by paring the rocks with those of Portraine, and of investigating the budding of the cylinder axes of cut nerve cells. - On the connature of the rock familiar to geologists under the name of

tamination of wells, by M. Duclaux. By an analytical study of ** Lambay porphyry.” The sedimentary rocks are similar to

the waters from the shallow wells of a village lately subject to a some of those of Portraine, and are of Middle or Upper Bala slight typhoid epidemic, it is shown that a compararivels simple age. Associated with them are pyroclastic rocks and andesitic

chemical analysis suffices to distinguish between polluted and lava-flows, some of the lavas having flowed beneath the sea.

unpolluted wells, provided that the composition of the water of The sediments and volcanic rocks were exposed to denudation,

the district in a pure state is known. The bacteriological and a conglomerate composed of their fragments was accumulated

method of examination is looked upon as less trustworthy than the round the volcano. The “ Lambay porphyry," which has been

chemical method. - Actinometric observations made upon Mont determined as a diabase-porphyry by Dr. von Lasaulx, is partly Blanc, by PM. Crova and Hansky. The measurements were intrusive in the other rocks, but has in places come to the surface

carried out in August and September, and were much interfered as a lava-flow Petrographical descriptions of the various rocks

with by rain. At the summit the maximum value of the solar were given by the authors.

constant was 3-4, and it is suggested that under more favourable

conditions this magnitude might be increased to 4'0. -ObservaMathematical Society, December 9.-Prof. Elliott, F.R.S.,

tions on the planet (DL) Charlois (1897, November 23) made President, in the chair. - Miss F. Hardcastle communicated a

at the Observatory of Toulouse (Brunner equatorial), by M. F. theorem concerning the special systems of point groups on a | Rossard. - Application of the method of least squares to the particular type of base curve. -Mr. Love, F. R.S., gave a sketch | detection of systematic errors, by M. Jean Mascart.

A of a paper, by Prof. W. Burnside, F.R.S., on the straight line discussion of the conditions under which the application of joining two given points. - Impromptu communications were

the method of least squares becomes illusory.-- On the apmade by Messrs. F. S. Macaulay, A. Berry, and E. T. Whittaker.

proximation of functions of large numbers, by M. Maurice Entomological Society, December 1.- Mr. R. Trimen, Hamy.-On associated pencils, by M. C. Guichard. - On the F.R.S., President, in the chair. - Mr. Dudley Wright exhibited focal planes of a curve plane to one or several axes of symmetry, an aberration of Argynnis euphrosyne, in which the upperside by M. P. H. Schoute. On the existence of integrals in certain was suffused with black, and ihe silver spots of the underside differential systems, by M. Riquier. Elliptical vibrations in of the hindwings converted into streaks. -On behalf of Mr. fluids, by M. V. Crémieu.—The interference in air of two W. H. Tuck, Mr. Tutt showed examples of Metacus para loxus, sound waves of different phases has been studied by observing L., taken in nests of Vesta vulgaris near Bury St. Edmunds, ihe motion of a quartz fibre placed at the point of intersection together with some of the cells in which they were found. of the waves. -- On the dissociation and polymerisation of gases About a fifth of the nests examined were affected, some contain and vapours. Supposed dissociation of chlorine at high teming as many as twenty-four, twelve and eight examples oi the 'peratures, by M. A. Leduc. The only evidence in favour of the beetle; the more usual number present was from two to four. dissociation of chlorine is one isolated observation of M. Crafts The dates between which examples were taken in 1897 were at 1400° C.-On the electric conductivity of discontinuous confrom August 2 to October 1. According to Dr. Chapman the ducting substances, in relation to telegraphy without wires, by eggs were laid in the cracks of posts, &c., from which the wasps M. Edouard Branly.-On the transformation of the X-rays by got the pulp to make their cells.-Combs were also exhibited metals, by M. G. Sagnac. If a bundle of X-rays is allowed from nests of l'esp.l crabro and l'espa germanica, in which Mr. to impinge upon a polished metallic surface, such as steel, or a Tuck had found larvæ of Velleius dilata!us, Fabr., which, mercury bath, there is no appreciable regular reflexion, but rays. however, he had been unable to rear. - The Rev. A. E. Eaton termed' by the author secondary rays, can be shown photoexhibited a specimen of the singular Uyodites subdiplerus, graphically or electrically to be diffused from the surfaces. Fabr., taken by himself at Biskra, Algeria, and a near ally of These radiations show generally all the properties of the original Jelacus.- Mr. Blandford called attention to a new instance of X-rays, but the nature of the metal is not without influence, as the destructive propensities of Dermestes vulpinus, Fabr. He the secondary rays from different metals can be distinguished by had received examples found at Hong-Kong among flags made their unequal transmission by the same substance. --Some new of bunting, which were presumably injured, although no details facts observed in Crookes' tubes, by M. Virgilio Machado.--On had been forwarded. This form of injury was analogous with the accidental causes of irreversibility in chemical reactions, by the damage to woodwork recorded by himself and others ; it M. A. Colson. Two reactions are described in detail : the dehad nothing to do with the feeding habits of the insect, but was composition of normal phosphates by hydrochloric acid, and committed by the larvæ in their search for shelter in which to that of silver sulphate by hydrogen sulphide. In both cases pupate. Probably the flags had been stored at some period in secondary reactions intervene, which render the reversibility of the neighbourhood of infested leather goods, or dried provisions. the phenomena impossible. -On the existence of a cuprous The only other case of damage to textile fabrics by sulphate, by M. A. Joannis (see p: 159). On the elementary Dermestes vulpinus which he knew of occurred in connection unity of the body called cerium, by MM. Wyrouboft and A. with the case recorded by him (Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1890, Verneuil. A criticism of the results of M. Boudouard, whose p. xxxi); a blue handkerchief spotted with white, left in the atomic weight determinations are stated to be affected both by iminfested building, was found next day to have all the white spots purities in his material, and inaccuracy in experimental work. eaten out.- Mr. Champion communicated papers entiiled On aldehyde ammonia, by M. Marcel Delépine. Aldehyde “ Notes on American and other Tingitidze, with descriptions of ammonia, when left for three days in a vacuum over sulphuric new genera and four species,” and “A list of the

acid, loses water, giving brilliant white crystals of a new base, Staphylinidæ collected by Mr. J. J. Walker, R.N., in the ethylidene-imine, which analysis and cryoscopic estimations Straits of Gibraltar."

show to have the formula (CH3 -CH=NI). A solution of


West, Vol

aldelyde-ammonia in absolute alcohol gives a crystallised picrate

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 21. of th's sarre base. --On a reaction peculiar to orthophenols, and on INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 8.-A New Transmission Dyna. the derivatives of antimonylpyrocatechol, by M. H. Causse. -On

mometer : Prof. W. E. Dalby. the nature of the combinations of antipyrine with aldehydes, by

ROYAL PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, at 8.-Photomechanical Print ing in Con.

nection with the Survey of India : Colonel Waterhouse. M. G. Patein. — Physiological and therapeutic effects of spermine, by M. Alexander Pæhl. The effects of the alkaloid are uniform, and consist in accelerating the phenomena of oxidation, thus savouring the elimination in the form of harmless products of

BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED. several poisonous organic secretions. ---Disappearance of lead poisoning by the partial substitution of metastannic acid in the

BOOKS.-Agriculture in some of its Relations to Chemistry : Prof. F.

H. Storer, 3 vols., 7th edition (Low). -A Run round the Empire : Dr. putty used in glass polishing, by M. L. Guéroult. The original

A. Hill (Sonnenschein). -Studies in the Psychology of Sex, H. Elli. putty contained 62 per cent. of lead ; by the addition of meta- Vol. 1. Sexual Inversion (Watford, University Press).- La Pratique du stannic acid the lead was reduced to 20 per cent.

During the Teinturier; J. Garçon, tome 3 (Paris, Gauthier Villars). -Annuario puba. șix years in which this modified powder has been used, there

cado pelo Observatorio do Rio de Janeiro, 1897 (Rio de Janeiro).-- Whitiaker's

, Mechanical Engineer's Pocket-Book: P. R Björling (Whittaker). have been no symptoms of lead poisoning in any form, although, All about Animals (Newnes). -Rainfall Tables of the British Islands, 13with the original putty, saturnine paralysis was frequent. -On

1899 (Eyre)-Das Problem der Krystallisation : A. Turner (Leipriz. some new colloidal substances, analogous to albuminoids, derived

Thomas). - Die Kraft und Materie im Raume : A. Turner, Funíte Vere

Auflage (Leipzig, Thomas). - Arii e Italici : G. Serg (Torino, Fratelli from a nucleo-albumin. by M. J. W. Pickering.–On the develop. Bocca). -- Meteorological Observations made at the Adelaide Observatory, ment of Trombidion holosericeum, by M. S. Jourdain.-Obser- &c., during 1894 (Adelaide) --Annuaire 1898 : par le Bureau des Longitudes vations on the Rougets, by M. P. Mégnin. - Researches on red

(Paris, Gauthier-Villars). -Sir James Young Simpson and Chloroform

(1811-1870): H. L. Gordon (Unwin). granules, by M.M. J. Kunstler and P. Busquet. — The formations included under the name of red granules appear to be due to a

PAMPHLETS.-Human Nature, its Principles and the Principles of Physi

ognomy : " Physicist." Part 1 (Churchill). -Of Atmospheres upon Planets diffraction phenomenon, and have no morphological value.-On and Satellites : Dr. G. J. Stoney (Williams) –0, Chlamydoseiachus ar. a ferment of cellulose, by M. V. Oméliansky. On the decom- guineus, Garm., a Remarkable Shark found in Norway, 1895 : R. Colieti position of chloroform in the organism, by MM. A. Desgrez and Christiania). - Rainfall of the United States (Washington). M. Nicloux. Experiments are described tending to show that Serials.-Observatory, December, and Companion (Taylor). -Strand during anesthesia by chloroform some carbon monoxide is pro.

Magazine, December (Newnes). - American Naturalist, November (Philaduced by the action of the latter upon blood.-On some com

delphia).-Mazama : a Record of Mountaineering in the Pacific Nort!

1. No. 2 (Portland, Oregon). -American Şournal of Scienct, parative results of ordinary clinical methods and fluoroscopic December (New Haven). -Atlantic Monthly, December (Gay).-Bulletia examination in pleuretic effusions, by MM. Bergonié and

de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, &c., de Belgique, 1897, Nos. 9 and 10 Carrière. The examination by means of the Röntgen rays is

(Bruxelles) - Journal of the Anthropological Institue, November (Paul).

Journal of the Chemical Society, December (Gurney). -Engineering valuable in many ways as a supplement to the ordinary clinical Magazine, December (222 Strand). - Astrophysical Journal, November methods. —Antagonism between the venom of the Vespida and ! (Chicago). - Monthly Weather Review, September (Washington). that of the viper ; the first vaccinates against the second, by M. ' C. Phisalix. - Permeability of the trunks of trees to atmospheric air, by M. Henri Devaux. -On the disease of chestnuts, by M. E. Roze.-Characteristics of a gas coal found in the northern


PAGE coal field of New South Wales, by M. C. Eg. Bertrand. ---On the fauna of the siderolithic Eocene beds of Lissieu (Rhône),

Mendeleef's Principles of Chemistry. By W. A. T. 145 by MM. Ernest Chantre and C. Gaillard. - Mechanical deter

The Natural History of the Ancient World . .. 146 mination of the mean direction of the wind, by M. Louis The Measurement of Rapidly Varying Electric Besson.

Pressure. By W. E. A...

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Reed: “A Handbook to the Geology of Cambridge-
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149 ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.-On a Method of Determining the Reactions

Robinson : Wild Traits in Tame Animals.” at the Points of Support of Continuous Beams : G. Wilson.--The Com

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150 parative Chemistry of the Suprarenal Capsules : B. Moore and Swale Vincent. - Memoir on the Integration of Partial Differential Equations Ribot : “ The Psychology of the Emotions

150 of the Second Order in Three Independent Variables : Prof. Forsyth,

Letters to the Editor :F.R.S.-On the Biology of Stereum hirsutum, Fr. : Prof. H. Marshall Ward, F.R.S.-An Examination into the Registered Speeds of American The Passive Condition of Resting Protoplasts. Trotting Horses, with Remarks on their Value as Hereditary Data : F. Galton, F.R.S.-On the Thermal Conductivities of Pure and Mixed

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150 Solids and Liquids, and their Variation with Temperature : Dr. C. H. Discovery of a Large Supply of “Natural Gas” at Lees. ---Cloudiness : Note on a Novel Case of Frequency : Prof. Pearson, F.R.S. - On the Occlusion of Hydrogen and Oxygen by Palladium : Dr.

Waldron, Sussex. (Illustrated.)-Charles Dawson 150 Mond, F R.S, Prof. Ramsay, F.R.S., and Dr. J. Shields. - The Relations The Orientation of Greek Temples. By F. C. between Marine, Animal, and Vegetable Life : H. M. Vernon.

Penrose, F.R.S.

151 LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-On the Affinities of the Madreporarian Genus Alveopora : H. M Bernard.-On West Indian Characeæ collected by T.

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154 B. Blow : H and J. Groves.

Dr. Friedrich A. T. Winnecke. By W. E. P.

155 CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Stereo-Chemistry of Unsaturated Compounds. Notes

156 Part I. Esterification of Substituted Acrylic Acids : Dr. J. J. Sudborough and Lorenzo Lloyd. - Formation and Hydrolysis of Esters : Dr. J. J.

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159 Freezing Points of very Dilute Solutions : Dr. M. Wilderman.

The Total Solar Eclipse of 1900

159 FRIDAY, DECEMBER 17. Corrected Position of the Moon .

159 INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS (Chemical Society's Rooms), at A New Form of Mirror for a Reflecting Telescope , 160 8.- Accumulator Traction on Rails and Ordinary Roads : L Epstein.

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160 EPIDEMIOLOGICAL Society, at 8.30 – The Physical and Ethnological Conditions under which Leprosy occurs in China, the East Indian Archipelago,

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163 The Use of Kites in Weather Prediction

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Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received

IOS 168




he indicated on it the characters of the rock over a very large area, completing the mineralogical survey of no

fewer than sixteen sheets of the map. This was a work THE GROWTH OF GEOLOGICAL IDEAS.

of great labour, and one involving very close observation,

especially as he does not seem to have had any clear The Founders of Geology. By Sir Archibald Geikie. idea of the sequence of formations or of geological Pp. x + 297. (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1897.)

to guide him. Guettard was the first to "HE truths of science cannot be more impressively recognise the ancient volcanoes of Auvergne, and

taught than by a sketch of the process by which deserves great credit for his able memoir on the meanthe knowledge has been arrived at, and in no way can ing of the occurrence of the remains of shells and other that history be more forcibly conveyed than in the organisms in the rocks. But the battle had long been biographies of those pioneers who first interpreted the raging between those who maintained that the fossils phenomena for us. We may have wondered why the were mere lusus nature, and those who held that they truth was not sooner grasped, but by this method of represented plants and animals which once lived under treating the subject we see what imperfection of evidence conditions analogous to those of recent times, and were or prejudice stood in the way, and learn to appreciate buried, as are dead organisms, in the mud and sand of the true spirit of original research which eventually rises to-day. In this long controversy many Italian and above and overcomes all difficulties.

English geologists did good service, notably Agostino Sir Archibald Geikie has given a sketch of the Scilla and Dr. John Woodward, who combated espefounders of geology in his, now happily well-known, cially the erroneous views of Dr. Elie Camerarius ; lucid style. It is necessarily only a selection, and and although their work was hampered by the attempt accident or design has led him to make such a selection to accommodate all their explanations to the received of points in the development of the subject as has interpretation of the Scriptural account of the deluge, enabled him to write what may be called an “apprecia- still the search for facts to support their theories helped tion" of the French school of geologists, and to dwell on the work by calling attention to phenomena which very fully on the work of some of them whose claims to might otherwise have long passed unobserved. recognition have hitherto been too much overlooked. In his second lecture our author gives a sketch of the

In the earlier stages of research all those who studied life and work of Desmarest. He tells us of the diffithe composition of the earth's crust were called miner- culties and struggles of his early life ; of his official alogists, and any stony fragments which they dug out work in connection with the efforts made by the French of the earth were their fossils. When men began to Government in the middle of the last century to develop distinguish between bodies of organic and inorganic the industries of the country; and of the influence which origin, they spoke of the pieces of rock and other the eloquent writings of Buffon had upon him. Desmineral matter as native fossils, considering them as marest was struck by the correspondence between the part of the original mass, while they called the remains opposite cliffs of France and England which had already of plants and animals extraneous fossils. It was only been pointed out by Guettard, and still earlier by in comparatively recent times that the word fossil was Verstegan. Supporting by biological evidence the idea applied exclusively to the remains of organisms. When thus suggested, Desmarest arrived at the conclusion the older writers speculated upon the manner in which that the channel which now separated them had been the earth's crust had been brought into its present con- cut by the currents of the sea. dition, they entitled their results “theories of the earth,” His official duties necessitated much travel, but in which corresponded generally to our modern works on the intervals of leisure he revisited and more closely the principles of geology. Though they too often examined localities which suggested subjects for further generalised on insufficient data, or wrested their judg. research. In this way he was led to study the origin of ment to support an early-formed opinion, they all pre. basalt, which had been a fruitful theme of controversy tended that their theories were founded on the study for many a long year. He noticed the prismatic strucof nature; but we find inany a good observation and ture of the basalts of Auvergne, and recognised them as sound inference buried under such a load of bad reason- ancient lavas, and, from descriptions of the general ing, and accompanied by such a cloud of foolish observa- appearance of the columnar rocks of the Giant's Causetions, that the writer's credit as a witness was destroyed, way, and an examination of hand specimens, he inferred and even what was good in him lost sight of.

that they were the same. Our author passes with very brief notice over all the He explained the origin of valleys by referring them writers earlier than the eighteenth century, and devotes to the action of the streams which flow in them. This the greater part of his first lecture to a sketch of the view had evidently been present to the mind of Avicenna, work of Guettard : in a few clever touches he brings who in the tenth century maintained that mountains were before us the personality of that remarkable man. made to stand out by the excavation of the valleys Guettard first put into practice the proposal made by between them, while our great naturalist Ray dwelt upon Lister in 1683, and constructed a map on which he the operation of streams in the degradation of the land, showed the general surface distribution of the various pointing out that the land must necessarily be eventually kinds of rock as they occurred in broad belts in and reduced below sea level by such agencies. around the Paris Basin, and even marked on it the We are told how from an examination of volcanic places where he had found fossils. Later on, when a phenomena, and in the attempt to correlate them, good topographical map of France had been produced, | Desmarest was led to generalise upon the relation of

the volcanic to the sedimentary rocks. He also con- from Sense to Science and Philosophy," this last title structed a map which, however, was not published till reminding us of Agostino Scilla's “ La vana Speculazione

fter his death. He has left many published works disingannata dal Senso.” The aims of both writers were which attest his power, his accuracy of observation, and the same, though Hutton got nearer the mark than his his judgment.

predecessor. In tracing the history of an idea, how often We have, then, an interesting account of the circum- we find that the man who gave it to the world, in what stances which led to the systematic exploration of Russia we may call an available form, was not the man with and the part played in it by Pallas, who, among other whom it really originated. Take, for instance, the view important observations, clearly recognised a geological that the action of heat in fusing material is directly insequence in passing from the centre to the outside of a fluenced by the amount of pressure to which the body mountain chain.

is subjected. This is quoted now with references to Sir The rise of the modern spirit of mountaineering is James Hall, to Fairbairn and Hopkins, and others. But dated from the time of de Saussure, who described so it was one of Hutton's fundamental doctrines, and Hutton well the geological structure of the Alps, and whose got it from his friend Dr. Black, a sound chemist and sections of violently folded rocks anticipated so much of shrewd experimentalist. the recent work on that region, and whose experiments Hutton's first principle was that “no powers are to be on the reduction of granite and basalt to a glassy rock employed that are not natural to the globe, no action to by fusion and rapid cooling marked the commencement be admitted of except those of which we know the prinof experimental geology.

ciple, and no extraordinary events to be alleged in order Our author then traces the development of the doctrine to explain a common appearance.” of the geological sequence of rocks as distinguished by There are many men of note in our day who, going their lithological character, towards which much had with the swing of the pendulum, as it were, believe in already been done, especially by the Wernerian school, the greater intensity of the operations of nature in past and also the order of their formation as indicated by ages, and still within the periods of which we have rethe succession of organic life buried in or associated cords in the sedimentary rocks. The phenomena which with them, and differing in character at different periods suggest this view may be reconciled to the strictest of the world's history. The controversy as to the true uniformitarianism by the doctrine that local catastrophic nature of fossils, which has been referred to above, shows action is not inconsistent with continuity of causation. that importance had long been attached to them as a Several distinguished French geologists, about the end means of interpreting the history of the earth.

of the last and the beginning of the present century, inWe have in the third lecture an account of Werner, sisted upon the doctrine of stratigraphical sequence as the eponymous hero of a theory and a time. The great fundamental, and this was soon found to involve the controversy between the Neptunists and the Vulcanists opinion that there was a definite order of succession set men to search for facts in support of their respective among organic remains also. In England, while Giraud views; and though a wrong working hypothesis may Soulavie was still a child, and before Cuvier or often have coloured the vision and warped the judgment, Brongniart were born, John Michell, Woodwardian still the indications offered helped other less prejudiced Professor of Geology in the University of Cambridge, men along lines where inquiry was fruitful. The Wer- gave a clear account of the stratified arrangement of nerian saw basalts interstratified with fossiliferous rock's, the rocks of England, and by his illustrations showed and apparently forming one member of a fossiliserous that he understood the principles of geological structure. series, while others traced lava-flows with columnar “ Let a number of leaves of paper," said he, ‘of structure from the crater to the sea, and saw how they several different sorts or colours, be pasted upon might rest on ancient sediments and be themselves one another ; then, bending them up into a ridge covered by newer deposits. Werner was wrong about in the middle, conceive them to be reduced again to a his basalt, but he had introduced a greater care in in- level surface, by a plane so passing through them as vestigation and a greater precision of description, and, to cut off all the part that has been raised. Let the above all, had so insisted upon the doctrine of geological middle row be again raised a little, and this will be a succession that he placed geology upon a sounder basis good general representation of most, if not all, large than it had hitherto ever occupied.

tracts of mountainous countries, together with the parts Von Buch did much to free the scientific world from adjacent, throughout the whole world. From this formathe tyranny of an uncompromising Neptunism by his tion of the earth it will follow that we ought to meet with demonstration of the constant occurrence of earth- the same kinds of earths, stones and minerals, appearing movements down to quite recent times, as well as by at the surface in long narrow slips, and lying parallel to many other independent researches recorded in numerous the greatest rise of any long ridge of mountains; and memoirs, and embodied in a large geological map of so, in fact, we find them.” Germany.

Then came William Smith, who based all his classifiIf we give de Saussure credit for originating experi- cations on the “strata identified by their organic fossils." mental geology, we must give Hutton a foremost place Sedgwick, who in early life had been the companion of among those who insisted upon the importance of ob- Smith in some of his excursions in the north of England, servation in the field. He was a man of wide interests was so impressed by the importance of the methods of and varied attainments. He realised the importance of geological research employed by Smith, that he spoke of Geology to Agriculture, and published works on “The him on one occasion before the Geological Society as Principles of Knowledge” and “ The Progress of Reason " the Father of English Geology."

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