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series of letters, addressed to the citizens of New York. By James Smith, M. D. New York. A. For man. 1806.

The Young Convert's Companion, being a selection of hymns for the use of Conference Meetings. Original and Selected. With music adapted to a variety of Particular Metres. Boston. E. Lincoln.

The Contrast: or, the Death Bed of a Freethinker and the Death Bed of a Christian, exemplified in the last bours of the Hon. Francis Newport, and Dr. Samuel Finley. pp. 16 8vo. Boston, E. Lincoln.

An apology for the rite of infant baptism, and for the usual modes of baptizing; in which an attempt is made to state fairly and elearly the arguments or proof of these doctrines; and also to refute the objections and reasonings alleged against them by the Rev. Ďaniel Merrill, and by the Baptists in general. By John Read, D. D. pastor of a church and congregation in Bridgewater.

A sermon delivered to the First Church in Boston, on the Lord's day after the calamitous death of Mr. Charles Austin, member of the senior class in the university of Cambridge, which happened Aug. 4, 1806, in the 19th year of his age. By William Emerson, pastor of the church. Second Edition. Boston. Belcher and Armstrong.

A discoursé delivered before the Humane Society of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, June 10,

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Means of preserving health, and preventing diseases; founded principally on an attention to air and climate, drink, food, sleep, exercise, clothing, passions of the mind, and retentions and excretions. With an appendix, containing observations on bathing, cleanliness, ventilation, and medical electricity; and, on the abuse of medicine. Enriched with apposite extracts from the best authors. Designed not merely for physicians, but for the information of others. New York. Shadrach Ricketson.

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Philosophical remarks on the Christian religion; by the Rev. J. Moir, M. A. Philadelphia. Robert Mills. Subscriptions received by E. Lincoln.



From the Christian Observer.

WHO hush'd my infant cares to rest?
Who lull'd me on her tender breast,
And when I stirr'd more closely press'd?
My Mother.

Who sweetly still'd my wailing cries?
Who pray'd my dawning thoughts might rise,
Above earth's fleeting vanities?

My Mother.

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Jesus, saving his people from their sins, by H. will be seasonably attended The Editors hope often to receive the fruits of his pious study.


C. Y. A. on the state of literature in New-England, contains matter for two or three very profitable numbers.

Philologos, No. 6, is reserved for another month.

Letters to a lady in high life will be admitted, if upon careful perusal, they are found sufficiently interesting for publication.

Review of M'Farland's historical view of heresies, and of other late publications, will appear in our next No.

Biographical sketch of President Davies is just received.

We are happy to find on our files such rich materials for future numbers. Our correspondents will accept our cordial thanks. We request that they continue their labours for the diffusion of knowledge and piety. It would give us great pleasure, could we consistently gratify them in every instance. But they must consider that our first object is, to render the publication useful, and that of such a variety of matter as we have before us, a part must be left. We are under sacred obligations to make the selection and to perform the whole ardu ous work according to our best judgment, and an invariable regard to the cause of Christian truth and holiness. Rather than be biassed by personal regards, by the hope of favour, or the fear of reproach, we ought to relinquish the work, or commit it to the hands of more faithful men.


Messrs. CUSHING & APPLETON, Salem; THOMAS & WHIPPLE, Newbury. port; W. BUTLER, Northampton; WHITING & BACKUS, Albany; GEORGE RICHARDS, Utica; COLLINS & PERKINS, New York; W. P. FARRAND, Philadelphia; ISAAC BEERS & Co. New Haven, O. D. Cook, Hartford; BENJAMIN CUMMINS, Windsor, Vt.; JOSEPH CUSHING, Amherst, N. H.; Mr. DAVIS, Hanover, N. H.; Rev. ALVAN HYDE, Lee, Mass.; J. KENNEDY, Alexandria.



No. 16.] SEPTEMBER, 1806. [No. 4. VOL. II.


(Concluded from p. 106.)

THE principles of reformation which the people in various parts of Germany had imbibed, rendered them impatient of those multiplied superstitions which were still practised, and solicitous to obtain a more simple and scriptural ritual. They looked to Luther as the best fitted to organize a system of worship which might supersede the use of that which he had proved to be so universally corrupted; and with a prudence which, in general, marked his conduct when he had time for deliberation, or was not inflamed by passion, he introduced such changes as silenced the clamours of the multitude, while every thing, in any degree tolerable, was allowed to remain. In baptism, the language only was altered, though two years afterwards, when the reformation was more advanced, many of the ancient ceremonies were retrenched. In the Lord's Supper, none of the rites were abolished, but such as related to the false notion of its being a sacrifice, and to the adoration of the host; though pastors were left to judge for themselves, proVol. II. No. 4.

vided they did not obscure the design of the ordinance. He ordered communicants to submit to an examination, required knowledge of the nature and end of the institution, and of the advantage expected to be derived from it, as the qualification of admission, and appointed both kinds to be administered, and that those who would take only one, should have neither.*

The Bohemian reformers, named Picards or Waldenses, not only corresponded with Luther, but sent one of their pastors to hold a conference with him; in consequence of which, he entertained a more favourable opinion of their sentiments than he had formerly done. Having found one of their treatises On the Real Presence of Christ in the Sacrament, he composed a short treatise on the subject, which he dedicated to them, and in which, though he censured their doc trine on this point, and their adherence to the seven popish sacraments, being yet uninflamed with a controversial spirit, he


• Seckend. § 136.

Hitherto none but monks had quitted their cloisters, and renounced their vows; but during this year, nine ladies of quality left the convent of Nimptschen in Misnia, convinced by the writings of Luther, of the nullity of their religious obligations, and of the truth of the doctrines which he espoused. Among them was Catharine de Bore, whom this reformer afterwards espoused. They were conducted to Wittemberg, where an asylum was provided for them by Learnard Coppe, one of the magistrates of Torgau, who, in concert with Luther, devised means for their subsistence, after their parents were in vain entreated to receive them. Luther also wrote their apology; and paved the way for their example being followed by other nuns in similar circumstances.t

did not regard them as heretics, der the name of Clement VII. but as Christian brethren. About who adopted a very different the same time, he wrote to the method from his predecessor, in Calixtins, who, though they re- terminating the religious distained all the rites of the Romish putes of Germany, determining church, except the restriction of to support all the abuses of the the communion to one kind, church, and to resist every were, for this heresy, denied proposal for the meeting of a ordination to their priests by general council. He deputed the bishops of the country. He Cardinal Campegius as his leendeavoured to open their eyes gate to the diet of Nuremberg, to the abuses which prevailed, which met in February, 1524, and contended, that the circum- with orders to procure the restances of their situation warrant- establishment of the edict of ed them to dispense with popish Worms, to delay answering the ordination, and to give to their hundred grievances formerly own teachers the authority of produced, and to elude the reordained pastors.* quest of a free council. His endeavours were ineffectual; he retired mortified with his reception, and enraged at the decree which was passed; and which, though marked with an inconsistence which can be explained only by the distraction of opinion which pervaded its framers, defeated the wishes and plans of the hierarchal court. It ordained, that the edict of Worms should be obeyed, as far as possible; that the Pope should, without delay, convoke an assembly to dicide on the subjects of dispute; that in the interim, the diet to meet at Spires should give them an attentive examination; while every prince should select men of knowledge and integrity, who might prepare means of accommodation. Luther was not more satisfied than the Pope was with this decree. He published it along with the obnoxious edict to which it gave some authority; and in marginal notes, a preface, and a concluding address, treated all who should sanction its execution as ferocious savages, and a new

Adrian died in September, and was succeeded in the Pontificate by Julius de Medicis, un


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Erasmus, the friend of learning and of learned men, who had long been urged to take a decided part against the reformation, alarmed by the threats of his enemies, who were ready to denounce him as a heretic, and allured by the flattering expressions of favour which Rome held out to him, notwithstanding the remonstrances of his best friends, published a treatise on Free-will, designed to be a refutation of Luther's sentiments on that subject. It was received with great coolness by the popish party, who scarcely knew whether to consider it as favourable or hostile to their cause; and with great indignation by the friends of Luther, who resented the asperity and contumely with which it treated him. It was an effort of complaisance, and it had its reward. It was not answered till 1525.

race of giants raising their arms against Heaven; lamented the blindness of Germany in obscuring the truth, and opposing its own salvation; deplored the conduct of the Princes in riveting about their own necks the chain of bondage, which they had almost thrown off; and reproached the Emperor, and the Kings of England and Hungary, with claiming the title of Defenders of the Faith, while they exerted themselves to subvert it.*

Carlostadt, who had lived in obscurity since his connexion with the fanatics of Zwickaw, retired this year to Orlamund, where he established his opinjons, and procured the abolition of images, mass, and other Romish superstitions. Luther, with a violence unworthy of his character, followed him thither, and the result of the conference was an order for him lo leave the states of the Elector. He withdrew to Strasburg, and extended the interests of the truth in that corner. He maintained that Christ is present in the Supper, in a figurative or representative manner only. Luther, on the contrary, asserted the real substantial presence under the elements. Zuinglius and Oecolampadius defended Carlostadt, which Luther no sooner knew, than he wrote against them in the bitterest and most abusive style. This was the origin of those fatal disputes, which so long divided the first reformers; retarded the progress of the reformation, and at length produced a lasting schism in the Protestant church.t

In the month of September,

• Seck. § 165.


+ Ib. § 174.

In October, 1524, Luther renounced the habit and name of an Augustine monk, and assumed the habit and name of Doctor; and in June, 1525, married Catharine de Bore, a lady of noble birth, who had renounced the veil, and left her convent from a conviction of the truth. This step astonished his friends, and opened the mouths of his enemies. They represented incontinence as the secret motive of his enmity to monachism, and the church which supported it; and accused him of having lived in impurity with her before their marriage. Though his innocence was unquestionable, the coldness which his best friends discovered in vindicating him, united to the handle which it

Seck. § 179.

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