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with the manufacturers to take all they could make. Alum rose immensely. But the makers enlarged their works to their utmost means, the quantity produced exceeded all possible demand, and the capitalist was reduced to a bankruptcy of three pence in the pound. Just so must it be with the farmers, could the price now be raised to the average of 1812. In less than three years the increased production would make corn a drug. So much for the monopoly part of the question, to say nothing of the fact, that since a nation cannot be made to starve, and foreign supply would necessarily come in.
Next, with respect to the imagined readiness of the bankers to make advances in the event of their being permitted to circulate one and two pound notes, in the words of the Agricultural Association to “enlarge the currency.” The banker, like the merchant, conducts his business with a view to profit. When a customer applies for a loan, he enquires into the man's property, and the nature of his trade. If he find the one sufficient, and the other gainful, he lends him the money. Now is it to be pretended that the banker has withheld his advances to the agriculturist because his own capital was insufficient (the postulate necessary to prove the farmer's assumption of the consequences of a reduced currency), or in other words, because money was scarce ? The very reverse. He has had so much capital he has not known how to employ it. The interest of mortgages is lowered, and discounts still more. What then has made him so chary of lending to the farmer? Why, simply because the farmer's property is wasted, and his trade dubious. The supply has exceeded the demand in spite of all sorts of protective expedients, fixed duties, and fluctuating duties; the price has fallen from this cause below the cost of production, and the banker providently prefers employing his money in other ways to making loans to sinking men.
The third item is the repeal of the Malt-tax; but there is a fallacy also lurking behind this expectancy of a dubious benefit. Suppose the gratification of the farmer's fullest desires- an increased consumption-an extended demand, and a commensurately increased price :-what must happen? An increased production which would gradually, and not slowly, bring down the price again to the level of demand and supply. But supposing this did not soon occur,—what then? Why the landlord would fix his rents accordingly. Here would come in the real amount of the farmer's gains, and the landlord would claim the lion's share, so long as the demand for land was as brisk as it is even now, when the trade is said to be a losing trade. None of these expedients then can by possibility be of use to the farmer? Certainly not.' To whom then would they be of service ? To the owner of land whose property is mortgaged, and to him who still wishes to keep up the mist that has so long clouded the sight of the tenantry, and drained their capital into the pockets of the landlord and the clergyman, under the impracticable pretence of keeping up a “ remunerating price” by artificial legislative enactments. Could the farmer still be gulled by these pretexts-a plausible revival for a year or two would but plunge him hereafter into greater losses. The simple fact is, that restriction has already given him the monopoly of the home market-the only market to which, under the cost of his production, he can resort ; and the effect has been that which was clearly to be anticipated; namely, to encourage such a supply as would equal the demand. Nothing can evade or obviate this necessary consequence. It has been repeated and proved, till every body is weary of it, that the farmer has made his contracts under the imaginary and theoretic hope of a price to be maintained by a law which fixes å delusive standard, and has been able to get in practice only a very reduced price. Yet with this fact staring him in the face, he still raves about legislative protection, and Heaven knows what absurd artifices !--implying no less than a depreciation
090) of the universal property, and reversal of the engagements of this and all nations with whom England trades...Qf a truth, the physician who lately gave in evidence, that the difficulty was to say what man iş sane, quas perfectly right.
** I DEA Do we mean by treating the subject in such a manner to reject or deny the distress of the farmer? By no means. We believe it to be real and terrible. But such are not the remedies. Some of the best and truest friends of agriculture have lately at public meetings described the eure to lie in reduced rent, tithes, rates, and other charges, and in an increased produce by better cultivation. And these are the remedies, But it will first be necessary to throw open the trade to let produce find its natural exchangeable value amongst all nations; for in no other event car the farmer ascertain the natural price, and, consequently, regulate the natural cost by this standard. For suppose him to augment an already adequate supply-what is he to do with his surplus ? This, indeed, is now the stumbling block; this is what now reduces price below a compensation. It is quite obvious, that he must not be confined to a single mart; he must be so placed as to be enabled successfully to compete with other nations. Any other supposition implies that England shall grow exactly enough, and not a grain more or less than enough, for her own consumption.
Inheit det er The scheme of a Central Association, or of a Committee of Inquiry in Parliament, the object to which the Marquis of Chandos, Sir William Young, and the most sensible friends of the agricultural interest desire to limit the petitions of the counties, will end as such Boards, and such inquiries always have done--namely, in calling off the farmer's attention from the real remedies to fallacious expectancies, and thus luring him on to further ruin. Is Mr. Webb Hall, his societies, and his remunerating price of 80s. forgotten? What have all the reports, and all the laws made upon them since 1814, done for the farmer? Had it been boldly · declared at the peace War prices will reign 'no longer, all artificial expedients to retain the artificial value of land and its produce must be thrown aside, things must now find their natural level had this been boldly and honestly pronounced, the farmer would have been put on his guard, would have made his contracts accordingly, the loss which has been stealthily suffered step by step-which has gradually, but not less certainly, ingulphed the tenantry, would have been avoided, and the operative capital of agriculture would have still been in the hands of the operative cultivator. As the matter now stands, the landlord has been propped for a time, though himself submitting to gradual diminution of property valued at a nominal rate-the passion has been kept up, while the tenantry have worked for all, and paid for all this deception. Let them not again be made the victims of any such palpable absurdity passed upon them, simply because, in their distressful necessity, they catch at any straw to save themselves. The cure lies in their own provident understanding and anticipation of the natural course of price, and the natural cost of cultivation.
The transactions of the markets are scarcely in any degree altered since we last wrote. The supply of grain of all sorts has been large enough to allow the purchaser free choice of samples; although the farmer's attention, perhaps, has not been directed to this part of his concerns so much as it must shortly be, on account of the important season of wheat setting, which has been now nearly completed; and in many districts the plant is up, and looking healthy and strong. A more auspicious time ean hardly have been desired. But to return to the markets-the same ample supplies, the same variety of qualities, the same selection, the same low prices, the same difficulty of ridding the inferior samples at any price ihese are the appearances with respect to wheat, while flour is declining
necessarily be The best town-made is selling at 368., and Norfolk
of winds from on board ship, so low as 30s. per sack. E. The sales of stock of all descriptions at the country fairs are all affected alike by the scarcity of feed-purchasers scarce, trade dull, and prices Yow. "The reports from the manufacturing district represent business as steady and good, but add, that there is every probability the manufacturers will have a better chance of work towards the close of the season than last year an indication that Lord Fitzwilliam was right in anticipating a larger supply to be symptomatic of, and consequent upon the increase of flocks. ?' This parallels with the increased supply of grain, and only confirms the law, that demand creates supply-another lesson of wholesome instruction for the farmer.
RURAL ECONOMY. s: Hints concerning Bees. Our intention is simply to impress upon every one who wishes that his bees may produce early and strong swarms, the necessity of feeding the insects during the whole of a mild winter, and,
above all, at the present season. If honey be in superabundance, it is the best aliment wherewith to sustain the bee'; but in the absence of this most natural food, a good substitute may be prepared by mixing half a pound of good moist sugar with a tea-cupful of pure home-brewed mild ale, and as much water, and simmer the whole till a strong syrup be formed; a small stea-spoonful of salt may be added, perhaps, with
advantage. Small troughs made of an elder branch, cut in half
, and cleared of the pith, are very convenient vessels to contain the food, provided they be cut at the joint, so that each end be closed. The troughs should be filled and placed near the mouths of the hives, whenever a warm gleam invites the bees to be on - the alert : it is calculated that ilb. of sugar will supply a hive of bees for a month, from October to January; but that double the quantity will be re
quired from February to the middle or end of April. Whatever the bees imbibe is not lost; for if they do not consume and digest the whole for their 2own immediate sustenance, they will convert the surplus into honey and deposit it in the honey cells ; but if hunger impel them to appropriate as food all that they are supplied with, the vigour of the insects will be thus maintained, and remuneration will be found in the early productiveness of swarms. In Russia, Poland, &c., where the bees form their own abodes,
they perish not with cold. Here, where our fitful climate exposes them to $continual reactions, the bees ought to be fed whenever they are in activity. All is safe while frost produces torpor. -County Chronicle.
Hop Growers.-A writer in the "Wexford Mail” states, that the substitution of iron 'rods for hop poles has been found on trial a most valuable improvement in the cultivation of hops. Under this system the rapid growth of the bine, particularly after the passing of thunder-clouds, is quite surprising, the plants are perfectly free from mould, rust, the fly, &c., the crop proves weighty and abundant, exhibits a beautiful colour, and ripens much earlier than when trailed in the usual way. The rods should be pointed, in order more effectually to attract the electric fluid, to the agency of which in producing vegetation these results are attributable. A comparison with an adjacent plantation, managed in the old manner, will prove the value of the alteration, while the difference of the expense, which only "affects the first outlay, is quite inconsiderable, and, from the durability of "the material, will ultimately prove a saving.
Cone Wheat.-An agricultural gentleman of our acquaintance who, professionally and otherwise, takes great interest in every yariety of grain and
other seeds, having observed “Cone Wheat" frequently quoted, applied to a house in Birmingham on the subject, and gleaned from his correspondent the following curious facts:—The article you speak of is a light-red, hardgrained wheat; it grows taller than the Lammas kind, and shows a beard not unlike rye.
I know various millers and bakers who consider it essential to use a portion of it let the price be what it may. In addition to being stronger, it also possesses the quality of making the bread keep longer than any other variety in use; but great skill is required in the manufacture, and the stones used in the grinding process must be at once close, hard, and smooth. There are two kinds of wheat that take the name given; that is, the blue and the white cone, and the writer considers the bread made from the latter superior to anything he ever met with. On the stiff clayey soils of Gloucester, Somersetshire, &c., this wheat has been cultivated to a considerable extent for a number of years; and a great deal of it is grown in the south of France, and more particularly on the banks of the Loire and Garonne. At Adour, where it is also cultivated, the writer was informed that the produce in favourable seasons is sometimes enormous amounting to 60, 70, and even 100 imperial bushels per English
It was found 12 feet high, and some stalks I examined were more like 'canes than ordinary wheat straw, The French make from it their best flonr, which I need not say is very fine, 'The price is 42s. the imperial quarter, and the general weight is 62 lbs. per bushel.- Newcastle Journal.
USEFUL ARTS. The Law of Letters-Patent.—Rules to be observed in proceedings before the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, under the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., entitled “An Act to amend the Law touching Letters-Patent for inventions." (cap. 83.)
Rule 1. A party intending to apply by petition under section 2 of the said act, shall give public notice by advertising in the “London Gazette" three times, and in three London papers, and three times in some country paper published in the town where, or near to which, he carries on any manufacture of any thing made according to his specification, or near to or in which he resides, in case he carries on no such manufacture, or published in the county where he carries on such manufacture, or where he lives, in case there shall not be any paper published in such town, that he intends to petition His Majesty under the said section, and shall in such advertisements state the object of such petition, and give notice of the day on which he intends to apply for a time to be fixed for hearing the matter of his petition (which day shall not be less than four weeks from the date of the publication of the last of the advertisements to be inserted in the “ London Gazette"), and that on or before such day notice must be given of any opposition intended to be made to the petition, and any person intending to oppose the said application shall lodge notice to that effect at the Council-office on or before such day so named in the said advertisements, and having lodged such notice shall be entitled to have from the petitioner four weeks' notice of the time appointed for the hearing.
2. A party intending to apply by petition under section 4 of the said act, shall in the advertisements directed to be published by the said seetion, give notice of the day on which he intends to apply for a time to be fixed for hearing the matter of his petition (which day shall not be less than four weeks from the date of the publication of the last of the advertisements to be inserted in the “ London Gazette"), and that on or before such day caveats must be entered; and any person intending to enter
a caveat shall enter the same at the Council-office on or before such day so named in the said advertisements; and having entered such caveat shall be entitled to have from the petitioner four weeks' notice of the time appointed for the hearing.
3. Petitions under sections 2 and 4 of the said act must be presented within one week from the insertion of the last of the advertisements required to be published in the “London Gazette.
4. All petitions must be accompanied with affidavits of advertisements having been inserted according to the provisions of section 4 of the said act, and the 1st and 2d of the rules, and the matters in such affidavits may be disputed by the parties opposing upon the hearing of the petitions.
5. All persons entering caveats under section 4 of the said act, and all parties to any former suit or action, touching letters patent, in respect of which petitions shall have been presented under section 2 of the said act, and all persons lodging notices of opposition under the first of these rules, shall respectively be entitled to be served with copies of petitions presented under the said sections, and no application to fix a time for hearing shall be made without affidavit of such service.
6. All parties served with petitions shall lodge at the Council office, within a fortnight after such service, notice of the grounds of their objections to the granting of the prayers of such petitions.
7. Parties may have copies of all papers lodged in respect of any application under the said act at their own expense.
8. The Master of the High Court of Chancery, or other officer to whom it may be referred to tax the costs incurred in the matter of any petition presented under the said aet, shall allow or disallow in his discretion all payments made to persons of science or skill examined as witnesses to matters of opinion chiefly.
Council-office, Whitehall, Nov. 18, 1835.
New Hydrostatic Engine.-We have had an opportunity of examining the recent discovery made by the Rev. J. T. Porter, of the Close, of this city, which he has named an hydrostatic engine, and which, when brought to perfection, will, in all probability, vie with the astonishing power of steam. The principle upon which the engine acts is the well-known law of nature, “the pressure of fluids." The construction of the apparatus is simple, consisting of four cylinders, two of which act as pumps, the other two as working cylinders, each of them having proper pistons. The doubleacting power (of the model) is put in motion by only 25 ounces of water, assisted by the lever. Some idea may be formed of the force of the pressure, when we say that, with the stroke of one of the cylinders of the piston, an ash bough, an inch and a half in diameter, was broken with the greatest ease. The Reverend gentleman is very sanguine as to the ultimate success of his discovery, and affirms that a ship, laden with the usual freight, may take a trip to the East Indies and back, the engine requiring for its total supply not more than a half hogshead of spring water. From what we have seen, we have no doubt that Mr. Porter will meet with success. He has our best wishes to that effect, and we beg to call the attention of the scientific world to this singular and valuable discovery. A circumstance connected with it, not the least valuable, is, that, unlike steam, not the slightest danger is to be apprehended from any accidental derangement of the machinery.-Salisbury Journal.
The curious in machinery will be interested with the following fact:A steam-engine, lately erected on a copper-mine in this neighbourhood (St. Austell), has been reported to have raised, at an average rate of performance, upwards of ninety millions of pounds weight one foot high, with a bushel of coals. The correctness of this statement was questioned by rival engineers and others, and so seriously, that a challenge for a public trial was given and accepted. It took place in the presence of a number