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THE ROMANES LECTURE 1898

TYPES OF SCENERY AND THEIR

INFLUENCE ON LITERATURE

SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE

ROMANES LECTURES FOR

1894. EVOLUTION AND ETHICS AND OTHER ESSAYS.

By the late THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY, F.R.S. Globe 8vo, 55.

1897.

MACHIAVELLI. By the Right Hon. JOHN MORLEY. 8vo,

25. 6d. net.

MACMILLAN & CO., LTD., LONDON.

1898

Types of Scenery

and their

Influence on Literature

BY

SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, D.C.L., F.R.S.

DELIVERED

IN THE SHELDONIAN THEATRE, JUNE 1, 1898

London
MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED

NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

1898

Oxford HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY

905 G312 typ

TYPES OF SCENERY

AND

THEIR INFLUENCE ON LITERATURE

THE several races of mankind are marked off from each other by certain bodily and mental differences which, there can be no doubt, have been largely determined by the diverse geographical conditions of the surface of the globe. We may be disposed to put aside the first origin of these racial differences, as a problem which may for ever remain insoluble. Yet we cannot refuse to admit that in the disposition of land and sea, in the form and trend of coast-lines, in the grouping of mountains, valleys, and plains, in the disposition and flow of rivers, in the arrangement of climates, and in the distribution of vegetation and of animals, a series of influences must be recognized which have unquestionably played a large part in the successive stages of human development.

Though no record of the earliest of these stages has probably survived, some of the later steps in the progress of advancement may not be beyond the reach of investigation. The connexion, for example, between

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