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theory gives 6475. The stars in the cluster 47 Tucanæ formed prodigies of prize-winning, and would have taken are divided into bright and faint stars. The number of up a scholarship to Cambridge, in the same year as the each counted is 1495 and 740 respectively, while theory late Sir John Seeley, but for the disabilities under which gives 1495 and 734. We, in the Northern Hemisphere, the Jews then lay at the older Universities. He resolved think Messier 13 a magnificent object, but the number of to enter the medical profession, and joined Lane's School, stars counted is only 723, while theory assigns one then attached to St. George's Hospital. He became a more. It says much for the admirable character of the member of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1856, and photographs that, notwithstanding the closeness of the after serving the office of Resident Medical Officer of St. stars and the consequent tendency for the individual Mary's Hospital, was appointed Ophthalmic Surgeon and members to be obscured by the spread of the images, it Lecturer on Ophthalmology at that hospital. Subseshould be possible to count the stars with approximate quently he became Aural Surgeon also, and for some accuracy. And further, the individual stars are so distinct that variations of brilliancy are easily recognised. In this way no less than eight new variable stars have been detected in the cluster of w Centauri, while six have also been discovered in the south following portions of the cluster 47 Tucanæ. The occurrence of a large proportion of variable stars in star clusters is a most interesting subject of inquiry. Counts have been made of the number and distribution of stars in several clusters, with the result that 400 were found in these objects. Nearly 7000 estimates were made of the brightness of the 120 variables contained in w Centauri, and of the eighty-five variables in Mes
It might be thought from this short summary that Prof. Pickering is interesting himself mainly in these very interesting objects. It must be remembered, however, that they come naturally before him in the course of a complete survey of the whole heavens, and that while we have referred to only a few plates, the entire scheme had on January 1, 1895, resulted in the collection of no less than 12,777 plates taken by the Bache, and 6281 by the Boyden telescope. Such a mass of information is likely to yield many discoveries, some of which are given in this volume before us, but to which we cannot adequately refer. This is the case with the discussion of that interesting variable, Nova Normæ, which in nineteen days sprang from a magnitude below visibility to the seventh, and then gradually faded away, passing beyond the reach of the most powerful telescopes in about two years. Comparisons of its spectrum with that of Nova Auriga are given, showing the hydrogen lines bright in both stars, and each accompanied by dark lines of slightly shorter wave- years held the office of Dean of the Medical School. He length.
was already a valued member of the staff of the Lancet, then still directed by its founder, Mr. Thomas Wakley,
M.P. ; and though he engaged, not without considerable ERNEST HART.
success, in the practice of surgery, and especially of MR. R. ERNEST HART, editor of the British Medical ophthalmic surgery, his heart was in public work. Even
Journal, died on January 7 at Brighton, where he as a student he had given evidence of his natural bent was staying for the benefit of his health. He had suffered by organising a society, to which he acted as secretary, from diabetes for many years, and had been compelled which had for its object to ameliorate the depressing to submit to amputation of the leg last September.' The and injurious conditions under which the Naval Medical operation though successful only postponed the fatal Service then laboured. This movement was completely termination of his illness.
successful, as was also another in which he took an Ernest Hart was born in London in 1836, and received active part as one of a commission appointed by the his early education at the City of London School during Lancet to inquire into the nursing and other arrangethe headmastership of Dr. Mortimer. At school he per- ments of the poor law infirmaries in London. The
Home Secretary was by the facts thus brought to light officers and men of the ship's company to obtain observations led to appoint a special committee, and, as a result of during the forthcoming eclipse. He has asked for volunteers, its report, Gathorne Hardy's Act was passed. This
and has obtained as many as 115. Unless unforeseen circum. Act, by the establishment of the Metropolitan Asylums stances arise, the records obtained by this large number of Board and in other ways, has worked an immense im
observers will assist in making the eclipse memorable in the provement in the care of the sick, infirm, and imbecile
annals of astronomy. poor.
Ernest Hart's great opportunity came in 1866, when We regret that by an oversight the name of a distinguished he was appointed editor of the British Medical Journal, Fellow of the Royal Society was not mentioned in our note on then, as now, published by the British Medical Association.
the New Year Honours. We refer to Brigade-Surgeon Lieut.. He threw his whole energies into the task of making the Journal more useful to practising members of the pro Knight Commander of the most eminent Order of the Indian
Colonel Dr. George King, who has been promoted to be 2 fession, while at the same time extending and consolidating its influence on the course of public health legislation Empire (K.C.I.E.). Sir George King is renowned as an Indian and administration. A special Parliamentary Bills Com botanist, and for the valuable services he has rendered in conmittee was appointed. Of this he was elected chairman, nection with the introduction and cultivation of the cinchona in and through it he did most of the work which earned him India.
He is Superintendent of the Royal Botanical Gardens, his reputation as a sanitary reformer. Among the sub- Calcutta, and also of the Government Cinchona Plantations, jects to which he gave special attention were the amend. Darjeeling. ment of the Public Health Acts, the introduction of the system of notification of infectious diseases, and of the AMONG the new officers of the Legion of Honour we notice registration of plumbers; the improvement of factory the names of M. Henri de Parville, editor of La Nature ; Dr. legislation, and of local administration in public health G. Hayem, professor in the Faculty of Medicine of the l'ni. matters, the abatement of the smoke-nuisance, and the versity of Paris ; Dr. Raymond, professor in the same Faculty : desirability of replacing arm to-arm vaccination by the M. Paul Buquet, director of the Central School of Arts and use of calf lymph. On all these matters his industry in
Manufactures; and M. Jourdan, director of the School of Higher accumulating facts and his power of arranging them into a logical statement of the need for reform and the
Commercial Studies. Among the new Chevaliers of the Legion mode in which it should be carried out, were of great professor of industrial physics at the Central School of Arts and
of Honour are : M. Albert Gauthier. Villars ; Prof. Grouvelle, value in moulding professional and public opinion.
His chief claim to recognition as a man of science Manufactures ; M. Leclanché, maker of electric batteries ; M. rests on his life-long study of the dissemination of cer- Auguste Lumière, manufacturer of photographic plates ; and M. tain infectious diseases by water specifically contamin- Volteni, manufacturer of projection apparatus. ated. His attention was early directed to the matter during the investigations of the curious outbreak of At a meeting of the managers of the Royal Institution, held cholera at Theydon Bois in 1865, and of the more exten- on January 6, Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., was elected sive epidemic in the East-end in 1866. Subsequently he Fullerian Professor of Physiology in the Royal Institution. gave much attention to the question of the dissemination of typhoid fever by the same vehicle, and gradually
M. VAN TIEGHEM has been elected VicePresident of the accumulated a mass of evidence drawn from the suc
Paris Academy of Sciences for the current year, in succession to cessive object-lessons provided by municipal authorities
M. Wolf, who passes to the presidential fauteuil. in various parts of the country, which put beyond ques
The Watt Memorial Lecture, given at Greenock on the tion the fact that, whatever may be the cause of the endemicity of typhoid fever, the specific contamination of anniversary of the great engineer's birth, will this year be drinking water is the immediate cause of epidemics of delivered by Prof. Thorpe. The subject will be “James Watt that disease. In 1894, during a tour in India, he ex
and the Discovery of the Composition of Water." pounded this doctrine and its application to the conditions of Eastern life. The greater degree of importance medals and funds as follows:-The Wollaston medal to Prof.
The Geological Society of London will this year award its which the Government of India is now disposed to attach to bacteriological investigations is to be attri
F. Zirkel ; the Murchison medal and part of the fund to Mr. buted in no small degree to Mr. Ernest Hart's forcible T. F. Jamieson ; the Lyell medal and part of the fund to Dr. advocacy:
W. Waagen ; the balance of the Wollaston sund to Mr. E. }. His chief recreation in his later years was the study Garwood; the balance of the Murchison fund to Miss I. of Japanese art. He formed a large and choice collec Donald ; the balance of the Lyell fund to Mr. Henry Woods tion. ' A few years ago he visited Japan, in the company and Mr. W. H. Shrubsole ; a part of the balance of the Barlow. of his wife, who was also his companion during his Jameson fund to Mr. E. Greenly. journeyings in India and Burmah, and lives to mourn his loss.
M. LE CHATELIER has been nominated, by the Minister of He was a man of great alertness of mind, of untiring Public Instruction, to the chair of Inorganic Chemistry in the industry, of steady perseverance, and strong convictions. College of France. These sometimes brought him into controversies in which he showed himself a hard hitter ; but he was
SUBSCRIPTIONS are invited for the erection of a bronze monualways ready to sink personal differences for the public ment in honour of the eminent German chemist, August Kekule, yood.
who established stereo.chemistry.
The scheme is receiving generous support, and there is every reason for believing that a memorial worthy of Kekulé's great reputation will be erected
Friends, admirers, and old pupils who wish to assist in this A CABLEGRAM received from Ratnagiri on Saturday last, object are requested to send their contributions to Dr. J. F. informs us that H.M.S. Melpomene, having on board Sir
Holtz, Berlin N. Müllerstrasse 170-171, or to Consul J. Zuntz, Norman Lockyer, K.C. B., F.R.S., and other members of his
Bonn Poppelsdorfer, Allee 63. eclipse party, has arrived at Viziadurg. Following the scheme
It is announced that the German Association of Naturalists drawn up last year at Norway, Sir Norman Lockyer hopes to
and Medical Men will hold its annual meeting this year al take advantage of the keen sight and trained faculties of the Leipzig, under the presidency of Prof. Waldeyer, of Berlin.
Prof. P. FRANCOTTE, assistant professor of embryology in DR. E. SYMES THOMPSON will lecture on “Tropical the Université libre de Bruxelles, has been elected corresponding Diseases," at Gresham College, Basinghall Street, on January member of the Royal Academy of Belgium.
18, 19, 20 and 21, at 6 p.m. The lectures are free to the
public. A PROMISING career has been cut short by the death of Dr. Hugh Calderwood, demonstrator of anatomy in the University MR. R. H. SCOTT, F.R.S., has kindly forwarded to us a of Glasgow,
note, received at the Meteorological Office, from Mr. W. T.
Balmer, on a remarkable lunar corona observed at Tenby on We notice with regret the announcement of the death of Friday, January 7. In addition to the ordinary yellow corona, Herr Dr. Freiherr R. v. Erlanger, assistant professor of zoology two well-defined concentric circles showing spectrum colours at Heidelberg.
were seen outside it. The phenomenon was most intense at
5.35, and faded away at 5.55; the golden corona, however, At the Passmore Edwards Settlement, Tavistock Place, on Monday ev
was visible until about 9 p.m. The sky was cloudless, but ing, January 17, Sir George Baden-Powell will lecture on the discoveries made by his expedition to Novaya readings for the wet and dry bulb thermometer on the morning
there was a large proportion of moisture in the air ; Mr. Balmer's Zemlya in 1896 to observe the total eclipse of the sun. He will also indicate the main points that are to be observed in India at
of Friday being 37°•5 and 39' respectively. the total eclipse of the sun on January 22.
The German scientific weekly, Die Natur, commences its The death is announced of Sir Charles Hutton Gregory, forty-seventh annual volume with an article on the aims of the K.C.M.G. He was the son of the late Dr. Olinthus Gilbert journal by Dr. Willi Ule, who has just assumed the editorGregory, professor of mathematics at the Royal Military of Germany; he has done a good deal of practical work in
ship. Dr. Ule is well known as one of the rising geographers Academy, Woolwich, and was born in 1817. He was a con
physical geography and in the improvement of mathematical sulting engineer to the Governments of several Colonies, and a
instruments. He desires to carry out the purpose of Die Natur past president of the Institution of Civil Engineers.
- the diffusion of a knowledge of natural science-mainly by We are glad to learn that the new Psychological Laboratory the direct description of natural scenes and phenomena, appealing at University College, the opening of which has been unavoid. to the educated but unscientific public. The paper under its ably delayed, gets to work this term. Any students who think new editor promises to become an important element in the of joining the classes should communicate at once with Dr. W. scientific culture of the German people. H. R. Rivers, who has charge of the laboratory during this REUTER'S correspondent at Paris reports that the will of the
late Dr. Thomas W. Evans leaves only an insignificant sum to By the death of Mr. H. Stacy Marks, R. A., the world has
the direct heirs, but that, on the other hand, a sum of nearly not only lost an eminent artist, but also an enthusiastic observer
20,000,000 francs is bequeathed to the deceased's native city of living nature. Mr. Marks was an ornithologist who gained Philadelphia, contingent on the fulfilment of certain conditions his knowledge of bird-life by the contemplation of his feathered
of a somewhat original character. For instance, the city of Philafriends in their natural haunts. Communion with nature gave delphia must construct a museum which will bear the name of him an insight into organic lise denied to many students of com
the Evans Museum, and in which the medals, decorations, and parative anatomy, and he was able to convey the knowledge to
other insignia of the deceased, as well as his clothes, will be others by means of his paintings. Our readers may remember carefully arranged and catalogued. The city must also erect on two books—“Letters to Marco” and “ Riverside Letters ” — a public square a statue of Dr. Evans, the price of which must not consisting of collections of letters on natural history topics, sent
be less than 1,000,000 francs nor more than 2,000,000 francs. by Mr. George Leslie, R. A., to his late friend Mr. Marks. These
The next annual meeting of the British Medical Association letters have found many sympathetic readers among outdoor will be held at Edinburgh on July 26-29, under the presidency naturalists. Mr. Marks was one of those who “ love nature for of Sir Thomas Grainger Stewart, K.C.B. An address in her own sake, untrammelled by the prepossessions that not in medicine will be delivered by Dr. T. R. Fraser, F.R.S. ; one frequently accompany that love among the votaries of science or
in surgery by Prof. T. Annandale; and one in psychological sport.” His death will be regretted by men of science as well as
medicine, by Sir John Batty Tuke. The following are the by artists.
sections and their presidents :—Medicine, Dr. G. W. Balfour;
Surgery, Dr. John Duncan ; Obstetrics and Diseases of Women, The annual general meeting of the Royal Meteorological
Dr. A. R. Simpson ; State Medicine, Sir Henry D. Littlejohn ; Society will be held on Wednesday next, January 19, at
Psychology, Dr. T. S. Clouston ; Neurology, Dr. Byrom 7.45 p.m., when the report of the council will be read, the election of officers and council for the ensuing year will take
Bramwell; Pathology, Dr. W. S. Greenfield ; Pharmacology
and Therapeutics, Dr. J. (). Afleck; Ophthalmology, Dr. D. place, and the president Mr. E. Mawley) will deliver an
Argyll Robertson ; Laryngology and Otology, Dr. P. Mac. address on “ Weather Influences on Farm and Garden Crops,"
Bride ; Diseases of Children, Dr. Joseph Bell ; Dermatology, which will be illustrated by lantern slides.
Dr. W. A. Jamieson ; Medicine in relation to Life Insurance,
Dr. C. Muirhead ; Tropical Diseases, Dr. P. Manson ; Anatomy, On Tuesday next (January 18) Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., will begin a course of eleven lectures at the Royal
Sir John Struthers ; Physiology, Dr. W. Rutherford, F.R.S. Institution on “ The Simplest Living Things”; on Thursday The ninth International Congress of Hygiene and Demo(January 20) Prof. Dewar, F.R.S., will deliver the first of a graphy will (says the British Mlelical Journal) be held at course of three lectures on “ The Halogen Group of Elements”; Madrid on April to to April 17. The Congress is under the and on Saturday (January 22) Prof. Patrick Geddes will begin patronage of His Majesty Alfonso XIII. and Her Majesty the a course of three lectures on “Cyprus.” The Friday evening Queen Regent, and the Spanish Minister of the Interior, Señor meetings of the members of the Royal Institution will be re. Sagasta, is President of the Organising Committee. The sumed on January 21, when Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M. P., Secretary-General of the Congress is Dr. Amalio Gimeno y will deliver a discourse on “Buds and Stipules.”
Cabañas, Professor of Hygiene in the University of Madrid. The President of the Executive Committee is Prof. Julian to encourage agricultural enterprise in the Cameroons. His Calleja, the Vice-President the Marquis del Busto, Professor in arduous journeys had undermined his health, and the latter years the Madrid Faculty of Medicine. As far as relates to hygiene,
of life were spent at Teneriffe, where he died on Decembe the work of the Congress will be divided among ten Sections as
5, 1897. follows: microbiology in relation to hygiene ; prophylaxis and
The work which the late Mr. Gardiner G. Hubbard did for the transmissible disease; medical climatology and topography ;
cause of science is made the subject for appreciative comment urban hygiene ; hygiene of alimentation ; hygiene of infancy and
in Science. In 1883 Mr. Hubbard and Mr. Alexander Graham of schools ; hygiene of exercise and labour ; military and naval
Bell founded the old series of Science, the first editor of which hygiene ; veterinary hygiene, civil and military ; sanitary archi
was Mr. S. H. Scudder. He was what the French language tecture and engineering. The part of the work relating to Demography will be divided among three sections as follows:
terms an entrepreneur of scientific ideas, inventions and dis
coveries—the man of affairs who pushed them into the service technics of demographic statistics ; statistical results in relation
of mankind. He was the entrepreneur of oral speech for the to demography ; dynamical demography (movements of population, &c.). A British Committee, of which Sir Douglas Galton,
deaf, and also of the telephone, for it was through his energy K.C.B., is Chairman, has been formed to secure the co-operation
and business ability that the instrument was introduced to the of sanitarians in this country, and generally to promote the Having accomplished this he retired to Washington, and when
world and made a practical agency of intercommunication. success of the Congress. Programmes of the subjects to be dealt with, and all other particulars, may be obtained from the
the National Geographic Society was founded there, he was Honorary Secretary to the British Committee, Dr. Paul F.
elected first president. The function of the National Geographic Moline, 42 Walton Street, Chelsea.
Society is the discussion of the principles of geography and the
diffusion of geographical knowledge among the people. To A CABLEGRAM through Reuter's agency, dated January 6 at carry out this purpose Mr. Hubbard organised the National Bombay, states that plague returns for Bombay show 142 cases Geographic Magazine. Then he organised a system of and 105 deaths during the preceding forty-eight hours. Later
bulletins designed to discuss the elements of physiography as a news states that on January 8-9 there were 159 cases and 126 compendious library for teachers in the public schools, and deaths. The total mortality during the present outbreak is 406. finally he organised in the city of Washington a system of The epidemic is now following closely the lines of the original public lectures on geography, enlisting not only the members of outbreak, and ominous rumours are circulating to the effect that the Society, but many other able public men in this enterprise. unless things improve by the time of the forthcoming solar In all of these agencies the working geographers of Washington eclipse, there will be a serious exodus and a general suspension most heartily co-operated, and the National Geographic Society of business.
has within very few years attained remarkable influence and The memorial presented to the Department of Woods and
efficiency. Forests by the Guildford Natural History Society, asking that The January number of the National l'eview has an admirable Wolmer Forest be reserved as a sanctuary for wild birds and article by Mr. Gerald Arbuthnot, entitled “In Defence of the other animals, has been passed on to the War Department, Muzzle.” The temperate spirit in which it is written, and the to which the forest, including the rights of shooting and sport conscientious manner in which the statistics reserred to have ing, is in lease. In doing so, Mr. Howard, Commissioner of been collected, ought to materially strengthen the hands of those Woods and Forests, takes the occasion to remark that he is
who are upholding the muzzling order for dogs, in the face of disposed to think that the best mode of arriving at the objects the selfish and short-sighted opposition which it is receiving which the petitioners have in view is to take advantage of the from a certain section of the public. In the same magazine we game laws and the present system of game preservation in note also a paper by Mr. Arthur Shadwell, dealing with the order to protect animal life generally. He thinks that where recent outbreaks of typhoid fever. The writer permits himself game preservation is carried out only those creatures which are to affirm that the medium by which the poison of typhoid fever specially destructive of birds are kept down, and animal life is diffused “can hardly be anything else but water, acting generally flourishes better than it would be likely to do in directly or indirectly.” The diffusion of typhoid fever is far too other circumstances.
complicated a problem, and involves too many factors to enable DR. E. ZINTGRAFF, whose death we have already an- water to become thus wholly responsible, as the writer seems to nounced, was one of the most energetic of the German pioneers consider. Whilst contaminated water is undoubtedly an imto whom fell the work of exploring the interior of the Came. portant--a very important-factor in the dissemination of this roons, after that territory had, in 1884, become a dependency of disease, there are other conditions which must be considered the German Empire. Born at Dusseldorf in 1858, Dr. Zintgraff in this connection, and amongst such sewer-gas would seem obtained his doctor's degree at the University of Heidelberg,
to deserve a prominent place. Several years ago now, it was and gained his first experience of African exploration as
shorn by an Italian investigator that the inhalation of sewer. member of Dr. Chavanne's expedition to the Congo (1884). A gas markedly increased the predisposition of the subject under year or two later he proceeded to the Cameroons, at that time a
experiment, to suffer from the effects of typhoid poison. veritable terra incognita in respect of all but its coast line. For In the early days of railway engineering, little circumspection the space of six years his activity was unabated, and to him was used in laying down lines, and many tunnels were conbelongs the honour of being the first to push his way through structed which would nowadays be avoided by following the the belt of dense forest lying behind the Coast Settlements to policy of evading obstacles wherever possible. An unnecessary the open grassy plains which occupy the interior plateau, and to tunnel of this kind, built fifty years ago by the North British reach by this route the populous regions of Adamaua in the Railway Company, and running for 3000 yards at a depth of 60 Southern Sudan, with their enterprising population of Hlausas. feet below the streets of Edinburgh, was afterwards discarded, This successful journey to the north was not made until 1889, another line having been constructed which carries the traffic the previous years having been occupied by detailed explora- outside the city. For a time the old tunnel remained unused, tions north of the Cameroons Mountain, and by the establish- but ten years ago it was taken over by Messrs. R. and J. Paton, ment of the Barombi Station as a base from which the ultimate of Glasgow, and has since been used by them for the purpose of advance could be made. Dr. Zintgraff subsequently did much cultivating mushrooms. Tne story of this industry is briefly
told in the January number of Pearson's Magazine. A little their not providing them with honey. From all these facts M. consideration will show that the tunnel offers ideal conditions for Plateau draws the conclusion that the guiding sense to insects the growth of mushrooms ; the temperature varying but very in visiting flowers must be chiefly the sense of smell. slightly, and light being absent. The result of this combina
Writing in the Revue générale des Sciences for December 30, tion of favourable conditions is that the Scottish Mushroom
1897, Dr. Louis Olivier describes the latest combination of the Company now practically control the market in cultivated mush
principles of the microphone and phonograph under the name The Company has eight hundred mushroom beds in the
of microphonograph, the invention of M, F. Dussaud, of tunnel, each about 12 feet by 3 feet in size. When in full
Geneva, and which has been subsequently developed by M. operation about one thousand bushels of spawn are used yearly.
George F. Jaubert and M. Berthon. A demonstration of the The highest output reaches five thousand pounds of mushrooms properties of this apparatus was given a short time ago at the per month. The steady and constant supply has killed foreign
house of M. and Mme. Eugène Pereire. From certain physiocompetition in mushrooms ; for it appears that, whereas ten years logical facts, Dr. Laborde showed the possibility of rendering ago the quantity of French mushroonis consumed in Great
sounds audible to deaf mutes by this instrument, and his view Britain largely exceeded those of home growth, they form at
received practical confirmation at the hands of Dr. Gellé, who present only about one-hundredth part of the total supply.
experimented with signal success on a number of subjects to A NUMBER of remarkable instances of hallucinations con
whom a sensation of sound was thus conveyed for the first
time. nected with hemianopia, or complete blindness in one or other
It is suggested that the micro-phonograph may become half of the visual field, are described by Dr. W. Harris in the
an important factor in the education of deaf and dumb subcourse of an article in the new number of Brain. In one case
jects. It will be remembered that a method of giving deaf of partial hemianopia the patient had visual hallucinations,
mutes the feeling, or at all events the rhythm of music, was lasting a few minutes, of folk and horses moving in a reddish
devised by Prof. McKendrick, and has been described in atmosphere, the visions being limited to the blind field of
these columns (vol. Ivi. p. 212). Finally, M. Berthon and M. vision. Another saw continually in his blind field a man stand
Jaubert have employed the new apparatus in connection with ing at the back of his head, holding two lighted candles. A
the telephone and the kinematograph, the latter combination man who developed right hemianopia was troubled ten days rendering it possible to reproduce scenes with all the attendant later with hallucinations of men, flies, insects, &c.
sounds of conversation and so forth. With this apparatus it is
At first he recognised their unreality, but after a few days he became con
proposed to arrange life-like reproductions of a number of naval vinced they were real. The spectres became more frequent,
scenes at the Exhibition of 1900, under the auspices of the and he would then hunt for tem in cupboards and corners.
Compagnie générale Transatlantique. Another case of hemianopia with hallucinations in the blind WHERE certain salts, such as bromide of potassium and field, is that of a man who suddenly lost power of speech, using chloride of sodium, undergo changes of colour under the action wrong words, and forgetting the names of things. During a of kathodic rays, after the method of Goldstein, it has been subsequent attack
temporary loss of speech he suddenly found by Profs. Elster and Geitel that they are at the same noticed while reading that his sight was confused, and that the time rendered photo-electrically sensitive, inasmuch as in sun. print seemed to run together. After that he noticed he could light or broad daylight they lose any negative electric charges not see so well to the right, and he used to bump up against imparted to them more rapidly than in the dark. The saine things on his right side, and had to be careful whilst crossing physicists, writing in Wiedemann's Annalen (62), now examine the road. He also has had visual hallucinations of animals and whether the same property is conferred on these salts when the faces moving about to his right. Dr. Harris discusses the seat coloration is produced by heating them in the presence of of production of visual hallucinations of this kind, and concludes potassium or sodium vapour, after the manner described by that they cannot be elaborated in the half-vision centre in the Kreutz and Giesel. In the case of common salt, the electrocuneus of the brain, but in a higher visual centre--possibly the meter readings representing the loss of charge in one minute
in light were as follows :-For salt coloured by kathodic rays
and kept in darkness a year, 214; rock-salt coloured brown to Prof. PLATEAU’S experiments on the conditions which
blue by potassium vapour, 73 ; natural violet salt, 23; chloride induce insects to visit flowers have been referred to on several
of sodium coloured by Berlin blue, + 1; the corresponding occasions (see p. 179). It is worth while, however, bringing
data in the dark being o, - 10, -2, - 3. With potassium the facts together. In the concluding part of his series of
bromide, nearly blackened by potassium vapour, in light, 171; papers, “Comment les fleurs attirent les insectes,” in the Bull.
the same bright blue, 101; the same coloured by Berlin de l'Acad. des Sciences de Belgique, Prof. Plateau thus sums
blue, +1; the results in darkness being - 4, + 2,0-. There up the results at which he has arrived. In seeking for pollen
is thus no doubt that the same photo electric properties are conor nectar, insects are guided only to a subsidiary extent by the
ferred on the salts by potassium vapour as by kathodic rays ; sense of sight. They continue to visit scented flowers after
and, moreover, these properties exist mere or less in the natural the coloured parts have been almost entirely removed. When
violet and blue varieties of such minerals as rock-salt and flowers of the same species vary in colour, they exhibit neither
fluor-spar. preference nor antipathy for one colour over another. Inconspicuous flowers hidden among foliage attract large numbers A DETAILED account of experiments in gliding flight is of insects. Artificial flowers made of paper or calico, even
contributed by Mr. Octave Chanute to the Journal of the Western when brightly coloured and closely resembling real flowers, are Society of Engineers (U.S.A.) for 1897. After trying many not visited by insects ; but they are when made of green leaves
different types of gliding machines, some with as many as six which have a vegetable scent.
If flowers which have little or superposed pairs of wings, Mr. Chanute seems to have chosen no nectar, and which are therefore habitually neglected by
for his later experiments a form of apparatus with two narrow insects
, are smeared with honey, insects are attracted in large superposed aëro-curves of rectangular form. The most notenumbers. On the other hand, if the nectary is removed from worthy feature of Mr. Chanute's investigations is his invention flowers habitually visited, their visits cease at once. The author of a regulating mechanism by which the fore and aft equilibrium has paid especial attention to entomophilous flowers, and finds and stability is automatically maintained without any exertion that their exemption from the visits of insects is due mainly to or special agility on the part of the operator, and even the