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18. Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines, Hor. Sat. 1. 1, 106. 19. sehr entschlossen is just as unusual in German as 'very decided' would be in English; we should say, fehr fest entschlossen.

21. The idiomatic expression is sich einen Ausweg schaffen or bahnen.— The paraphrase of the gen. (einer jeden Sorte or Art) by means of the prep. von is anything but elegant.

24. frei Fr. franchement.

27. Sertorius fought in Spain against Sulla and Pompey, and was assassinated by Perperna, a. 72 B.C.— Cato Uticensis, the stout republican, who stabbed himself to escape falling into Cæsar's hands.

29. It would be more usual to say, mit einem solchen Leben.

PAGE 38.

2. The Stoics were the disciples of the philosopher Zeno (B. C. 340260). They held that the happiness of the truly wise man is entirely independent of the circumstances in which he is placed, and that suicide is justifiable when life can no longer be profitably employed.-Der Moment (though it is in Latin momentum, comp. Fr. le moment) = Augenblick.

5. meine Schmach means a treaty which involves my disgrace.

8. Comp. the line in Schiller's Glocke: Ein süßer Trost ist ihm geblieben.

14. meine alten Jahre is not as idiomatic as meine alten Tage, p. 36, 20.

17. gemacht is not exactly the appropriate expression here, as the writer evidently means nievergeschrieben. In French we have the phrase faire un livre, which is in German ein Buch verfassen.

19. Stralsund, a strongly fortified seaport in the province of Pommern, held by the Swedes under Charles XII., was besieged and taken by the Prussians and their allies under King Frederick William in December, 1715. For an account of the siege see Carlyle (IV. 5).

20. sich expediren is the French s'expédier, a euphemistic phrase instead of sich aus der Welt schaffen.

23. für mich means 'according to my own taste.'

26. Henry IV. of Bourbon became king of France by mere chance, as three brothers of the reigning family of Valois happened to die one after the other without issue.

30. wohl oder übel is a proverbial phrase, corresponding to the Fr. tant bien que mal.—Louis XIV. was hard pressed and almost reduced to despair in the last war he waged for the succession in Spain.

2.

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wenn mir recht ist=wenn ich mich nicht täusche, nisi fallor.

3. More commonly: seit der Sch. der W.

4.

das Universum=das Weltall—an imitation of the French expression l'univers. Comp. p. 41, 10.

9. der Haufen instead of der große Haufen, 'vulgus.'

14. Hofleute is the plural of ter Hofmann.

18. nach allen Möglichkeiten is not exactly an idiomatic expression instead of the singular nach Möglichkeit. We should, however, generally say in this sense ich bin so unglücklich wie nur möglich.

24. The expression den Bogen spannen is proverbial for exerting one's strength. Comp. Horace's well-known neque semper arcum Tendit

Apollo.

31. For Stoicismus, comp. p. 38, 2.

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I. The expression means 'to listen to the suggestions of the evil one.'

2. Ein Gelübde machen is a Gallicism (faire des vœux) instead of the idiomatic phrase, ein G. thun.

4. In Homer's Odyssey the shades of the departed heroes are represented as walking κατ ̓ ἀσφοδελὸν λειμῶνα. In the passage in question, λ 539, Chapman translates—

This made the soul of swift Achilles tread

A march of glory through the herby mead. Compare Longfellow, Evangeline 561: "Crown us with asphodel flowers, that are wet with the dews of nepenthe."

9. Another Gallicism: je me tirerai de l'affaire.

12.

The Emperor of Austria bears the title of Apostolic, the king of France that of Most Christian Majesty. The expression sehr mos. komitisch is, of course, merely ironical.

13. Frederick was treated by his enemies as a mere upstart king who ought properly to be reduced to the rank of his predecessors who were mere Counts of the Marches, Markgrafen. The word Marquis is the French equivalent.

16.

Einem and einen are used to replace the dative and accusative of the indefinite pronoun man.

18. Doch=mais oui; I am in danger of drowning in spite of your asseveration.

25. Frederick had also published various pa phlets against his enemies in the course of the year.

30. Nestor

Whom Fame reports to have commanded three

Ages of men, and does in sight to me

Shew like th' Immortals.

Chapman, Homer's Odysseys, book III. (p. 360, ed. R. H. Shepherd).

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10.

Frederick professes his endeavour to take such a view of this world of ours, as may be obtained by a mere outsider who lives on quite a different planet.

16. This is a shortened conditional clause, instead of wenn es etwas ...zu thun gibt.

17. unter uns gesagt is properly a curtailed sentence in which sei es is omitted. The French say merely entre nous.

27. Energie is not a very happy expression in this place, inasmuch as Frederick's resolution was not, after all, carried into effect. Perhaps sinstere Strenge or finsterer Ernst would have been preferable.

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3. If Frederick had fallen alive into the hands of the Austrians, his liberty would then have been purchased by his subjects at the price of the most enormous concessions which would have ruined the State.

6. Kind is often idiomatically used to denote a genuine son of some land or town, e. g. er ist ein echt Frankfurter Kind, he is a thorough Frankforter.' So in French we have the expression un enfant du siècle.

10. etwa may be translated by 'say.' It introduces an example picked up at random.

12. sein leßter Plan, his ultimate plan,' in case of necessity.

15. See the whole letter as given by Carlyle, XVIII. 7.

18. The expression düsteres Behagen is elucidated by referring to lines 11-13, above.

23. Ein antiker Tod, 'death in the manner of the ancients,' by committing suicide as heroically as Cato, Brutus, Thrasea, etc.

26. Die Philosophie aus der Schule der Stoa is a somewhat affected phrase in the sense of seine Stoische Ph. or simply seinen Stoicismus (comp. P. 39, 31).

30. See Carlyle, XIX. 1, who says "The loss of his Wilhelmina... has darkened all his life to Friedrich. Readers are not prepared for the

details of grief we could give and the settled gloom of mind they indicate. A loss irreparable and immeasurable; the light of life, the one loved heart that loved him, gone."

I.

It would be more correct to say, bei dem größten aller Deutschen.
ernsthaft is employed instead of ernst.

Elizabeth of Russia (d. beginning of January, 1762), was succeeded by her nephew, Peter III., a great admirer and blind imitator of Frederick the Great. He at once made peace with the king and gave back to him all the territory the Russians had occupied.

4.

II.

PAGE 43.

13. überwinden is not commonly used absolutely without an object, in which case fiegen should be preferred.

15. On Wednesday, March 30th, 1763, Friedrich returned to Berlin "between eight and nine in the evening," and "not through the solemn receptions and crowded streets, drives to the Schloss." Carlyle, XX. 13.

25. Biltungen = Schöpfungen.

=

PAGE 44.

I. etwas bestreiten is idiomatically used of covering the expenses of something.

5. The usual expression is Jemanden in einen Kreis stellen (not seßen). “ die Dienste is here used in the sense of die Dienstleistungen.

8.

13. It would, perhaps, be more correct to say so lohnend wie möglich, as als is properly employed after a comparative, and wie after a positive. This rule is not, however, uniformly observed even by the best writers. 15. produciren hervorbringen, erzeugen. Directly afterwards, the author uses a German phrase, über die Grenzen fahren, instead of the foreign ervortiren, which is more commonly employed.

22. massiver=fester, dauerhafter.

24. Feuersocietät: the usual term is Feuerversicherungsgesellschaft.

25. We say eine Schule stiften, 'to endow a school,' and eine Schule einrichten or gründen, ‘to found a school.'—anziehen, 'to attract,' is here used in the sense of heranziehen, 'to draw into the country.'

30. ausbleiben=fehlen.

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PAGE 45.

I. das Schmerzenskind, ‘a child brought forth and reared with pain,' is a most idiomatic compound, though it is-strangely enough-not registered in Sanders' Dictionary.

5. Regiment Regierung.

6. At Rome the Pope still continues to publish an Index librorum prohibitorum. The works which figure in that list, are as a rule the most widely read works of the time.

9. zum Verwundern=so daß man sich darüber wunderte.

14. Landtuch is an unusual compound, denoting im Lande verfertigtes Tuch, 'homespun.'

17. die Subalternen=untergeordnete (p. 48, 14) Beamten.

22.

Ueber etwas sorgen is an unusual construction; ordinary usage is in favour of the preposition für.

23. Confiscation=Einziehung des Vermögens.—Verweisung=Verbannung. We say Einen des Landes verweisen, to order some one out of the country.

28. Compare the colloquial phrase seine Nase in Alles stecken, 'to poke one's nose into everything,' i.e. to be meddlesome, or a busybody.

31. handgreiflich, 'manifest' (in the original sense of the word).

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2. Die Schwedenzeit is the time when the Swedes used to devastate the country with fire and sword, during the Thirty Years' War.

6. dürftig=nothdürftig, 'scantily.'

13. einziehen, 'to sequestrate.'

18. veruntreuen unterschlagen.
30. fißen. See note on p. 3, 27.

PAGE 47.

I.

Cultur=Bebauung.

4. unabsehbar, 'interminable'; it was impossible to see the end of them.

10. Industrien Gewerbszweige.

19. Perhaps a more intelligible expression would be ein spartanischer Geist der Hingebung.

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