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it contains one hydroxyl-group, and is converted by prolonged the amount of black markings, one example being a clear boiling into a hydrocarbon of the composition C1H16.-Con- yellow and another orange.—The Secretary exhibited part of a tributions to the chemistry of thorium, by B. Brauner. The series of holograph letters, &c., which he had discovered among author has investigated the properties of a new salt, ammonium old papers in the Society's library, including communicatioas thoroxalate, Th(CO2), 2(NH4),C,04, 7H,O, and has obtained from Kirby, Spence, Darwin, Hope, Yarrell, and many other a simple method of purifying thorium compounds by aid of this entomologists. - A paper by Mr. E. E. Green, of Punduluoya, salt ; it is shown that the tendency to form complex oxalates Ceylon, entitled “ Further notes on Dyscritina, Westwood," amongst the rare earths is inversely proportional to the basicity was read, and illustrated by specimens and drawings.-The of the earth.-On the atomic weight of ihorium, by B. Brauner. author discovered two distinct species of Dyscritina, which he From experiments made on ammonium thoroxalate, the author was able to keep in captivity, and rear from the early larvai deduces the atomic weight of thorium as Th=232'44, a result stage to that of the imago. -Dr. Chapman read a paper entitied agreeing with the number obtained by Krüss and Nilson.-On “Some remarks on Heterozyna penella,” giving a full account the compound nature of cerium, by B. Brauner. From experi- of its life-history. ments on fractional crystallisation, the author concludes that

MANCHESTER. cerium is associated with an element which possibly has the atomic weight of 110; another earth of lower atomic weight is

Literary and Phil hical Society, March 22.–Mr. perhaps present.-On praseodidymium and neodidymium, by J. Cosmo Melvill, President, in the chair. -The President read B. Brauner. The author contributes a quantity of experimental

a description and exhibited two specimens of Stroméxi data concerning praseodidymium and neodidymium, and con

(Conomurex) belutschiensis, just discovered by Mr. F. W. siders that the eighth series of the periodic system may assume

Townsend off the Mekran coast of Beluchistan, having been the form

dredged at seven fathoms on a sandy and muddy bottom. This

is a remarkable find, as it is nearly fifty years since any new Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd

species of this genus has come to light. It is most akin to S. 133 1374 138.2

1397 141


mauritianus, Lam., but differs in several marked particulars. –

Prof. Hickson communicated a paper by Miss E. M. Pratt, ea-Action of ammonia and substituted ammonias on acetylur. titled “Contributions to our knowledge of the Marine Fauna ethane, by G. Young and E. Clark. Ammonia and substituted

of the Falkland Islands." The Manchester Museum received ammonias react with acetylurethane principally in accordance last summer a number of marine animals collected on the shores with the equation

of one of the Falkland Islands by Miss Blake. As they were

nearly all in an excellent state of preservation, the author was MeCO.NH. CO,Et+NH R= MeCÓ. NH. CONHR+EtOH, able to identify them, and to compare this common shore fauna,

as a whole, with that of other temperate regions in the northern but secondary reactions occur under certain conditions.-For- and southern hemispheres. The bearing of the facts of the niation of oxytriazoles from semicarbazides, by G. Young and geographical distribution of the species identified by Miss Pratt, B. M. Stockwell

. This paper describes the formation of oxy. upon Murray's theory of the bipolar distribution of marine triazoles according to the equation

organisms, was also indicated. NHR. NH. CÓ. NH + PhCH0+0=RPh. C.NaOH + 2H,O,

DUBLIN in which R is an aromatic radicle. - Formation of aa'-dihydroxy

Royal Dublin Society, February 16.- Sir Howard Grubb, pyridine, by S. Ruhemann. aa'-Dihydroxypyridine hydrochloride

F.R.S., in the chair.-Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, F.R.S., and is formed on boiling ethylic aa'-dihydroxydinicotinate with con

Mr. Emil A. Werner made a communication on Goodwin's centrated hydrochloric acid.-Position-isomerism and optical

system of generating and using acetylene gas for illuminatin activity ; the comparative rotatory powers of diethylic mono

purposes.-Prof. D. J. Cunningham, F.R.S., described the benzoyl and monotoluyl tartrates, by P. Frankland and J.

seventh cranial nerve in the orang, with illustrations by lantero McCrae.-The action of di-isocyanates upon amido-compounds,

projection.- Dr. W. E. Adeney and Mr. James Carson de by H. L. Snape.—The action of alkyl iodides on silver malate

scribed the method they have followed in mounting the 21*5 and on silver lactate, by T. Purdie and G. D. Lander. The

feet concave Rowland diffraction grating, which has receptly abnormally high optical activity of the ethereal malates and

been acquired by the Royal University, Dublin. lactates prepared by the silver salt method is due to the simul.

EDINBURGH. taneous production of ethereal salts of alkyloxysuccinic and alkyloxypropionic acids respectively. –On the optical rotations Mathematical Society, March 11.-Dr. Morgan, Viceof methyl and ethyl tartrates, by J. W. Rodger and J. S. S. President, in the chair. — The following papers were read: Brame.

An analysis of all the inconclusive votes possible with

fifteen electors and three candidates, and a suggestion for Anthropological Institute, March 8. – Mr. F. W. Rudler,

a shortened table of five-figure logarithms, by Prof. Stegga!! : President, in the chair.—The Hon. David W. Carnegie ex: note on the centre of gravity of a circular arc, by Mr. Joha hibited and described a large collection of objects of ethnological

Dougall ; on the wave surface generalised for space of n dimeninterest, which he had recently brought from Western Australia.

sions, Prof. Schoute. He gave a description of the natives met with in his remarkable

PARIS. journey across the great sandy desert of the interior, between Coolgardie ard Kimberley. Some of the men, not withstanding

Academy of Sciences, March 21.-M. Wolf in the the miserable character of their surroundings, were upwards of chair. --Algebraic solutions of some questions concerning the insix feet in stature.

-Mr. Robert Etheridge, curator of the determinate equations of the second degree of three terms, ir Australian Museum at Sydney, sent for exhibition a large series M. de Jonquières. ---Action of some reagents upon carbon mon of photographs of dilly baskets from North Australia. Many of oxide, in view of its estimation in the air of towns, by M. these objects were highly ornate, and offered curious illustrations Armand Gautier. A study of the various absorbents proposet of aboriginal decorative art. -A paper on the folk-lore of the for the estimation of carbonic oxide. Of these cuprous chloride native Australians, by Mr. W. Dunlop, was read by Mr. T. V. and potassium permanganate react also with acetylene ani Holmes. Most of the legends cited were taken down from the ethylene ; chromic acid is only partial in its action. A one per lips of the natives nearly half a century ago.

cent. solution of gold chloride gives an immediate precipitate

with the pure gas, even in the cold, and forms a good qualitative Entomological Society, March 16.--Mr. R. McLachlan, test for CO mixed with air. -Observations of the sun, made a: F.R.S., Vice-President and Treasurer, in the chair.- Mr. the Observatory of Lyons with the Brunner equatorial, during the Champion exhibited specimens of Acanthia inodora, A. Dugès, fourth quarter of 1897, by M. J. Guillaume. Statistics referriss from Guanajuato, Mexico. This insect, a congener with the to spots and faculæ are given. -New series of photographs of th: common bed-bug, was found in fowl-houses, where it attacked complete chromosphere of the sun, by M. H. Deslandres. --On th: poultry. - Mr. Wainwright exhibited a locust found alive in singular transformations of Abelian functions, by M. G. Humbert broccoli at Birmingham. The insect was identified by Mr. -On discontinuous functions capable of development in series! Burr as Acridium egyptium. - Mr. Tutt showed a series of cap- continuous functions, by M. R. Baire. -On the transformatio: cured examples of Calligenia miniata, varying in colour and of the X-rays by matter, by M. G. Sagnac. A metal upos

For tube cultures.

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20 cc.

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which X-rays from a vacuum tube are falling emits secondary different values of the coefficient of friction f, and for equal radiations differing in penetrative power from the original rays, wheels and for the same number of teeth, 12, on each wheel. and also differing according to the nature of the reflective substance. Thus aluminium gives off secondary rays which are

Efficiency of Spur Wheels. much more penetrating than those of zinc. -Some applications

Equal wheels with 12 teeth each. of photographic irradiation, by M. Ch. Féry. On the hypo- Kind

f 0:15
fo 20

f 0:25 thesis that the upper portion of the sensitive plate when illu- Epicycloidal 0 9915

0-9693 0'9514 09318 0:9103 minated by a ray acts as a true secondary source for neighbouring Involute ... 09923

0 9746 0-9622 0 9501 0.9381 portions of the film, the conclusion is drawn that the apparent width of the line due to halation ought to grow in arithmetical

- Dr. Amand Ravold demonstrated the method, recently intro progression when the quantities of light increase in geometrical duced by Hiss, of differentiating, the typhoid bacillus from progression, and this conclusion was verified completely by bacillus coli-communis, by the use of semi-solid acidulated media, experiment.-Remarks on the preceding communication, by in which, at blood temperature, the round colonies of the typhoid M. A. Cornu. This research throws light upon the diver. | bacillus assume a peculiar fimbriated form of growth, because of gences obtained in different observatories in the measurement of the motility of the bacteria in the slightly yielding medium, which stellar magnitudes by photographic observations, although part in most cases readily distinguishes them from the more whetof the observed variation is probably due to aberrations of stone-shaped colonies of the colon bacillus, which does not the mirror.-On a universal magnifier for use in photographic produce the peculiar fimbriation in plate cultures. In tube enlargements, by M. J. Carpentier. - Determination of the cultures in the same general medium, but prepared with a density of gases with very small volumes, by M. Th. Schlosing, slighter acidity and somewhat less solidity, a uniform clouding junr. A detailed description of the apparatus used for the of the entire tube, due to the swarming of the bacteria, was determination of gaseous densities by the hydrostatic method, shown to be characteristic of the typhoid bacillus, while the together with the results obtained for air, nitrogen, carbon colon bacillus was definitely confined to the immediate vicinity dioxide and sulphur dioxide. The results are accurate to one

of the thrust. The media in both cases are made up without part in a thousand. - On neodymium, by M. 0. Boudouard. peptone. The formulæ are :Neodymium forms a double sulphate with potassium, which is more soluble than the corresponding salt of praseodymium, Agar

For plate cultures.
10 grams.

5 grams. the difference in solubility being sufficiently great to allow of a



80 fairly rapid separation.--On the explosion of mixtures of marsh

Beef extract

Beef extract

5 gas and air by the electric spark, by MM. H. Couriot and J.


Meunier. To avoid explosion, it is necessary to join up the Salt


5 two points between which the spark is produced by a Normal acid

Normal acid

15 cc. secondary conductor.-On the properties of the phosphor

The whole increased to

The whole increased to escent sulphide of strontium, by M. José Rodriguez Mourelo. -On the oxidation of some amido. and thio-amido-compounds, by M. Echsner de Coninck. A study of the The growth of the two species in question, on potato and in milk oxidation of acetamide, thio-urea, phenyl-urea, phenyl-thiourea, cultures with litmus, was also demonstrated. sarcosine, and carbamic ether by alkaline hypochlorite solution. -On the chlorine derivatives of phenyl carbonate, by M. E.

AMSTERDAM. Barral. By the action of chlorine in presence of iodine upon phenyl carbonate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, the di-chlor

Royal Academy of Sciences, February 26.-Prof. van derivative, CO(O.C.H.Cl), is obtained. -On the chrlesterins of

de Sande Bakhuyzen in the chair. --Prof. Schoute, Necrology of the lower plants, by M. E. Gérard. --Study of the anatomy and

Dr. F. J. van den Berg (1833-1892), Professor of Mathematics histology of the rectum and rectal glands of the Orthoptera, by

at the Polytechnic School of Delft (1864-1884). -- Mr. Muller, M. L. Bordas. - On the reserve material in Ficaria ranunculoides, correspondent of the Academy in the Dutch East Indies, made by M. Leclerc du Sablon. Estimations of the reducing and

a communication on the triangulation of Sumatra. When, on non-reducing sugars, dextrin and starch in the tubers of Ficaria

the completion of the triangulation of the “Government of the were made monthly, and the results expressed in curves. - The West Coast of Sumatra,” the triangulation of South Sumatra tectonic of the secondary and mountainous region comprised triangulation points, determined in 1868 and 1869 in the

was to be commenced, the intention was to start from the between the valleys of the Ouzom and Aspe (Basse-Pyrénées), by M. J. Seunes. -On the phyllogenic classification of the Lampong districts by the staff of the then Geographical Lamellibranchs, by M. H. Douvillé. - On the visibility of

Service. On inquiry being made towards the end of 1895 into the X-rays to certain young blind persons, by M. Foveau de

the condition of the pillars erected on those points, they were Courmelles. Only nine out of two hundred subjects examined

all found to have disappeared, so that the staff of the Triangu. were able to distinguish when the Crookes' tube was or was not

lation Brigade of the Topographical Service, appointed to carry excited. No sensation was perceived by those totally blind,

out the triangulation of Sumatra, had to effect a new connection only those blind by a peripheral lesion, or having a vague per

across the Strait of Sunda. The Langeiland-G. Radja Bara ception of light, being sensitive to the X-rays.-Applications of three triangles with two sides of the Java chain, viz. G. Karang

side of the Sumatra chain was therefore connected by means of radiography to the study of digital malformations, by MM. Albert Londe and Henry Meige. — Application of radiography triangles the same side was now connected with the point G.

Batoo Hideung and G. Karang-G. Gede ; by means of four to the study of a case of myxcedema ; development of the osseous system under the influence of the thyroid treatment, by MM.

Dempoo in the Lampong districts, which had been selected for Georges Gasne and Albert Londe. -Experimental paralysis | lation. In 1896 the building of pillars was commenced, and in

astronomical station for the orientation of the Sumatra triangu. under the influences of venoms, by MM. Charrin and Claude.On the eruptions of Vesuvius, by M. E. Semmola.—Com

the course of 1897 the angular measurements at the nine munication from the Directeur des Services de la Compagnie stations, besides the determination of the latitude and azimuth des Messageries Maritimes, concerning a Dugong captured in

at G. Dempoo were completed. The mean error of the result

of the determination of the latitude of G. Dempoo is o":21, the Red Sea, of a species supposed to be extinct.

and that of the result of the determination of the azimuth o":27. ST. LOUIS.

The latitude of the point G. Karang, as calculated from the

Sumatra chain, differs 6":5 from that derived from the Java Academy of Science, February 21.-Dr. R. J. Terry chain, which difference may partly be ascribed to local declinexhibited a specimen of a cervical rib from a human subject, and ation. The azimuths at that point differ 5"-3, which is probably discussed the occurrence of structural anomalies of this character. to a great extent due to the accumulation of errors in connection

March 7.-Prof. C. M. Woodward presented a paper embody- with the great distance of the point Genook in Japara, which ing an analytical discussion of the efficiency of gearing under served as starting point for the computations of latitude and friction. Few works on applied mechanics, the speaker stated, azimuth in the Java chain of triangles, and which is 540 km. give any discussion of the matter. Only spur wheels with from Karang. The publication of the determinations epicycloidal and involute teeth were considered. For the sake of latitude and azimuth ied out by the Geographical of comparison, a table was produced giving the efficiency for Service in West Java, will probably throw more light on the

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cause of these differences.-Prof. Kamerlingh Onnes communi. Cunnington.-On the Grouping of some Divisions of Jurassic Time : 5 cated on behalf of Mr. N. Kasterin, of Moscow, experiments

S. Buckman.

ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, at 8. on, and a theory of, the propagation of sound through a non

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at S. homogeneous medium. The solution given has been rendered general by means of spherical functions for a medium consist

THURSDAY, APRIL 7. ing of equal spheres in a state of rest and arranged parallelopi

MATHEMATICAL Society, at 8.-An Essay towards the Generating

Functions of Temariants : Prof. Forsyth, F.R.S.-On Systems of Forces pedically. Applications were made to the case when the in Space of n Dimensions : W. H. Young.--Note on the Definition of a dimensions of the spheres are small in comparison with the

Continuum of n Dimensions : A. E. H. Love, F.RS.-On the Zerses wave-length. Perfect analogy with the dispersion and absorp

of the Bessel Functions : H. M. Macdonald. tion of light was found ; the index of refraction, the dispersion

LINNEAN Society, at 8.-On the Brain of the Edentata, including

Chlamydophrus: Dr. Elliott Smith.-Preliminary Account of the curve, the absorption coefficient and the absorption bands in the New Zealand Actiniaria : H. Farquhar. acoustic spectrum were determined. The experiments were made with balls, arranged in tubes of quadratic cross section. Complete correspondence between observation and theory was

BOOKS AND SERIALS RECEIVED. found. The solution was also found for a medium, composed of gaseous spheres. Experiments, relative to this case, were

Books.-A Treatise on Magnetism and Electricity : Prof. A. Gray, Is'.

1 (Macmillan). --Comité Internationale des Poids et Mesures, Process made by placing a series of resonators in a Kundt's tube. Phase Verbaux des Séances de 1897 (Paris, Gauthier-Villars). — Text-Book of retardation on waves passing through impediments was pre

Physiology: edited by Prof. É. A. Schäfer, Vol. 1 (Pentland). - Bezero viously observed by Kasterin in the case of capillary waves.

! Museums Aarbog, 1897 (Bergen). - Die Wettervorhersage : Prof. Dr. W

J. van Bebber, Zweite Auflage (Stuttgart, Enke). - Die Fundamentaler, Prof. W. H. Julius presented a paper on a simple extension of the Physikalischen Eigenschaften der Krystale : Dr. W. Voigt (Leipzig Gauss-Poggendorffian method of reflector reading, by which it Veit). – Die Energetik: Dr. G. Helm (Leipzig Veit).-Statesman's Yes becomes possible directly to read not only tg 2a, but also tg 4a,

Book : edited by Dr. J. S. Keltie 1898 (Macmillan).-Hints on the tg 6a, tg 8a, tg a .. ad lib. This effect is produced by

Management of Hawks, &c : J. E. Harting, and edition (H. Cox). - What

is Science?: Duke of Argyll (Edinburgh, Douglas). – The Mammals, Reprepeated reflections of the incident rays between the reflector tiles and Fishes of Essex: H. Laver (Chelmsford, Durrant). and the slightly silvered back of a small glass plate, placed in SERIALS. --- Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. xxvii. Par: front of it. A photograph of the field of vision in the telescope

2 (Calcutta). - Ditto, Palæontologia Indica, ser. xv. Vol. 1, Part 4; Pa

Part 1; ser. xvi. Vol 1, Parts 2 and 3 (Calcutta). --Astrophysical Josrea was added, in which the four images of the scale are seen March' (Chic igo).-American Naturalist, February (Ginn). -Montbls simultaneously, the readings of which yield the various multiples Weather Review, December (Washington).- Journal of the Anthropologica

Institute, February (Paul). - Journal of the Chemical Society, March
(Gurney). - Economic Journal, March (Macmillan).-Humanitarian, Apri
(Hutchinson) - Longman's Magazine. April (Longmans). -Science Åh
stracts, February (Taylor). -Himmel und Erde, March (Berlin, Paete') -

Chambers's Journal, April (Chambers).

ROYAL Society, at 4.30. - Total Eclipse of the Sun, January 1898 : Pre-


PAGE liminary Report on the Observations at Sahdol : W. H. M. Christie, Cænogenesis, the Expression of Various PhyloC.B., É.R.S. (Astronomer Royal) -- Preliminary Account of the Ob. servations at Viziadrug : Sir J. Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S.

genetic Energies .

505 Polariscopic Results at Sahdol: Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S.-Note on

Radiation Visible and Invisible. By E. R.

504 Photographs obtained at Ghuglee : Dr. R. Copeland (Astronomer Royal Physico-chemical Research. By Dr. John Shields šod for Scotland). --Observations at Pulgaon : Captain E. H. Hills, R. É., Our Book Shelf:

and H. F. Newall. SOCIETY OF ARTS (Indian Section), at 4.30.-The Earthquake in Assam :

“ Archives of the Roentgen Ray”

509 Henry Luttman-Johnson.

Henderson : “ Practical Electricity and Magnetism.” Royal INSTITUTION, at 3.–Recent Researches in Magnetism and Dia.

D. K. M. magnetism : Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S. CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 3. ---Annual General Meeting.

Boyer : “ La photographie et l'étude des nuages CAMERA Club, at 8.15: - Prof. Joly's System of Colour Photography: Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society" 510 Captain Abney, C.B., F.R.S.

Bert: "First Year of Scientific Knowledge"

515 “Who's Who, 1898 ”


Letters to the Editor :
Royal Institution, at 9.-Liquid Air as an Analytic Agent: Prof. Mechanism of Self-Fertilisation in the Banana. (Illus-

Dewar, F.R.S.
GEOLOGISTS' Association, at 8.-Addresses on the Excursion Programme

trated.)-Gopal R. Tambe .

319 for 1998: H. W, Monckton, Prof. J. F. Blake, and W. Whitaker, F.R.S. Stereoscopic Projection of Lantern Slides. -- Proi.

G. H. Bryan, F.R.S.
The Aurora of March 15.-A. Geo. Smith

511 SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, at 8.- The Bacterial Treatment of On Phosphorescent Sap in Superior Plants.-Dr. M. Sewage containing Manufacturing Refuse : W. J. Dibdin,

W. Beijerinck

511 VICTORIA INSTITUTE, at 4.30. —The Star.Worshippers in the East : S. M. Zwemer.

A Remarkable Case of Correlation.-S. N. C. 511

Mrs. Bishop's Korea. (Illustrated.) By Dr. Hugh
Robert Mill

512 SOCIETY OF Arts, at 8.-The British Empire, its Resources and its Astronomical Results from the Cape Observatory.

Future : John Lowles.
Zoological Society, at 8.30.-On the Species of Corals of the Genus

By W. E. P.

; 513 Millopora : Prof. Sydney J. Hickson, F.R.S.-On the Perforate Corals Notes

315 collected by the Author in the South Pacific : J. Stanley Gardiner.-On Our Astronomical Column:the Geographical Races of the Banting, Bos sondaicus : R. Lydekker,

Astronomical Occurrences in April 1898
MINERALOGICAL Society, at 8.-On Sphærostilbite : G. T. Prior.-On the

Favourable Apparition of Mercury
Occurrence of Monasite and Niobates and Tantalates of the Rare Comet Perrine

514 Earths in Swaziland : G. T. Prior.-On Sennaite, a New Titanate of Two New Variable Stars of Short Period

514 Iron, Lead, and Manganese from Brazil: Dr. E. Hussak and G. T. Prior.-On a Cubic Modification of Silver Lodide from Broken Hill,

Variables and their Comparison Stars

519 New South Wales : L. J. Spencer.-Crystallographic Notes on Laurion. Concave Gratings for Stellar Photography ite and Phosgenite : Herbert Smith.-On Peculiar Quartz-Pseudomorphs A Catalogue of 636 Stars found at the Owera Mine, Opitonui, North Island, New Zealand : Prof. G. H. F. Ulrich.

The Preparation of Marine Animals and Plants as INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS. at 8.-Extraordinary Floods in Transparent Lantern Slides. (Illustrated.) By

Southern India: their Causes and Destructive Effects on Railway Dr. H. c. Sorby, F.R.S.
Works : E. W. Stoney.-The Electricity Supply of London : [A. H. Our Mineral Wealth. By Prof. W. Galloway

RÖNTGEN SOCIETY, at 8.-The Influence Machine and its advantages for

Calcium Carbide and Acetylene.
Lighting X-Ray Tubes : James Wimshurst.

University and Educational Intelligence

Scientific Serials

Societies and Academies
GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-On some Palæolithic Implements from the Diary of Societies

52 Plateau-Gravels, and their evidence concerning Eolithic Man: W. Books and Serials Received

503 509

519 510

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aspects of Malpighi's scientific activity, is necessarily longer.

Kölliker supplies a very brief but pregnant and ad

mirable statement of the many notable discoveries in A MALPIGHI BICENTENARY VOLUME.

general anatomy which we owe to Malpighi, Romiti (of Marcello Malpighi e l'opera sua. Scritti varii. Pp. 338. Pisa) an estimate, also short, of Malpighi's place in the (Milan : Vallardi, 1897.)

history of topographical human anatomy, while Eternod THE great Malpighi.—Marcello Malpighi—to give him (of Geneva) dwells more in detail on his worth as being

his full name, anatomist, physiologist, botanist, one of the earliest to grasp the value of that research pathologist, biologist, and above all natural philosopher, into minute structure, whether of plants or animals, striking and powerful man of science in the latter half which we now call Histology, and indeed as being one of the seventeenth century, was born on March 10, 1628, of the founders of a branch of biological science which in the house of his father, a farmer in easy circumstances has, especially in these latter days, gathered in so many in the outskirts of the town of Crevalore, which lies in and such important truths. Cattaneo (of Genoa) expounds the neighbourhood of Bologna.

at length and in detail the great man's many and varied Last year the town of Crevalore, with the help of contributions to comparative anatomy; and Perroncito (of others, erected in its market-place, opposite the town Turin) adds a detailed account, which by reason of its very hall, a bronze statue of their great townsman as a tangible detail is most interesting, of Malpighi's famous work on token of how much they felt his worth. Dr. Pizzoli, the the silk worm, “De Bombyce.” It will be remembered Secretary of the Committee for the erection of the monu- that Malpighi was led to undertake this investigation in ment, conceived the happy idea of combining with the consequence of a letter which the Royal Society of London memorial of bronze one of another kind-one which should addressed to him, through the hand of its Secretary not be stationary at Crevalore, but wander far and wide- Oldenburgh, and that the volume containing the account a printed book in which several men of science of different of the investigation was published by and on the financial lands and pursuing different paths of inquiry might state responsibility of the Royal Society, being the first of a what they knew and thought of their great common series of works by Malpighi thus published. Indeed master of old times. Circumstances prevented the two after this onward nearly all Malpighi's inquiries were memorials being completed in 1894, which would have published by the Royal Society. been the bicentenary of Malpighi’s death, this taking

We learn from Dr. Pizzoli's sympathetic preface that it place on November 29, 1694 ; but the statue was unveiled had been intended to include a contribution on Malpighi last November, and the memorial volume is now before as an embryologist, one of Malpighi's works being “De the world.

formatione pulli in ovo.” Through misadventure this inIt would be out of place in a notice such as this | tention failed ; but the value of Malpighi's work in this to dwell at length on Malpighi's place in the history of direction is touched upon by more than one of the conbiological science, or to attempt to discuss the value of tributors just mentioned. his many and varied labours. I must content myself with

ith Two contributions deal with Malpighi's botanical regiving a brief account of the contents of this memorial searches. At its meeting of December 7, 1671, there was volume.

read before the Royal Society a preliminary sketch by The several contributions are very varied, both in length Malpighi of his botanical investigations under the title of and character ; and as one reads them in succession, a “Anatomes Plantarum Idea”; and at the same meeting great deal of repetition is met with ; but this is unavoid- our countryman Nehemiah Grew laid before the Society a able in a work written in the way in which this is written ; 1 copy of his work entitled “The Anatomy of Plants begun," and it may at least be said that all the contributions will which the Society in the previous spring had ordered to be reward perusal.

printed. Much controversy has arisen in respect to the G. Atti (of Bologna) gives a biographical sketch, relative merits of Malpighi and Grew as the founders of the shortness of which is, I cannot help thinking, much the anatomy of plants. One of the above two contributo be regretted ; and though Prof. Atti has written at tions is a short essay by Strasburger in which, while length elsewhere, I feel sure that a fuller relation of Mal- giving Grew all his due as an original inquirer, he claims pighi's life, some genial narration of his personal story, for Malpighi a higher place as being a mind of wider free from any critical account of his scientific labours, grasp, as being one who in investigating plants was seekwould have been a very acceptable addition to the ing a clue to the secrets not of plants only but of all living volume.

things. The other contribution, by Morini, is much longer Virchow contributes an éloge, Haeckel an appreciative and deals in detail with all Malpighi’s botanical studies, estimate of Malpighi as a philosophic naturalist, De incidentally touching also on the controversy about Grew, Michelis (of Ravenna) an essay on Malpighi's place in the and giving a brief sketch of the condition of botany before History of Thought, Todaro (of Rome) a sympathetic view Malpighi began his work. of him as a pioneer in biological studies and as an I have myself contributed a condensed account of Maladvocate of experimental medicine being considered as pighi's relations with the Royal Society, explaining in a an integral part of the study of living things, and De simple manner how the correspondence between the one Giovanni (of Padua) an exposition of his place in the de- and the other began, how the Society undertook in sucvelopment of pathological science. All these are short, cession the publication of Malpighi's most important while the contribution of Weiss (of Messina), entitled a works, and how cordial and close was the intercourse general introduction, dealing as it does with the several l between the great Italian inquirer and the learned English body. Some of the letters which passed between phrases, and the unwary reader may quite well be forMalpighi and the Royal Society appear in the “Opera given if he was led astray by a flood of journalistic Omnia.” But many others are preserved in the archives eloquence. Those, however, who had any knowledge of the of the Society, and I thought that it would be well if all subject saw at once that Mr. Lang did not represent the these saw the light. I accordingly have added these anthropological school, and that he had no right to pretend letters—some from Malpighi to the Society or to one or to do so; for as is well known he has shown no evidence other of the Secretaries, others from the latter to Mal- that he possesses any special knowledge of any one of pighi, in all forty-two in number -as an Appendix to what the subjects which go to form that complex whole called I have written. In doing this I received most valuable mythology. Prof. Max Müller may have made mistakes, assistance from Mr. Herbert Rix, the late Assistant but he knows his languages ; Mr. Lang has a competent Secretary to the Society. Probably some printer's and knowledge of no Oriental language, and can never now other verbal errors have escaped the notice of both of us. acquire even a working hold upon the dialects of the

Lastly the volume contains an account, by L. Frati, East, wherein Prof. Max Müller was an authority thirty of the various medals issued in honour of Malpighi, and a years ago. To us it seems doubtful if Mr. Lang has bibliography, by C. Frati, both of Malpighi's own writings sufficient knowledge of Eastern linguistics to understand and of various writings about him.

all the points of Prof. Max Müller's position. In any case Dr. Pizzoli may certainly be congratulated on having Mr. Lang's attack upon the Oxford Professor was futile, produced an interesting and useful volume, the reading and all it served to do was to show that Mr. Lang had misof which cannot but do good. To stand back from the taken his own powers, and that he had without any proper present rush of inquiry and controversy, to look across two authority assumed to himself the right to act as spokescenturies at a great man, struggling with the beginnings of man for the anthropological school of mythology. Now, it problems which have since come down to us, some in part seems, another combatant has joined in the fray in the solved, but others with their solutions put still further off person of Mr. Robert Brown, junior, who, though wishing by the very increase of knowledge, is a useful lesson to every to support Prof. Max Müller against Mr. Lang, has a few one of us. In any case the great men who in the past objections to urge against the venerable scholar, and an opened up for us paths of inquiry-and among these Mal- axe of his own to grind. Mr. Brown, like Mr. Lang, pighi takes a foremost place-ought not to remain mere makes himself the spokesman of a “School,” which, names, known to us chiefly through being attached to he says, “for present purposes, I may style the Aryosome structure or to some piece of apparatus. We ought Semitic,” and though he recognises “the vast results all of us to be able to form some idea of what they were that have sprung from the scientific application of Aryan and what they thought. The present volume will be a linguistics,” he is "in entire sympathy with the researches great help to any one, who can read Italian, towards of anthropology in general, and of folk-lore in particular." such an end in respect to Marcello Malpighi.

The cynical outsider will have some difficulty in underM. FOSTER. standing the position of such a Mr. Facing-both-ways.

As far as we can see, Mr. Brown has printed his book to

prove that Hellenic mythology owes a pretty big debt THE ARYO-SEMITIC SCHOOL OF

to Semitic peoples ; but then, no one, so far as we know, MYTHOLOGY,

ever doubted this obvious fact. Mr. Brown has also Semitic Influence in Hellenic Mythology, with special taken a great dislike to Mr. Lang, the evidence of which

reference to the recent mythological works of the Right forces itself upon the reader in several places. Mr. Hon. Prof. F. Max Müller and Mr. Andrew Lang. Brown's dislike is so strong that in order to relieve his By R. Brown, junior. Pp. xvi + 288. (London : feelings, he is obliged to write a number of childish Williams and Norgate, 1898.)

things, which any friend of his would have excised from IT T has been a well-known fact for many years past that his manuscript before it was printed. Mr. Brown also

the breach between the linguistic and anthropological falls foul of Mr. Frazer, the author of the “Golden schools of mythology was growing steadily, and it was Bough," and when, like Mr. Silas Wegg, Mr. Brown is evident that a serious rupture must eventually occur. It obliged to “drop into poetry," and to print in a book was felt that the venerable linguistic method was being intended to be serious the silly lines (p. 14), slowly but surely undermined by many workers, and that ( Mr. Frazer, Mr. Frazer, what a man you are! the anthropologists were consolidating their position in a I never thought when you set out that you would “ so far," remarkable manner. The rupture, however, might have we can only regret that Prof. Max Müller has been been delayed, and the two schools might have made "taken up” by Mr. Brown. Moreover, to talk of a concessions mutually in the interests of the peace and “Covent-garden-market theory of mythology” (p. 15) is progress of the science, the advancement of which each hardly the language which we should expect from one party professed to have at heart, had they been allowed who calls himself a supporter, and, in some respects, a to do so. But it was not to be, and the immediate cause disciple of Prof. Max Müller. of battle between the rival schools was the publication of It is time to ask now what Mr. Brown's qualifications Prof. Max Müller's “ Contributions to the Science of are for his self-assumed rôle of defender of Prof. Max Mythology,” wherein the great writer discussed with his Müller. In reading over his pages we see that a great characteristic learning the subjects on which he is the many languages are quoted, and that a vigorous attempt first authority at present. This work was violently has been made by Mr. Brown to mark the quantities of attacked by Mr. Andrew Lang, who, it cannot be denied, the vowels which occur in the extracts; the pages look impressed many by his skill in word trickery and brilliant not only learned but terrible. But it is one thing to be

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