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In the third lecture Dr. Waller sets forth further in- way than before by Dr. Waller's excellent forms of teresting facts relating to the mode of action of carbonic experiment, his lucid description, and the admirable acid gas,

and compares it with the effects of repeated diagrams which make those descriptions easy to follow. stimulation, drawing certain inferences as to the agency

J. B. S. of this body in producing fatigue, which it would be out of place to criticise here. The fifth and sixth lectures are devoted to the elucida

NOTES OF A NATURALIST AND tion of certain changes in the electromotive properties of

ANTIQUARY. living nerve, to which half a century ago du Bois-Reymond Memories of the Months; being pages from the Note: applied the term electrotonus. Using the method of ob- book of a Field Naturalist and Antiquary, to wit, Sir serving and recording the responses to periodical auto- Herbert Maxwell, Bart., M.P. Crown 8vo. Pp. xii matic stimulations already referred to, Dr. Waller de- + 300. (London : Edward Arnold, 1897.) monstrates du Bois' extrapolar electrotonic currents in such a way as to enable the audience to judge of their THE.competitive exactions of business and social

pleasure have their reaction. An increasing correspondence with phenomena of the same kind ob

number of people are turning with interest to the study served in “core models” (ie. cylindrical conductors of of natural history, and are willing to learn from those which the cores are metallic, the sheaths soaked with

who can write about it. This is a hopeful sign to those solutions of electrolytes), and finally proves, as before, who believe that the social health and physical standard with the aid of ether vapour, that although these pheno- of the nation depend in large measure on affection for mena resemble those of physical polarisation so closely, country life, and that it would be an evil thing should they are, notwithstanding, dependent on a vital activity | field and food cease to afford attractions for active which the nerve loses and recovers again when for a few ininds. As Sir Herbert Maxwell truly remarks, no head minutes put to sleep by the anesthetic. In the last

is constructed to carry about an explanation of half the lecture Dr. Waller goes into the rather more recondite things noticed in the course of a single morning's walk ; phenomena of “polarisation increment and decrement." but if notes are made at the moment of what attracts the His mode of exposition of this subject is so original that eye, be it a landscape, a ruin, a battle-field, a flower, one begins to fear that he is about to demolish the inter- bird, or insect, recourse may be had at home to the pretation of these phenomena which has been given by information abundantly stored in books, and the sig. his distinguished predecessors in this field of investiga- nificance of what seemed commonplace or trivial tion. Happily it is not so.

When the time comes for becomes evident at once. Without attempting to beexplaining, the instructed reader is gratified to find

come a specialist himself, every one has at command that although the terms employed are peculiar and the accumulated fruits of the labours of specialists. unusual, there is nothing abnormal about the doctrine.

Acting upon this conviction, it would appear that Sir “ Active tissue is zincative, resting tissue is zincable.” Herbert Maxwell has long been in the habit of making Consequently in a living nerve through a certain bit wayside notes on a variety of subjects, and from time to of which a battery current is flowing, the anode is time has amplified and published them for the benefit of more zincable than the kathode ; for the living sub

others. stance of the nerve is at rest at the anode, awake at the His method of presenting them to the reader is not kathode. But what does zincable mean? It is a word

very new, as will be perceived by those who are which Dr. Waller proposes to introduce into scientific acquainted with the Rev. Robert Willmott's “Summer terminology because he cannot find an English equi- Time in the Country," Mr. Oswald Crawfurd's “ Round valent for the German “leistungsfähig." Regarding the Calendar in Portugal,” Prof. Miall's “Round the the “ Leistung” of a nerve to be chiefly electrical, Year,” and other books of a similar nature ; and it might, its “ Leistungsfähigkeit" is its capability of being perhaps, have been better to have arranged his misaroused to electromotive action” (p. 83)-a property cellaneous and fragmentary notes under zoological, which he emphatically distinguishes from "excit botanical, and antiquarian headings, instead of grouping ability," rightly holding that this word ought only to them, as he has done, under the headings of the months be used to denote the facility with which a response to which more often than not they have no particular is evoked.

relation. This plan would have been more convenient Dr. Waller's explanation of the increment and de

to specialists as affording them the opportunity of at crement is that the diminished excitability which is the once finding all that relates to their own subject, instead well-known effect of the anode during the flow of a of having to search for scattered notes through three koltaic current along a nerve, is necessarily associated hundred pages. with what he calls increased zincability. Hence if the

No one, however, who dips into this little volume will nerve passes from the electrotonic into the excited state, begrudge the time bestowed upon it, for whether he be those parts which are most zincable are most susceptible in search of particular information on a given subject or of excitatory change. The point which is thus enforced

not, he will perforce linger upon many a page wherein - that is, the association of increased capability with he will find both amusement and instruction. diminished promptitude to reaction-is a fundamental

What more amusing, for example, than the author's one in the physiology of all excitable tissues. There

account (pp. 259-266), of the attempts made to decipher can be no doubt that in relation to the phenomena now the inscription on ne elebrated Ruthwell Cross, in question, it has been brought out in a more striking variously interpreted-and by experts too-as Runic

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Old Norse, and Anglo-Saxon ; or his explanation (p.

OUR BOOK SHELF. 184) of the reason for keeping cattle in herds.

Notes on Micro-organisms Pathogenic to Man. By For instruction we may turn to such chapters as those Surgeon-Captain B. H. S. Leumann, Indian Medical on the “Revival of a primitive fauna,” on “West coast Service. Pp. 96. (London: Longmans, Green, and

. meteorology,” or on “Assisted vision.” Some of the Co., 1897.) pleasantest reading is to be found in the pages which This compact and well-written little volume does not give the results of the author's out-of door observation. make any pretensions to be a text-book in the ordinary Here, for example, is a note on the enmity between sense of the word, and we should be sorry if the bees and butterflies :

"students and practitioners” for whom it is intended

should in their turn make any pretensions to a knowledge “ All kinds of stonecrop possess peculiar attractions of the subject after its perusal. Indeed, students and for bees and butterflies owing to their abundant secre- practitioners “ who have no opportunity of working at tion of honey. One of the tall growing kinds, Sedum

the subject themselves, or time to read a larger book," spectabile, is by far the handsomest. It is the latest to

had better remember the old adage, a little learning is a tower, and its great, flat, rosy corymbs are irresistible to dangerous thing. Bacteriology, unfortunately, suffers that splendid autumn butterfly, the Red Admiral. ... at the present time from the idea that it is essentially a I have been watching a number of these robust insects popular science--that it is a subject well within the busy on the large stonecrop-so busy as to allow me to comprehension and well within the grasp of any one who use a lens on them. There were no less than sixteen

chooses to hold out his hand for it.

Thus we Admirals at work on one group of Spectabile stonecrop. frequently find it taken up by totally unqualified persons, The honey bees, however, interfered with them, and it and the results of their recondite researches serve to was curious to see how shrewdly a Red Admiral would bring the whole domain of microbes into disrepute. sheer off at the approach of a bee of less than one-tenth We do not quarrel with Surgeon-Captain Leumann's of his own bulk ... Now, how do butterflies learn to

little book, for it is clearly and concisely written, and dread a bee? How do they know that bees are armed ? makes every endeavour to be accurate and up to date ; It can hardly be by experience, for no butterfly could

and of particular interest is the local colouring, if we survive the stab of a bee's sting. It is part of the

may use such an expression, which characterises it in mystery enveloping the intelligence of animals not

dealing with the most recent work in India on plague personally educated by their parents. The phases and cholera. We have no desire to depreciate these notes, of insect life-the egg abandoned by the parent, the but we do regret that the author encourages the practice stages of larva, pupa, and imago--seem specially cal- of reading about bacteria instead of working at them in culated to interfere with hereditary knowledge, and to a class of professional men who ought certainly to be prohibit the communication of instruction. . . . This

able to do something more substantial than talk about avoidance of bees by butterflies seems to be an instance them. Bacteriology to be of any value must be studied of pure instinct."

in the laboratory ; and without a practical acquaintance On another page, in the course of some remarks on with micro-organisms, the latest and most exhaustive the choice of food by animals, the author alludes to

manual “made in Germany” will fail to do more than the fact that some creatures will thrive upon plants acquaint the reader with the superficial phraseology of which to others are poisonous, and instances the case of the Spurge Hawk Moth (Deiliphila euphorbia), of which

The Winter Meteorology of Egypt and its Influence on the caterpillar feeds exclusively on the Sea Spurge, Disease. By H. E. Leigh Canney, M.D. (Lond.), &c. although this plant secretes an acrid juice “so painfully Pp. 72. (London : Ballière, Tindall, and Cox, 1897.) poisonous that it is difficult to imagine a digestive To people who, for health's sake, pass the winter in Egypt, apparatus competent to deal with it.” He might have

and to practitioners who wish to know the climatic conmentioned the still more curious case of the caterpillar ditions of the various health resorts of the country, this of another moth, Deiopeia pulchella, which feeds on the book will be an invaluable possession. The volume virulent poison contained in the seed of the Esere or comprises a paper read before the Royal Meteorological “ Ordeal Bean” of Old Calabar (Physostigma venenosum),

Society last December, and one read before the recent

International Congress of Medicine at Moscow. The and is unaffected by it (cf. Dr. T. R. Fraser, Ann. Mag.

first of these papers contains the results of a series of Nat. Hist., May 1864).

meteorological observations made under precisely comWe should like to know the authority for the state- parable conditions during three or four winters in Egypt. ment (p. 141) that in the lines from the “Midsummer

The stations at which observations were made were Night's Dream” (So doth the woodbine the sweet honey

Cairo, Mena Honse, Helouan, Luxor, Assouan, Valley of

the Tomb of the Kings, and the crest of the Libyan Hills. suckle gently entwist), Woodbine means the Bittersweet

As self-recording thermometers and hair-hygrometers or Deadly Nightshade. This interpretation appears to were used at each station, valuable data were obtained on have the sanction of Dr. Prior in his “ Popular Names the diurnal variation of temperature and humidity. It of British Plants,” but is opposed to the view of Canon appears from the discussion of the observations that the Ellacombe, who has made a special study of the “Plant

climate of Egypt is influenced by the Libyan or Western

Desert, the Mediterranean Sea, and the extent of cultilore of Shakespeare."

vated land. We have noted other passages on which criticism

The second part of the treatise provides the medical might be offered did space permit; but enough has profession with a valuable guide to the therapeutic perhaps been said to indicate the scope of the volume. influences of the climates of different health stations in While too much in the nature of a scrap-book to entitle Egypt. Practitioners who have not been able to visit it to praise as a literary effort, it has the merit of being

the country will find this section most serviceable.

Appended to the volume are several clear and instrucdistinctly entertaining, and of conveying in a light, tive diagrams showing, for the six months from November pleasant style a variety of information on subjects of 1895 to April 1896, the temperature and relative humidity more or less interest.

at various hours of the day at Helouan, Mena Honse, Luxor, and Assouan ; the drying power of the air at the

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR temperature of the air ; and the drying power of the air

[The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions ex. at the temperature of the body.

pressen hy his correspondents. Neither can he undertake Les Fours Électriques et leurs Applications. By Ad. 10 return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected

Minet. Pp. 178. (Paris : Gauthier-Villars et Fils ; manuscripts intended for this or any other part of Nature. Masson et Cie.).

No notice is taken of anonymous communications.) ALL thermo-electric effects in which electricity is the

Rediscovery of the Tile-fish (" Lopholatilus "). prime agent are regarded by the author as coming within the scope of the file of this book, the grounds being to an error in the address which I had the honour of delivering

I AM indebted to Dr. John Murray for drawing my attention that all forms of apparatus for converting electrical energy into heat, conie under the generic head of fours 'covery and subsequent remarkable disappearance of the Tile

before the Linnean Society on May 24. In referring to the dis. électriques

. The book thus includes not only descrip- fish (Lopholatilus chamæleonticeps), I stated that since the year tions of electric furnaces in which temperatures ap

in which the extraordinary mortality in this species had been proaching four thousand degrees are reached, but also of observed (1882), “no specimen of the fish has ever been found.” simple conductors and resistance coils raised a few de- / I must take an early opportunity of correcting this error, grees above the temperature of the atmosphere by the which I might have easily avoided by reading more carefully the electric current. The first part of the volume is devoted concluding paragraphs of Goode and Beane's account of the to an account of the heating effects of electricity ; it in

Tile-fish in Oceanic Ichthyology," p. 288, from which I may cludes descriptions of the heat produced by a current

be allowed to quote as follows: passing through a metallic resistance, the maximum

" In the fall of 1892, Colonel Marshall McDonald, the Com.

missioner of Fisheries, made another attempt to discover the temperatures of conductors, and electric heating generally. The remaining three parts deal with the electric arc

fish, and was successful, obtaining it from the following stations

[tive stations are enumerated, on which eight specimens were and arc carbons of various forms, electric furnaces and

caught). The Tile-fish then is restored to the list of existing their applications, and carbide of calcium and acetylene. species of our North Atlantic coast, and it is probable that in

It will thus be seen that portions of the book are not time it may attain to its former abundance. The temperature: exactly pertinent to the title, nevertheless they assist the investigations made by Colonel McDonald have been carefully reader to a clear understanding of electro-thermal discussed by him, and he is convinced that the destruction of phenomena. The section on electric furnaces is a con- Lopholatilus was due. entirely to climatic causes." cise account of the various forms of furnace devised for What these climatic causes are we learn from a report by different purposes.

Prof. William Libbey, jun., published in the U.S. Fish ComThe book belongs to the Encyclopédie scientifique des

mission Report for 1893 (Washington, 1895, 8vo), p. 32 ; they Aide-Mémoire series edited by M. Léauté.

consist in a variation of the relations of the Gulf Stream to the

Labrador current, affecting the temperature of a certain area Bibliography of X-Ray Literature and Research (1896- inhabited by the fish. A lowering of the temperature by the

1897); being a Ready Reference Inder to the Literature latter current is believed to have caused the sudden mortality, on the Subject of Röntgen or X-Rays. Edited by whilst a subsequent invasion of warm Gulf Stream water would Charles E. S. Phillips. With an Historical Retrospect,

allow the fish to gradually reoccupy the depopulated area. Kew Gardens, November 14.

A. GÜNTHER. and a chapter of “ Practical Hints.” Pp. xxxvii + 68. (London : The Electrician Printing and Publishing Co., Ltd.)

The Exploration of the Air by Means of Kites. The work before us gives, in a handy and succinct form, The highest kite ascent, described in NATURE of October 7, a good deal of information respecting the literature of was in turn exceeded here by more than 1800 feet on October 15, X-rays. The subject proper of the volume is prefaced when excellent meteorological traces (of which a facsimile is by a brief historical retrospect, in which, however, the : enclosed) were brought down from a height of 11,086 feet above average worker in physics will find little but what is Blue Hill. The flight was effected with only four kites, and already known to him, and a short chapter of practical the ascent and descent occupied but four and a half hours. hints intended “to appeal more especially to physical Excepting a more rapid decrease of temperature with increase students about to turn their attention to high vacua re

of elevation, the results agree with those already stated for the search.”. The main and most valuable portion of the previous high flight.

I now desire to call attention to the fact that the deductions book is the bibliography, and this should certainly prove from our automatic records obtained with kites seem to confirm, of utility to investigators in this branch of science. The in general, the conclusions reached by Messrs. Welsh and volume, so far as we have been able to test it, appears to Glaisher from their observations in free balloons many years ago have been compiled with great care, and certainly a in England. For example, we find also that the most rapid mass of useful knowledge is here gathered together in decrease of temperature with height occurs usually in the lower a sormi easy of reference.

mile of air during the daytime, and, even with no visible clouds

that damp strata often exist in the dry air of the upper regions. Die Neteoriten in Sammlungen und ihre Literatur, nebst

A discussion by Mr. Clayton of more than one hundred meteoreinem Versuch den Tauschuert der Meteoriten zu

ological records, obtained with kites since 1894, is now in the bestimmen. Von Dr. E. A. Wiilfing. Pp. xlvi + 460.

press, and will form an appendix to Part i. vol. xlii. of the (Tübingen : Laupp, 1897.)

Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College. The author has sought information relative to the A curious illustration of how identical methods sometimes nieteorite collections, public and private, from those in may serve diametrically opposed investigations, is the applicacharge of them, and has collated and indexed the results tion of the deep-sea sounding apparatus of Sir William Thomson in the form of an alphabetical list, giving for each pre

(now Lord Kelvin) to bring down these aerial soundings.

A. LAWRENCE Rorch. served meteorite a statement of the date of fall or find, a list of the more important memoirs relating thereto,

Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, November 1. and the weights preserved in the various collections. The work has been carefully done, and will be very use- Lord Rayleigh's Proof of Van 't Hoff's Osmotic ful to collectors of these extra-terrestrial bodies. As

Theorem. regards the pecuniary values to be assigned to the

In what follows I shall understand by “ Van 't Hoff's Osmotic meteorites, we are afraid that the dealers will eschew all

Theorem,” the statement, that if P, V be the osmotic pressure such mathematical calculations as are suggested by the and volume of unit mass of a solute, and p, v the gas-pressure author, and will in each case get, as heretofore, what and volume of the same mass of the same substance supposed they can.

gaseous at the same temperature, then po PV.

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= $(v) - (it'ku).

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KV

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As is well known, this theorem was originally proved by noting by c the concentration of the solution at any moment, we Van 't Hoff by employing a differential thermodynamical pro- have during the downward stroke :cess, which led to the result vdp = Vdp. Assuming Henry's

px + cV = 1 law in the form = const., and Boyle's law for both gas and V

K (Distribution-Law). solution, i.e. pv = const., and PV = const., the above result

P р follows at once. Substantially the same proof was given by The work done on the system in this stroke, whereby the gas Nernst in his “Theoretische Chemie."

is just completely absorbed, is given by : Quite recently, however, a new and novel proof of the same theorem was published by Lord Rayleigh in the columns of NATURE. In this proof Lord Rayleigh avoids the assumption

(p) of the equation PV const., and herein lies a definite advance in the subject. The proof is based on the validity of Boyle's law for the gas, and Henry's law ; but as the solvent is assumed to be involatile, it was objected by Lord Kelvin that the great majority of cases would thereby be excluded. So far as I can

But

since by hypothesis and are the concentrasee, a small addition to Lord Rayleigh's proos will suffice to free it from this objection.

tions of the substance in solution and as gas respectively, for Besides this, I think that Lord Rayleigh's proof may be equilibrium at t and p. Thus the work done so far by the generalised so that even the assumption of Boyle's law for the system is :gas is not required, at all events formally.

The primary assumption to be made is that for isothermal equilibrium the ratio of the concentrations of the substance in question, as gas and as solute, remains constant. This is usually where x is indefinitely great. known as the Distribution-Law, and cannot be regarded as a

Separate gas and solvent now, working both pistons so as to mere deduction from Boyle's law, and a certain form of state- keep the concentrations constant, and thus arrive at the initial ment of Henry's law. Recent research rather goes to show state, whereby in this portion of the process the system does that it is a fundamental law of great generality. Accordingly work pv - PV. I venture to employ Lord Rayleigh's method of proof, as Since the net work obtainable in a reversible isothermal cycle follows.

is zero, we have finally :ad and ef are two pistons, es being impermeable, and ad permeable for the solvent alone. bi and biare two fixed walls,

pv - PV + Lts=0

KV of which b'i' is impermeable and be permeable for the solute

Now the term in brackets is zero if 0(-) has the form log : or any positive power of w, so that it vanishes if ®(-) has the form a log : + bo +673 +6,2+ + &c. Hence it vanishes if o'() has

the form + bo +677 +6.2? + &c., since the latter series by f impermeable

hypothesis convergent.
That is to say, pv

= PV if the isothermal equation of Gas

state is, V

p=po ( a impermeable

p = ap + bapa + bip? +6204+ . permeable to solute alone

This includes the equations of Boyle and Van der Waals as Solution

special cases.

The equation pu=PV is thus a formal consequence of the V

distribution-law and the expressibility of p as an infinite power d permeable to solvent alone series of p. However, when Boyle's law does not hold, this

result loses much of its significance, as it does not then lead to

an equation of state for the solution. So that this slight extension Solvent

of Lord Rayleigh's result is not perhaps of much practical use. Holywood, Co. Down.

F. G. DONNAN.

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PICO + bo + 6p + bxgp + &c. ),

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V = -a +1

The Law of Divisibility. only. The piston ad is for the present fixed, and encloses a

With respect to Mr. Burgess's letter in your issue of Novem

ber 4, perhaps the following general rule for testing the divisivolume V of solvent between itself and bc. Suppose the cylinder bility of a given number by another, which I found some days to have unit section, and denote height of upper piston above

ago, may be of some interest. the fixed semi-permeable wall by x. The whole process is con

Any number ducted at the constant temperature t. Suppose now that be. tween ef and b's' there is enclosed a quantity of the solute as Z = (n. 10" + an-110"-1 + ... + 0,10€ + ... + ay · 10 + ito, gas, of volume ?', temperature 1 and pressure p, the amount being so chosen that it is just sufficient to saturate the volume is divisible by another number N when the sum V of solvent at this temperature and pressure. Let p denote density of the gas and suppose p = p’ o'(p) to be the isothermal equation of state for the gas, where o is an undetermined func

Σα,-.+1

+ a,) (10“ – N)" tion. Take as unit of mass the mass of the enclosed gas. Allow the upper piston to rise reversibly to a height x, which is a very great multiple of the initial height. The work done in this can be divided by N without residue ; otherwise the residue of process is :

this division is equal to the residue of the division 2 :X. pdv

Of course, from (104 N)the nearest multiple of V must be

104-1

+

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subtracted. Let b'c' be removed and the gas reversibly compressed, where- Examples : (I) N = 7. Take a = 1 ; then 100 N by it is reversibly absorbed, the small amount of irreversibility Z is a multiple of 7 when do + 32, + 2a, - ag – 344 - 205 + ... at the beginning becoming vanishingly small in the limit. De. is divisible by 7.

3, and

(3) N

We get

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103 take

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(2) N = 11. a = I 10 N = = -1; hence Z is a multiple in the beginning of 1890, at the commencement of a of 11 when ao Qy + az az + a. - + ... is a multiple of this third voyage to the Pacific, that he was taken ill at number.

Sydney-an illness which terminated fatally June 21, 1897. 103. If we take a = 2, we get 10°

N = - 3, and He passed away quietly in his sleep: Z will be a multiple of 103 when

Abercromby had, from a very early period, paid much (a+ 109,) - 3 (az + 10az) + 9(a1 + 10az) – 27 (ag + 10a7)

attention to observational meteorology. In his “Seas + 81 (ag + 100,) – 37 (110 + 100) + - ...

and Skies in many Latitudes,” observations are recorded can be divided by 103 without residue.

which he must have made during his military service in To take a numerical example, try if 298744898 is a multiple Canada. His name will live longest in connection with of 103, and determine the residue if it is not.

the new classification of clouds which he, in conjunction

with Prof. Hildebrandsson, of Upsala, proposed, and 98 - 3 X 48 + 9 * 74 27 x 98 + 81 x 2 = - 1864 ; 19 X 103 which was adopted by a majority of votes at the Inter

1957 ; therefore residue = 1957 - 1864 = 93, national Meteorological Conference of Paris in September which will be found correct by performing the division.

1896. I have no doubt the above rule will be well known to mathe- His published books were : “Principles of Forecasting maticians, but not being much acquainted with the theory of by means of Weather Charts, 1885, published by nunbers, I cannot at present tell where it may be found ; the authority of the Meteorological Council ; Weather, a proof is very easy.

C. BORGEN. Popular Exposition of the Nature of Weather Changes," Wilhelmshaven, November 7.

1887 (International Scientific Series) ; Seas and Skies

in many Latitudes," 1888. In addition he brought out The examples given by Dr. Borgen, in his interesting com

many papers which appeared in various journals and munication, fall under suggestions (2) and (6) in my second periodicals, such as the Proceedings of the Royal Society, ketter, where if 8 = 7 the period + 1, 3, 2 may be used ; or if the Journals of the Royal and of the Scottish Meteoros = 11 the period † 1 is available ; or if

logical Societies, as well as in NATURE, Good Ilord's, &c. 8 8 - a = 103 - 3

Fifteen papers are down to his name between 1873 giving the rule

and 1884 in the Royal Society Catalogue of Scientific Divide N into dual periods beginning from the units place;

Literature. multiply each by 1 - a)”, giving to n the successive values o, 1, From his sick bed in Sydney he showed his great 2, 3 dc. ; the sum of these positive and negative products interest in the advancement of the science by making

grants of money for the production of essays on meteoroI may add, this rule applies to 8 = 17., 101, 103, 107, 109, logical subjects. Three of these have been published : taking a = - (3, 1, 3, 7, 9), or to 8 19 if a = 5, but if 8 = 83,

“On Moving Anticyclones in the Southern Hemisphere,” N must be divided into triple periods, a being + 4.

“On Southerly Bursters,” and “On Types of Australian HENRY T. BU'RGESS.

Weather.” Tarporley, West Norwood, November 11.

Abercromby retained to the very last the power of

making and keeping friends. This was in great measure HON. RALPH ABERCROMBY.

due to his loval and affectionate nature, which neither RA! ALPH ABERCROMBY was born in 1842, and was

distance nor illness could impair. Those who were with the youngest son of the third Lord Abercromby. him during his last suffering months bear witness to the His mother was a daughter of Lord Medwyn, a Lord of patience and gentleness, which were conspicuous Session in Edinburgh. Several of his immediate relatives under the trials of severe pain as they had been when had been eminently distinguished. His great-grand- he was in full possession of his faculties. father, Sir Ralph Abercromby, who died in 1801, in the

His lot was indeed a hard one. He had first to bear moment of victory, at the Battle of Alexandria, had the heavy disappointment of enforced resignation of a served his country with brilliant distinction, in the West profession which he loved, and in which his prospects Indies Trinidad) and at the Helder.

seemed so brilliant, and then he had to sustain the strain As soon as the news of Sir Ralph's death reached of more than twenty years of impaired and gradually England, and in commemoration of his services, a barony failing health. was conferred upon his widow, with remainder to his

He leaves behind him the memory of a warm un

selfish friend, cut off in a distant land, far from his kith Of these sons the second became Sir John. He was

and kin.

R. H. SCOTT. in the service of the East India Company, and took the Island of Mauritius in 1810. Another was Speaker of the House of Commons in 1835, and was created Lord

REV. SAMIVEL HAUGHTON, M.D. Dunfermline.

THE Ralph was never robust, even as a boy. He went to

been received with the deepest regret in various Harrow, and soon was obliged, owing to delicacy, to leave

scientitic circles, and by his numerous personal friends the school. He had, however, shown signs of great and acquaintance attracted to him by his sturdy honesty, promise by taking a double remove after his first term. unselfishness, and geniality of disposition. He was born

In June 1860 he was gazetted to the both Rifles, and in Carlow in 1821. After a distinguished undergraduate four years later obtained his lieutenancy and joined the

career in Trinity College, Dublin, he was elected Fellow Fourth Battalion at Quebec.

thereof in 1844. He held the Professorship of Geology The War of Secession was then at its height. Aber- from 1851 to 1881, in which latter year he was co-opted cromby obtained leave and visited the scene of action. Senior Fellow of the College. He was admitted F.R.S. He took with him letters to General Grant, and was well in 1858. The Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and received, but he did not happen to be present at any of Edinburgh signified their appreciation of his merits by the great battles.

conferring on him the honorary degrees of D.C.L. and At the beginning of 1866 he entered the Staff College, LL.D., respectively. Having taken the degree of M.D. having passed in without “cramming," but his health in his own University in 1862, he was made Registrar of soon broke down there. Two visits to Kreuznach pro

the Medical School there, and applied himself with his duced no benefit, and in 1869, to his great regret, he felt usual energy and activity to the reorganisation of that himself obliged to give up his commission.

School; thereby raising it to its present condition of In later years he twice was sent on a voyage round high efficiency. He was elected a Governor of Sir the world, in hopes of restoration to health ; and it was Patrick Dun's Hospital, which is connected with the

as.

sons.

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