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able to find words in a dictionary, and another to know the the subject of developmental mechanics, and it differs but language to which the dictionary is the key. Mr. Brown little from its predecessors (consisting as it largely does has written many papers on astronomical matters, and of extracts and quotations from them, with explanatory we are willing to assume, for the sake of argument, that and justificatory additions) in the complacent, not to they may be of value ; but from the manner in which say assertive, manner in which its author extols his own he writes the words of one of the languages which he methods and aims at the expense of those which have quotes, that is to say Hebrew, we are convinced that hitherto been in use among zoologists. To our thinking his knowledge of it is of an elementary character. An Dr. Roux's weakness lies not in his aims, which are legitiexample or two will show what we mean.
On p. 115
mate and praiseworthy, nor in his methods, which are he speaks of Sanchouniathan, meaning Sanchon-yathan carefully considered, but in the persistence with which (we leave out the vowel quantities because they are not he lectures his colleagues on their shortcomings and necessary); this spelling shows that Mr. Brown took the on his own rectitude. Different persons are differently name from a non-English book, and did not know that affected by oft-repeated homilies : some will acquiesce, Sanchôn was the form of the god's name. The spelling the greater number will escape by indifference, and others Aschthârth (pp. 115 and 182) is another example of the will be goaded into active hostility to what they regard same thing. On p. 116 (bis) he prints Qarnâîm for as the pretensions of the author. To the last category Qarnayim, which shows that he does not know how to belongs Dr. Oscar Hertwig, who has recently attacked transcribe the dual ending in Hebrew ; the a cannot be Roux in an unsparing manner, asserting that his prolong here unless it carries the accent. On p. 133 he gives gramme is obscure and wanting in novelty ; that since it dayon as the Hebrew for the word “judge”; as a matter is not new the very name of developmental mechanics is of fact it is dayyân; on p. 149 he writes Ai lênu for superfluous and, moreover, incorrect ; that the method, į lânu; on p. 181, Qastu for Qashtu; on p. 182, Dagîm in so far as it is new, cannot lead to any progress in for Dâgîm; on p. 142, Kîyûn for K'îyyún; on p. 133, biology; that it is inapplicable to the subject; and finally, anoshîm for åndshîm ; and so on in many places. These that in so far as it has been applied by Roux, it has been are not mere misprints, and they show the want of applied in so faulty and slovenly a manner as to have knowledge of elementary principles of Hebrew grammar. produced error instead of enlightenment. He often vocalises Phænician words in defiance of all the
The issue between the new method and the old is very laws which governed the Masoretes in their deliber- clearly raised, and the present work is chiefly concerned ations, and yet when he has good authority for adding in repelling Hertwig's attack. It would take far too much the lengths of the vowels he fails to do so ; see on p. 182, space to attempt to describe the numerous questions where he writes Kimah for K'îmâh. We cannot attempt
which enter into the dispute, questions which involve to follow Mr. Brown in his Accadian, and “Hittite," and discussions on the laws of causation, on the theory of other little-known dialects, but the general impression mechanics, on nomenclature, and on numerous matters which we gather from his book is that he is little more
of fact. of a genuine expert in linguistic mythology than is Mr. Our general impression after reading Roux's article, is Lang; and Mr. Lang is a brilliant, amusing writer, that he has come out of the contest with credit, and that whilst Mr. Brown is not. The silly remarks on p. 85 in some particulars he has successfully overthrown are in very bad taste. The scholars of Oxford, Cam- Hertwig's attack. It must be remembered that Roux is bridge and London are only too glad to help on learning by no means an empty theorist : he has preached, as we in any shape or form, and no honest worker is pushed think, over-much, but he has also practised largely and aside at any of these places because he does not live with great success, and whatever à priori objections may there, or is not a graduate of the University. When be taken to the methods which he inculcates, he has been professors of the Aryan and Semitic languages are con
able to show us, by the results which he has himself vinced that Mr. Brown has a competent knowledge of achieved, that the method of experiment may be applied these tongues, they will be prepared to believe that he with great advantage to the elucidation of embryological knows accurately Accadian and “Hittite," and to accept phenomena. His contention in this and earlier essays his conclusions ; meanwhile Mr. Brown's present work is, that the biological methods lately in vogue are purely will delay that result.
descriptive and based upon simple observation, and that
therefore they do not, and cannot, give a causal account DEVELOPMENTAL MECHANICS.
of biological phenomena. To obtain a knowledge of
causal relations, one must, says Roux, have recourse to Programm und Forschungsmethoden der Entwicklungs- experiment, and further than this, to "causal analytical
mechanik der Organismen, leichverständlich dargestellt. experiment." Von Wilhelm Roux, o.ö. Professor der Anatomie und It is not quite easy to understand the antithesis Direktor des anatomischen Instituts zu Halle. Zugleich between simple experiment and causal analytical exeine Erwiderung auf O. Hertwig's Schrift Biologie und periment, though our author evidently attaches special Mechanik. Pp. 203. (Leipzig : Verlag von Wilhelm value to the latter term, for he repeats it again and again. Engelmann, 1897.)
Seemingly it means nothing more than that every exIT T is questionable whether Dr. Wilhelm Roux does periment should be conducted with strict attention to the
not do more harm than good to the cause which he particular question to be solved and with due regard to has at heart by his excessive fondness for programmes. secondary and distur influences, conditions which, The work which lies before us is at least the fourth of a to the ordinary uninstructed person, would seem to be series of expositions of the nature, aims and methods of l necessary to every experiment worthy of the name. This, however, is a matter of secondary importance; Roux asserting that the observed positions of the planets were insists specially on the use of experiment-accurate due to—that is, were caused by-the fact that their paths painstaking experiment-in biological investigation. He are elliptical. But this would not be a sufficient causal further indicates that developing organisms afford the explanation of the planetary movements. There is most fruitful field for the experimental method, for there clearly a further question as to why the paths are one may most certainly hope to discover the formative elliptical, and the elucidation of this question was reserved forces which by their interaction co-operate to produce for Newton. Hertwig would suggest that embryological those formal changes which we have come to know by inquiry should stop short at a point analogous to that the method of simple observation. It is on this subject gained by Kepler, and that we should content ourselves that Hertwig differs most widely with him. According with the assertion that the states which we observe in to the latter author, there is no place for the experimental individual ontogenies are what they are because the method in embryology. Experiment is nothing more organisms in question describe a sort of normal curve in than the production of changes of state in existences. the courses of their development. It is hardly possible In the inorganic world we have to deal with relatively to refuse one's sympathy to Roux when he declines to be stable existences, and before we can make any assertions content to stop at this point, and urges that the knowof cause and effect about them we must bring about ledge hitherto acquired is but a preliminary to further a change of state in them. In the organic world, inquiry. Everybody who has studied and reflected upon however, the case is widely different. It is the character- the facts of embryology must have felt the necessity for istic of living bodies that they are always undergoing further enlightenment as to why, and in virtue of what changes of state, and the changes are most characteristic inherent energies the ovum is able to go through the and most conspicuous during the period of embryonic complex succession of changes which lead to the development. Thus nature does for man in the organic establishment of the adult individual. Various theoretical what he himself has to effect in the inorganic world, and solutions of the problem have been offered, but they it is only necessary for him to observe and record the have not proved satisfactory. Roux steps forward and natural successive changes in order to be able to state a shows that the only possible solution is by the method of series of relations of antecedent and consequent. Thus experimental investigation. Since he himself admits Hertwig says
that the problem was present to the mind of von Bar, it “Every antecedent state is the cause of that which is clear that his aim is not new, and in this unimportant follows it . ... a living frog's ovum is the antecedent matter Hertwig is right; but if the aim is not new, it which of invariable necessity leads to the establish- has only recently become practical, and Roux may lay ment of a frog's gastrula as a consequent, if only claim to the chief credit of having seen that the time was the conditions and circumstances necessary to further development are fulfilled. For the words antecedent ripe for trying to realise it. and consequent
may equally well substitute But it is one thing to have a legitimate and definite the words cause and effect. Hence embryological object in view, another thing to devise the most approresearch, which describes’ the change of the frog's priate means of attaining to it. Roux has entire faith in ovum into the gastrula, asserts a causal relation, and in so far as it does this for all the stages of the develop experiment. Hertwig objects to the experimental method, ment of the frog from the egg, it asserts the law of the because in the act of making an experiment one disturbs development of the frog. In this sense the research of the normal course of vital phenomena, and obtains the last fifty years has brought to light the most im- abnormal results, from which nothing can with certainty portant causal knowledge. Is not the recognition that be predicated as regards natural processes. Bütschli the ovum and the spermatozoon are simple elementary has in a similar sense objected that the introduction of organisms and that, as such, when the appropriate conditions are fulfilled, they unite in themselves all the disturbing factors into ontogeny involves a complication causes (exception being made of causæ externa) which in the results, which can only be justly estimated when are necessary to the production of a new being, and that the elements of the mechanics of normal developmental they in fact bring it into existence, is not this a causal processes are well ascertained. The answer to this is recognition ?"
that no progress is possible if one allows one's self to be The above paragraph is quoted by Roux as illus- discouraged by à priori objections and difficulties, and trating very clearly the difference between his and that the method of experiment, so far as it has gone, has Hertwig's standpoints. Hertwig imagines that the ends been successful almost beyond anticipation. of science are fulfilled by the enumeration and description As regards the title ‘Developmental Mechanics" of different states, and holds that our task is finished (Entwicklungsmechanik), which Roux justifies at some when we are able to assert that any one state invariably length, it need only be said here that the equivalent proceeds from another state immediately preceding it. “Experimental Embryology” most generally used in Roux admits the necessity and value of this knowledge, England and America, though not expressly disavowed but declares that it is only a step towards a causal by him, differs in its connotation from the title which he explanation of the phenomena, and is far from satisfying has selected. Thus on p. 176, “Entwicklungsmechanik our desire for a full explanation.
bedeutet also die Lehre den EntwicklungsAn illustration will serve to make the point clear. | bewegungen”: the essential idea is not contained in Hertwig's position would be that of an astronomer who the term Experimental Embryology.
a: "Roux's last task is to defend his practical methods and was content with the truth arrived at by Kepler, that the observed successive positions of the planets are due results against the criticisms of Hertwig, who has not to their paths being elliptical. Having ascertained the hesitated to say that his preparations were so imperfect nature of the planets' orbits, he would be justified in I in point of histological technique that nothing could be
inferred from them. Roux retorts with a criticism of birds, we are glad to see he employs genera mostly in a Hertwig's control experiments on the same objects wide sense, so that the blackbird and ouzels appear in (frog's ova), and it is difficult to decide between two the same genus as the song-thrush. But these are deobservers who mutually accuse each other of inaccuracy tails in which his readers have probably little or no and want of attention to detail.
interest, and which his critic may therefore leave alone. So far as one can judge the advantage in the polemic If we might suggest an improvement, it would have lies with Roux, the more so because he invites our con- been to curtail the amount of space devoted to the fidence by asking any one who is interested to come and sperm-whale, which scarcely comes under the designainspect his preparations of hemiembryos, and to judge tion of a British animal, and to give more details with for himself whether or not he has described them truly, regard to some of the smaller mammals. For instance, and whether they do not support the theoretical con- a little more might have been added as to the colourclusions drawn from them.
changes of the squirrel, and the distinctive coloration of
the tail of the British form ; while further information as BRITISH VERTEBRATES.
to the black variety of the water-vole being restricted to
damp localities might have been desirable. Perhaps, A Sketch of the Natural History (Vertebrates) of the however, the author is better acquainted with the tastes British Isles. By F. G. Afalo. 12mo, pp. xiv + 498.
of his readers than is his critic ; and personally we conIllustrated. (Edinburgh and London : Blackwood and
fess to much more interest in reading the anecdotes reSons, 1898.)
lating to ambergris than we should in wading through TITH the host of books in existence on British
details of coloration of fur and feathers-important as animals, it is a somewhat curious fact that, so
these latter undoubtedly are in their proper place. far as we are aware, there is none which treats of all the
As regards paper, type, illustrations (from the facile vertebrates collectively, with the exception of Jenyns's pencil of Mr. Lodge), and freedom from misprints, the “ Manual,” published in 1835. Still more curiously, that
As an particular work happens to be omitted from the very
Easter gift to friends, whether young or old, interested useful bibliography Mr. Aflalo gives at the end of his
in the natural history of our own islands-which is the little volume ! Under these circumstances, the work
proper commencement of zoological studies-no volume before us fills a distinct gap ; and as it is beautifully
could be more appropriate.
R. L. illustrated and brightly written, it ought to command a ready sale among those desirous of knowing something about the higher animals of our islands without being
OUR BOOK SHELF. bored by technicalities.
Canada's Metals. By Prof. Roberts-Austen, C.B., D.C.L., Needless to say, it is not a book for the professed F.R.S. Pp. 46. (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., naturalist, and should not therefore be criticised from his
1898.) standpoint. It has no pretence to be an advanced edu- | The address which Prof. Roberts-Austen delivered at cational text-book ; but is intended to appeal to those the Toronto meeting of the British Association last year, who have the “field-fever” strongly developed, and who and afterwards repeated at the Imperial Institute, was are certainly in need of a cheap and portable volume
so well received on each occasion that there must be dealing with all the vertebrates to be met with by field
many who will welcome its appearance in book form.
The main object of the address was to indicate the and food in the British Isles. To be as accurate as naiure and distribution of Canada's mineral wealth ; but, possible without being dry, to produce a chatty little to lend additional interest to the subject, and afford a handbook, and not a dissecting-room manual, seems to base for experimental illustration, a specific metalhave been the main object of the author ; and in this nickel—which is especially Canada's own, was given the laudable endeavour, in our opinion, he may fairly claim
most prominent place in the discourse.
How great is the mineral wealth of the Dominion is to have succeeded.
understood by all who know the work and publications One very notable feature in the book is that scientific of the officers of the Canadian Geological Survey.. Renames are relegated to a series of tables, prefixed to the port upon report have been published on the mineral groups to which they refer, and that in the text the resources of the various provinces, but they have mostly animals appear under the popular designations alone.
gone unrecognised in England, and British efforts have
been tardy in developing the riches in Canadian territory. This certainly renders the volume much more readable Ten years ago Dr. Dawson published his exhaustive than would otherwise be the case. Special attention is and glowing report on the mineral wealth of British given to the life-history of each animal treated ; but Columbia, in which he pointed out the richness of the descriptive details sufficient to distinguish the species region in auriferous deposits, and stated that alluvial from its British relatives are added, and in those cases
gold would probably be found in the bed of every tribuwhere we have perused them, appear all that can be
tary of the Yukon. Had British capitalists known how
to value reports of this character, they would long ago reasonably required.
have developed the Yukon basin instead of waiting Any nomenclatural list is now-a-days open to criticism, until the success of placer mining at Forty Mile Creek were we disposed to be critical on this subject. But in in 1896 called public attention to the extraordinary richthe main the author appears to have steered a fairly ness of the district in precious metals. The facts brought middle course between extreme innovations and old together by Prof. Roberts-Austen will, however, help to fashioned views. In one case he is clearly wrong
make the extent and variety of Canada's mineral deposits
better known than they have been, and will also show namely, in calling the marten Martes sylvatica, and that, large as is the output at the present time, it will restricting Mustela to the polecats and weasels. In certainly be enormously exceeded in the future.
From the general subject of Canadian mineral re- Elementary Botany. By Percy Groom, M.A., F.L.S. sources, and the need for their development, Prof. Pp. x + 252. (London : G. Bell and Sons, 1898.) Roberts-Austen passes to a particular metal-nickel. In his preface the author explains that his object has The splash of a falling marble which is dropped into been “ to place the subject before elementary students milk, and of a gold bullet dropping into molten gold, is in such a way as to exercise to the full their powers of shown, by means of reproductions of photographs, to observation, and to enable them to make accurate bear a resemblance to the splash produced upon armour deductions for themselves from the facts which they plates by projectiles. To prevent the marble from enter- observe." The book is written on the assumption that a ing the milk, the surface of the liquid might be hardened compound microscope is not employed; and in the by freezing it. Using this illustration, Prof. Roberts- section on physiology no knowledge of the histology Austen ingeniously explains that in a similar way an of plants is assumed. There are already numerous armour plate should have a face of rigid steel to books more or less suitable as guides to the student break up a projectile, and a tough back to save the of elementary botany, some of them so excellent as to plate from fracture. These conditions are obtained by leave little, if anything, to be desired in their special the addition of 4 or 5 per cent. of nickel to steel.
fields. But they either omit a good deal that might There are many curious points connected with the readily enough' be examined and verified even by relations of iron and nickel, and several of scientific beginners, or they require such a use of the compound interest are described in the present volume. Every one microscope as is scarcely practicable in the teaching of interested in the properties of metals, or desirous of botany in schools. A book on the lines indicated by obtaining a concise and trustworthy account of Canada's Mr. Groom should prove very helpful alike to beginners mineral riches, should read what Prof. Roberts-Austen and to teachers, and would doubtless be welcomed if felt has to say upon these subjects.
to be the result of adequate personal experience. But
we cannot altogether congratulate the author on his Hann, Hochstetter, Pokorny-Allgemeine Erdkunde, success in carrying out his objects, despite the merits
Fünfte, neu-bearbeitete Auflage. II. Abtheilurg : of his work, especially if it is intended as a school-book. Die feste Erdrinde und ihre Formen. Von Ed. Children can scarcely be expected to benefit as much Brückner. Pp. xii + 368. (Wien: F. Tempsky, from the study of general morphology as from the 1898).
examination of selected plants, in which they could IN undertaking to produce a new edition of Hochstetter's observe and gradually become familiar with the various share in the Allgemeine Erdkunde, Prof. Brückner very
structures and life-histories. wisely determined to rewrite the whole section, and so to
The definitions of terms are at times scarcely in keepbring it into line with contemporary methods and results. ing with general usage ; for example, those of compound The scope of this treatise on the crust of the earth and leaves, astivation and vernation, and compound fruits. its forms includes a sketch of petrography, geological It may be questioned whether the statement—" that structure, stratigraphy, the agencies which work on the portion of a single flower which persists after fertilisation earth's surface (classed as endogenous and exogenous), until the seeds are ripe is termed the fruit "—is preferable the forms of the crust, and the morphology of the land
to the usual definition. The classification of fruits also surface.
is unsatisfactory. Prof. Brückner follows Richthofen and Penck for the
Such a statement as that “a root can only produce as most part ; but his range is wide, and he pays due regard lateral members branches like itself” is misleading, and to the work of British and American geologists. It is indicates want of care. The production of buds by roots particularly noteworthy that an authority who knows the can easily be verified ; indeed, the author refers to their Alps so well should refrain from making them the main growth on roots under “adventitious shoots." source of his illustrative examples. In speaking of the In the physiology a knowledge of chemistry is assumed interior of the earth the author'leans to the view of the to an extent beyond what is to be looked for in many central part being in a gaseous state, the gaseous rock schools. In consequence a good deal of this section being reduced by intense pressure to a higher density than
could be little more than words to those for whom the any liquid known on the surface; but he quotes and
book seems to be intended. The plants treated of all impartially discusses the more generally accepted view of belong to the flowering plants, though there seems no a solid earth due to the raised melting-point of rocks under good reason why representatives of the larger cryptogams pressure. Earthquakes are treated at some length ; but should not find a place in such a work. But the task of the work of Milne is not referred to, Rebeur-Paschwitz
censor is unpleasant; and although it has been being the principal modern authority cited. In dis
necessary to criticise what must impair the usefulness of cussing the origin of land-forms, more weight is given the book, we gladly recognise that it should often be than in most text-books with which we are familiar to
found suggestive by teachers and others possessed of the importance of tilted or vertically displaced blocks of sufficient knowledge to avoid being misled where the crust, and relatively less importance is attributed to
risk exists. The book is well printed, and is of very folded structures. In treating of the régime of rivers convenient size, and the illustrations are good and and the classification of land-forms, Prof. Brückner
numerous ; but it would have made them more useful follows Penck closely.
had some of them been repeated where more than once A number of useful references are given to special particularly referred to and explained. References to works treating on the special departments under notice ; figures, sometimes many pages back, are apt to be and it is gratifying to find a fair proportion of English
irritating: books amongst those cited. In speaking of caverns, Alembic Club Reprints. No. 13. The Early History of however, the author fails to mention M. Martel's Chlorine. No. 14. Researches on Molecular Asymmetry. important researches, or to refer to the Speleological Pp. 46 and 48. (Edinburgh : W. F. Clay, 1897.) Society. The revision of the work is very thorough ; the The first of these reprints contains translations of papers only serious misprint of proper names we have noticed by Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1774), C. L. Berthollet (1785), is the citation of the author of the Mundus Subterraneus Guyton de Morveau (1787), and J. L. Gay-Lussac and as “ Kirchner” in place of “Kircher.”
L. J. Thenard (1809). This volume, together with the This important work, so well-written by a master of earlier reprint in this series (No. 9), containing Davy's his subject, is simply one amongst many German books researches, completes the history of chlorine from its dison physical geography, a class still very poorly repre- covery by Scheele to the proof of its elementary nature sented in the English language.
H. R. M. by Davy. The importance of this discussion upon the
development of chemistry is obvious, but it is somewhat What is Life ? or, Where are we? What are we? difficult to step back from what is now common place Whence did we come ? and Whither do we go? By knowledge, to the standpoint of these early pioneers. Frederick Hovenden, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.M.S Pp. The paper of Scheele, although worded in terms of the xiv + 290. (London : Chapman and Hall, 1897.) theory of phlogiston, is remarkable for its terseness and MANY matters are dealt with in this book, ranging from lucidity, and for the clear and correct ideas expressed the stellar universe to cell structure. About half the upon the nature of the new gas. Indeed, if the word text is inade up of quotations from the writings and utterhydrogen be substituted for phlogiston, Scheele's explan- ances of men of science, distinguished and otherwise, ation of the action of hydrochloric acid upon the black and the remainder consists of perplexing conclusions oxide of manganese almost represents our present know which the extracts are held to support. Excessive zeal ledge. Berthollet, on the other hand, writes very is shown in establishing fundamental truths, but that may voluminously upon a very slender experimental basis, be forgiven. It is when the author expands into the and as an ardent exponent of the views of Lavoisier, ether, so as to embrace in his comprehensive idea such concludes that chlorine gas is the oxide of an unknown diverse subjects as the Pentateuch and the currency quesradical, and this fixed idea leads to quite erroneous tion, that we lose the connections of the argument. The interpretations of observed facts.
chief conclusions arrived at are stated in the following That the effect of a preconceived idea, however, is not
words :always prejudicial, is shown in the two lectures by Pasteur “ From the combining power of the strongest species on Molecular Asymmetry, which form the contents of the of atoms under the influence of Ether, arises the formsecond of the reprints under notice. Here Pasteuration of cells. distinctly states that but for his preconceived idea as to “Cells under the influence of the strongest cell group the inter-relation of hemihedry and rotatory phenomena, themselves to form highly complex structures or organhe would not have discovered the opposite hemihedry of isms, hence the most complex of all organisms-Man. the paratartrate and tartrate of soda and ammonia ; a The activity of cells forms that activity we call Human difference missed by so careful an observer as Mit- Life. Thus Life is the sum of the activity or energy of scherlich.
molecules formed of atoms. The English translation of these famous lectures “The power of the regeneration of molecules causes possesses all the charm of the original. In them we have regeneration of cells, and this causes regeneration of a complete account of Pasteur's work on optically active Life. Life is eternal." compounds, and, as the editor states in the preface, it is remarkable that the three ways of separating optical
La Tuberculose et son Traitement hygiénique. Par isomers here described are still the only ones known,
Prosper Merklen, Interne des hôpitaux de Paris. and that there is scarcely a statement which would be Edited by Felix Alcan. Pp. 190. (Paris : Ancienne changed if the whole were to be written to-day.
Librairie Germer, Baillière et Cie.) Practical Toxicology for Physicians and Students. By
This little book forms No. cxix. of the “Bibliothèque Prof. Dr. Rudolf Kobert, late Director of the Pharma | Utile” series, and is certainly calculated to serve a cological Institute, Dorpat, Russia. Translated and
It addresses the public, and not the edited by L. H. Friedburg, Ph.D. Pp. xiii + 201.
medical profession. The nature of tubercular disease is (New York : William R. Jenkins, 1897.)
very clearly and accurately set forth in plain language, THE work before us is a translation of a book by Prof. together with its chief manifestations in man, and the Kobert, the second edition of which was issued in 1887. principles underlying its prophylaxis and treatment. It While the author was engaged upon his “ Lehrbuch der is indisputably true that in the case of a preventable Intoxicationen," by which he is for the most part known
disease like tuberculosis, which constitutes one of the in this country, and with which the present work must main scourges of civilised man, a dissemination of sound not be confused, he allowed the latter to run out of print.
knowledge on the subject is the first necessary step in In 1894 he wrote the third German edition, and it is educating public opinion up to the hygienic requirethis which Dr. Friedburg has now translated and edited,
ments and sanitary restrictions which are demanded to three years after its issue. As we have not had the check its spread. The present brochure is a creditable opportunity of seeing the third German edition of the effort in this direction : the author has succeeded in original, we are unable to measure either the quality or placing home truths on the subject in a very clear light, extent of Dr. Friedburg's editing. With regard to
and his remarks cannot fail to be of direct benefit to his translating, it is the worst which has ever come
the public. under our notice. In fact the English language, in Dr.
Marriage Customs in Many Lands. By the Rev. H. N. Friedburg's hands, is extremely difficult to understand. As this is a very strong statement it behoves us
Hutchinson, B.A., F.G.S. Pp. xii + 348. (London : to give an instance, which, by the way, is not the
Seeley and Co., Ltd., 1897.) worst we could find. Dr. Friedburg is speaking of a MR. HUTCHINSON, forsaking geological subjects for a rise of blood pressure of peripheral origin." If this is time, presents in this volume a purely popular account the case, the rise must obtain after the injection of the of the quaint customs connected with marriage in many poison into the blood of an animal even if the marrow parts of the world. He has not attempted to discuss of the neck has been cut through and whose spinal the scientific questions relating to the history and origin marrow has been drilled out.” We quote this instance, of human marriage, but has merely aimed at providing since it shows that the author is not only deplorably the general public with readable descriptions of curious ignorant of the English language, but has no knowledge nuptial ceremonies of various peoples and races. The of the English equivalents of German physiological ex- readers for whom the volume is intended will find much pressions. Dr. Friedburg's Latin is no better than his to interest and amuse them in it ; and the excellent English ; the plural of vagus is always written “vagii," illustrations-among the best of their kind-give the and so polymorphic is the declension of this noun that book additional attraction. Authorities may not agree we find the nominative singular written "vagis."
with all Mr. Hutchinson says; but, as the book is a To turn from the manner of the book to the matter, compilation, the mistakes are usually the mistakes of the it is undoubtedly full of information, and, if properly sources from which the information has been derived, translated by some one acquainted with pharmacological and the only criticism that can be offered is whether the method and the English language, would be valuable to author has exercised sufficient discrimination in the both the pharmacologist and toxicologist. F. W. T. collection of material.