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that I am so free with you; it is because I am, in no

common way of friendship,


Westminster, May 3, 1635.

J. H.

To Dr. Duppa, L. B. of Chichester, his Highness's Tutor at St. James's.

My Lord,

It is a well-becoming and very worthy work you are about, not to suffer Mr. Ben Jonson to go silently to his grave, or rot so suddenly: being newly come to town, and understanding that your Jonsonus Verbius was in the press, upon the solicitation of sir Thomas Hawkins, I suddenly fell upon the ensuing decastich, which, if your lordship please, may have room among the rest.

Upon my honoured Friend and Father, Mr. Ben Jonson,

And is thy glass run out, is that oil spent
Which light to such strong sinewy labours lent?
Well, Ben, I now perceive that all the nine,
Tho' they their utmost forces should combine,
Cannot prevail 'gainst Night's three Daughters, but
One still must spin, one wind, the other cut.

Yet in despite of distaff, clue, and knife,
Thou in thy strenuous lines hast got a light,
Which like thy bays shall flourish ev'ry age,
While sock or buskin shall attend the stage.

Sic Vaticinatur-HOELLUS.

So I rest, with many devoted respects to your lord

ship, as being

Your very humble servitor,

London, May 1, 1636.

J. H.


JAMES HARRINGTON, descended of an ancient and noble family in Rutlandshire, was born in 1611. He entered in 1629 gentleman commoner of Trinity College, Oxford, where he became pupil to the famous Dr. Chillingworth. After quitting college, he in a short time departed on his travels, first visiting Holland, at that time the principal school of martial discipline, and (what was still more interesting to him) a country flourishing under the influence of that liberty she had lately wrested from the tyranny of Spain. Here he commenced the study of politics: for he had been often heard to say, that before he left England, he knew no more of monarchy, anarchy, aris

tocracy, democrary, oligarchy, or the like, than as hard words, of which he learnt the signification in his dictionary. For some months, he enlisted himself in the regiment of lord Craven, and of sir Robert Stone; and being much at the Hague, was introduced at the court of the prince of Orange, and that of the queen of Bohemia, then a fugitive in Holland. He had an opportunity also of making an excursion to Denmark.

On leaving Holland, he pursued his rout through Flanders, to France and Italy; and on his return to England, was admitted by the king one of his privy chamber extraordinary. During his stay in Italy, he furnished himself with all the books in the Italian language, which treated of the subject of politics.

When Charles I. was brought by the commissioners appointed for that purpose, from Newcastle nearer to London, Harrington was nominated to wait on his majesty, as a person known to him before, and connected with no faction. The proposal was accepted by Charles, and he was made groom of the bedchamber; an office he afterwards lost, because he refused to take an oath, either that he would not assist or conceal the king's escape.

Though Harrington had too much honesty and strength of character to disguise his principles, even to the king, it appears that Charles had great affection for him, and reposed in him an entire confidence. Harrington attended him on the scaffold, where he received a token of his regard.

After the king's death, he was observed to confine himself much to his study, a circumstance which his friends attributed to melancholy or discontent. Harrington, however, soon convinced them of their mistake, by exhibiting a copy of his Oceana. The observations, too, with which he accompanied this evidence of his laudable occupation, are highly deserving of attention. He observed, that ever since he began to examine things seriously, he had applied himself chiefly to the study of civil government, as of the first importance to the peace and happiness of mankind; that he had succeeded at least to his own satisfaction, being convinced that no government is of so accidental or arbitrary an institution, as people are wont to imagine, there being in societies natural causes producing their necessary effects, as well as in the earth or in the air. Hence (says he) the trou

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