« PreviousContinue »
fourteen, none of whom have yet been paid ; this charge is not included in the above sum. The estimated expense per quarter, including the expenses of Assistant Commissioners, is 6791, 1os. 7d. Estimate for one Assistant Commissioner, for personal expenses, per month, 221. 10$. ; ditto travelling, 201. The amount of additional expense must depend en. tirely on the duration of the Commission. It is probable that the establishment will be required for a further period of nine months, which, at the above rate, would amount to about 2,0401. There are now eight Assistant Commissioners employed, and they will probably complete their labours in about three months. Upon this supposition the expense would amount to about 1,7001.; total, 3,7401.
The Irish Church. The following is a statement of the incomes of the dignitaries of the Irish Church :-Of the Archbishop of Armagh, with Clogher annexed, gross income 13,1691, 16s. 7d.; net income 9,99l. 08. 3d. of the Archbishop of Dublin, with Kildare annexed, gross income 9,3201, 12s. 9d.; net income 7,7861. 185. Od. Total Archbishops, gross 22,4901. 98. 4d. ; net 17,7801. 188. 3d. Of the Bishop of Meath, gross 5,2201, 108. 6d.; net 4,0681. 10s. 7d. Of Down, Connor, and Dromore, gross 5,8961. Os. 7d; net 4,2041. 178. 5d. Of Derry and Raphoe, gross 8,0331. 38. 9d. ; net 5,9991. 3s. 6d. Of Kilmore, Ardagh, and Elphin, gross 7,4771. 178.; net 6,225l. 9s. 8d. Of Ferns, Leighlin, and Ossory, gross 6,5501. 2s. 10d.; net 5,7301. 15s. 5d. Of Cashel and Emly cum Waterford and Lismore, gross 7,3341. 28. ; net 6,3081. 58. 2d. Limerick, Ardlert, and Aghadoe, gross 5,3681. 13s. 5d.; net 4,9731. 9s. ld. Of Cork, Ross, and Cloyne, gross 5,0081. 188. 10d.; net 4,0911. 7s. 10d. Of Killaloe and Killenora cum Clonfert and Kilmacduagh, gross 4,5321. 9s. Id; net 3,9661. 9s. lld. Of Tuam, Killala, and Achonry, gross 5,0201. ls. 3d.; net 4,0181. 17s. 9d. Total of Bishops, gross 62,4616. 188. 9d. ; net 49,5871. 68. 4d.
FOREIGN VARIETIES. Statistics of Criminal Justice in France.-The Minister of Justice has laid before the King a report of the administration of criminal justice in 1833. The following are the principal points of interest:—The Courts of Assize in the course of the year tried 5004 criminal prosecutions, of which 113 arose out of the political disturbances by which, in 1832, several of the departments were agitated. Out of the 4891 ordinary prosecutions, 1414 were for crimes against the person, and 3477 against property. The total number of prisoners was 6964. Of these, 98 were under 16 years of age, 2170 were between 16 and 25, 2305 between 25 and 35, and 2391 were above 35 years of age, and among these last there were 48 of 70 and upwards, and 6 of 80 and upwards. Out of the 6964 prisoners, 2859 were acquitted, and 4105 convicted. Of these, 42 were condemned to death ; 127 to hard labour at the hulks for life, and 784 to the same punishment for different limited periods ; 726 to solitary confinement; 2401 to different minor punishments; and 25 children, under 16 years of age, to the houses of correction. The juries declared that there were extenuating circumstances in 1185 cases, being a proportion of 43 in every hundred condemned. The Courts of Assizes held 386 sessions, which' occupied 3982 days ; 15,440 jurymen were summoned, but 2676 did not appear; of these, six only were compelled to pay the fine of 500f.; 196 were dead; and 2474 were excused. The general jury lists for the year contained the names of 182,630 citizens. The total number of cases submitted to the Tribunals of Correctional Police was 134,053, comprising 203,814 offenders, of whom 26,722 were acquitted ; 177,092 found guilty. Of these, 32,206 were sen
tenced to imprisonment; 144,753 to fines only; 67 to be under surveillance; and 388 to the houses of correction, &c. Among the criminals and offenders tried in 1833, 8450 were old offenders ; 1318 were accused of crimes, and 7132 of simple offences. The Tribunals of Simple Police had brought before them 113,291 cases, in which 150,158 persons were implicated. The Tribunals declared themselves incompetent as to 1096, acquitted 24,830, and sentenced 5149 to imprisonment, and 119,082 to be fined. Among the judgments pronounced by the Courts of Assize 777 were appealed against in the Court of Cassation, but 71 only were quashed—of which 14 were declared to be contrary to law; 21 without any new trials, and 36 with new trials. Out of 1637 persons sentenced to the pillory, 40 of them were excused from the punishment on account of their age; and 653 by the judgments themselves; and 944 underwent this punishment. The number of persons discharged by the Chambers of Council or of Accusation from the crimes and offences laid to their charge, was 10,819; and of those acquitted by the Correctional Tribunals and Courts of Assize, was 6384. Of these 17,203 persons, 10,902 were detained in confinement less than a month, and the remaining 6301 were liberated, after detention for different periods, from one to six months and upwards.
The number of offences against the laws of the press was 179; and of political offences 177; implicating together 590 persons. Of these, 449 were acquitted, 12 sentenced to pay fines, and 129 to imprisonment. Out of the 179 offences by the press, 51 were committed by means of books, pamphlets, and engravings, and 128 by the periodical press. Of the last, 34 were tried before the Court of Assize at Paris. Of the 113 persons accused of political crimes, eight were capitally condemned, but four only were executed. The jury had found them all guilty, not only of attempts against the safety of the state, which was the principal count, but also of murder attempted, or followed by robbery or other crimes.
Elementary Education in France.-From the Report of M. Boulay de la Meurthe. The population of France is 32,509,742 inhabitants. With respect to primary instruction, it may be divided into four classes. The first class composed of children below two years of age, to the number of 1,811,787. The second class, of children above two years and below six years of age, to the number of 2,744,524. The third class, of children above six and below fifteen years of age, to the number of 4,987,261. The fourth class, of adults, fifteen years of age and above, to the number of 22,966,170. The first class, below two years, is wholly under maternal care. The second class ought to be received in asylums, or infant-schools, to receive preparatory instruction : 2,500,000 children of this class do not go to them. The third class ought to frequent the primary schools, properly so called : but, out of nearly five millions of children of this class, there are still 2,537,536, namely 838,803 boys, and 1,698,733 girls, who never go to them at any time of the year; and 3,740,804, viz., 1,705,890 boys, and 2,039,914 girls, who do not attend them in the summer time.
Of the 21,966,170 adults, there are 14,355,856, viz., 5,741,542 males, and 8,612,314 females, who can neither read nor write.
Thus, the number of persons in France who have no instruction what.ever, both children and adults, is 19,391,392 persons; that is to say, sixty-three out of every hundred, or above three-fifths of the total population, deducting the 1,811,787 children under two years of age.
As deduction and complement of these results, the reporter adds these two tables : Institutions which ought to exist.
Existing. Wanting. Infant Schools
40,000 1,000 39,000 Primary Schools
54,284 30,467 23,817 Female Working Schools
19,000 Adult Schools
54,840 2,361 52,479
employed. Wanting. Mistresses of Infant Schools 1940,000
1,000 39,000 Masters
34,840 23,128 11,712 Mistresses
20,000 7,700 12,300 Mistresses of Female Working Schools 20,000 1,000 19,000 Total
114,840 32,828 82,012 Another part of the report shows the state of popular instruction in foreign countries, deduced from an investigation of the last twenty years, What especially strikes our attention is, to find France even now so low in the scale, while in Prussia, Bavaria, Austria, Bohemia, Norway, and part of the United States, there is one pupil out of three, six, eight, or eleven inhabitants. There were in France, in 1832, only one to 16, and in 1834 one to 14d.
The Moon Inhabited.-Professor Gruithausen, of Munich, has publielý declared that he has discovered irrefragable proofs that the moon is inhabited like the earth. All Europe has answered by railleries the declaration of the Bavarian astronomer, but his firmness has been no more shaken than that of Christopher Columbus was, when he announced the existence of a new world. The German journals have published the observations of Professor Gruithausen, combined with those of his learned brother the astronomer Schroeler. Their common conclusions are, Ist. That vegetation upon the surface of the moon extends to the 55th degree of latitude south, and to the 65th degree of latitude north. 2dly. That from the 50th degree of latitude north to the 47th degree of latitude south, may be perceived evident traces of the abode of animated beings. 3dly. That some signs of the existence of lunar inhabitants are sufficiently apparent to enable a person to distinguish great roads traced in several directions, and particularly a colossal building, situated nearly under the equator of the planet. The ensemble presents the aspect of a large town, near to which may be distinguished a building, perfectly resembling that which we call a redoubt or hornwork.- Quotidienne.
The population of Spain is 10,609,000 inhabitants. It is calculated that the provinces which have declared in favour of the Constitution have 7,986,000 inhabitants. If we add to these the 552,000 of the Biscayan provinces and Navarre, which have declared for Don Carlos, we shall find that the Queen's Government is supported by only 2,920,000 inhabitants out of that 10,609,000.
The population of St. Petersburgh is divided into the following classes: -42,748 nobles, 40,768 citizens, 55,207 military, 11,770 ecclesiastics, 11,440 merchants and traders, 11,094 artisans, 57,691 persons engaged in different professions, 14,665 strangers, 102,937 labourers and domestic servants, and 141,726 peasants, making altogether 490,016, of which number only 140,747 are females.
The population of Austria, divided into religious sects, is as follows: 500 Mahomedans, 13,000 Armenians, 50,000 Unitarians, 480,000 Jews, 1,190,000 Lutherans, 1,660,000 members of other reformed churches, 3,040,000 members of the Greek church, and 26,990,000 Catholics.
During 1834 there were imported into Russia 300,000 volumes in foreign languages, which is 20,000 more than in 1833. There were published 728 national works, and 116 translations, exclusive of 48 periodical journals. In these publications are not included 113,200 copies of different books for instruction. In 1834 there were founded 94 establishments for education, including the University of St. Wladimir, at Kiew. 7
AGRICULTURAL REPORT. It is a necessary consequence of great depression in any branch of business, to excite amongst its followers a more than ordinary activity, and it not unfrequently happens that this energy is directed quite as much to extrinsic, as to the essential parts of the subject. This seems to have been, and still to be the case, with the Landed Interest. For we find by the report of a Meeting held at Framlingham, in Suffolk, of the East Suffolk Agricultural Association, that a central society of a similar kind has been formed in London, of which few persons knew the existence till it was thus announced. A reference to the same central board has been since made at other meetings of a similar kind, and especially at one held at Aylesbury. The general object of the Association to support the interests of Agriculture-is natural and unobjectionable ; but of all the vague and wild notions that have yet been broached, the general theory of this central body, if we may trust (though we confess we do not clearly comprehend) the description of the Secretary, is the most vague and the most wild. Take it, reader, in Mr. Brown's own words, as they are reported in the Morning Chronicle. “In his opinion it was neither an extension of the Currency, nor the repeal of the Malt Tax, nor the consolidation of public rates, nor the commutation of tithes, nor the diminution of poorrates, nor the introduction of poor-laws into Ireland, nor the breaking up of the meat trade monopoly, which would alone relieve the farmer; that relief only would be found effectual which, comprising all of these, should liquidate all those imposts on the price of food which constituted a rent over and above that which now went into the pockets of the land. owner, and which formed (as we understood the Honourable Gentleman) two-thirds of the whole; 2ndly, they must effect a change in the present system of acquiring and accumulating wealth, a system abounding in fraud, and productive of the greatest evils; and 3rdly, the productive classes must be compensated for the capital which the Currency measure of the year 1819 had been the means of unjustly abstracting from them. If they sought to accomplish a great change in the social system of this country, it was not by an abandonment of the ancient principles of justice and fidelity which bound us as a people; it was not by a sacrifice of national honour or national faith, that ihey hoped or wished to accomplish it. But they would no longer consent to increase the spoils of the gambler on the Stock Exchange; they would no longer uphold that system, which, for the last twenty years, had preyed on the very vitals of the productive classes, and which had made the industry of the country the means of impoverishing itself, while it enriched the speculator and the capitalist.” We must leave to your ingenuity to divine what the learned gentleman means by “effecting a change in the present system of acquiring and accumulating wealth," for our own is entirely unequal to the discovery. But there are some other points that are introduced into the discussion to which we have given years of profound attention, careful investigation and extended reading and correspondence; and upon them perhaps we may say some few words beneficially to the practical farmer, for hitherto his industry, his skill, his capital, have been the palpable sacrifice to schemes of protection, and other artificial devices to alter what can never be altered, the immutable law of demand and supply, and which regulates the trade of cultivating the soil, in the same manner that it governs every other species of Commerce. Let the tenantry look to these simple elements, and they will no longer be the victims of visionary, absurd, and impossible projects to raise price above its natural level. The first grand cry is against the alteration of the currency. Now we ask every man of common sense to consider the plain fact, that, previous to Peel's Bill, there existed the admitted grievance that the real
value of commodities was made uncertain by the fluctuations of the value of paper compared with gold, and the Act was expressly passed to restore a just reciprocity in exchange. Now the evil of this restoration of a just standard having been passed after the fullest consideration, thirteen years, and the consequences, whatever they are, in a great measure endured, is it likely that Parliament or the Country can be brought to reverse this act of justice ?-to unsettle all future contracts, to reestablish the uncertainty which acted so unfavourably in all our foreign transactions, and, in a word, to reproduce the fatal consequences of the Bank restriction of 1797 ? Is this probable, or even possible? We think the answer of every honest, not less than every decently informed man must be, it is not.
And if we examine the grounds of this desired change, in relation to the price of the farmer's commodity, and the assistances he expects to derive from the banker under the supposed increase of the circulation of bank paper, they will be found not less fallacious. Make money plentiful, and merchants will speculate in corn, and raise the price ! This is the first assumption. It is easy to show that no such thing would happen. A Merchant buys up an article which he expects, from the supply being in a certain state af scarcity, will advance, and afford him a profit; or he believes, that by the power of his own resources, he can buy up and monopolize the article sufficiently to cause an advance. That one of these two things have not taken place in the last three or four years, the farmer attributes to the scarcity of money, in his own phrase to the alteration of the currency, which has stopped the circulation of one and two pound notes. If this were the true cause. how happens it that the corn buyer, who has speculated, has bought up, and warehoused foreign corn only ?* And how happens it that he has been even more unfortunate than the English grower, for there lies his capital in hopeless obstruction? He cannot sell without a most immense loss; the interest of his money is gradually wasting the principal more and more, while the expenses of holding, and the waste of his perishable commodity, are also eating it up. How happens this, if a want of money had been the cause ? On the contrary this single fact disperses the whole cloud of mystery. The merchant imagined that English corn would be scarce, that price would rise, and the markets open to foreign produce. The cause that has ruined the farmer has ruined the merchant's speculation. The supply from England, Ireland, and the Colonies, has equalled or exceeded the demand. If all the bankers in the three kingdoms could issue paper to an indefinite extent, there would not be found a man hardy enough to speculate in Corn with this fact staring him in the face. And observe how the second part of the proposition comes in to confirm this view of the case. Corn is an article of such vast bulk and value, that no man's capital is adequate to effect a monopoly. In truth the home grower has the only possible monopoly, that of the home market, but the price cannot be kept up, simply because the supply exceeds the demand. We cannot burn our surplus, as the Dutch did their spices, for the production is illimitable, except by nature. And suppose we did burn it, what then? A capitalist many years ago hit upon the project of buying up into his own possession all the alum of this country. To this end he contracted
It appears by official accounts that on the 10th of October there were of foreign Wheat in warehouse 626,389 quarters.
In the stock of bonded Corn in London the decrease has been during the twelve months Wheat. Barley. Oats.
cwts. 22,981 42,297 60,382 12,387 21,872 The only increase being in Peas, which amounts to 1983 qrs.