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resolute and hardy race of men, but of his conquests ; menaced by a extremely attached to the family of variety of unfavourable circumstanAustria: of whom they had forces, against which vigorous exercenturies continued the faithful and tions were required without delay. affectionate subjects.

The distance at which the forces Buonaparte did not, however, deo of the French were at this time, spair to make an impression upon from several districts, known by the them in his favour, through the me- name of Imperial Fiefs, and situated dium of those addresses, of which he on the borders of Piedmont, Genoa, had experienced the efficacy on and Tuscany, had emboldened the other occasions. On the fourteenth people there, who were in the inof June he published a manifesto, terest of the emperor, to act a very wherein he informed them, that he hostile part against the Frencb; they intended to march through their attacked their convoys, intercepted country, in order to force the em. the communication with Buona. peror to come into terms of peace parte’s army, and killed his couriers. with the French, who desired a Such were the complaints and repretermination of the war, not only sentations of the French. In order for themselves, but for the benefit to put a stop to those proceedings, of all Europe, so long harassed and which were secretly countenanced desolated through the ambition of by those tumerous enemies of the the Imperial family; for which alone French, who did not dare to avow the people of its dominions were themselves, Buonaparte was obliged involved in the horrors of war, as to dispatch large detachments from well as the people of France. The the main body of his forces, to reFrench, he told them, bore no hatred press them. This was the very end to the inhabitants of Germany, but proposed by those insurrections, but solely to their ambitious sovereigns, the celerity with which he acted, and felt the sincerest sentiments of quickly effected their suppression : good will and fraternity for their the ipsurgents were compelled to oppressed subjects. He invited them, submit, and deliver up their arms therefore, in the name of the French, and hostages for their obedience. to receive their army with hospi- Heavy fines were imposed upon tality and abstain from all hostili- them, and ordinances issued ; a reties; promising the strictest honour fusal to comply with which, was and punctuality, in all dealings made punishable with military exe. and transactions with them, but ad- cution. monishing them, at the same time, The motive that led to this sethat if compelled to have recourse verity, was the determination to to their arms, the French would, proceed, without the danger of behowever unwillingły, prove as ter. ing recalled by new commotions, rible to them, as they had unvaria. in the plan of extending, through the bly done to all their other enemies. nost distant parts of Italy, an un

But wbile he was preparing to resisting subjugation to the dictates follow up this manifesto, by march- of France. Rome and Naples were ing his army into the Tyrol, he was the two states against which Buona. called away by the indispensible ne. parte was intending to act.

The cessity of providing for the security enmity of both to the French was



undeniable. The inability of the cessity with the best grace in the Pope to resist them was an addie world. He discharged his subjects tional motive to invade his terri- from molesting, and even from reviltories. Ferrara, Bologna, and Ur. ing the French. He exhorted them bino, all cities of importance, were to use them well, and even to pray taken possession of, and Rome itself for them. In former ages, the popes was threatened.

were wont most bitterly to curse The partisans of the French in even their own spiritual sons, when Italy, and elsewhere, expressed open they shewed any degree of a resatisfaction at their conduct towards fractory spirit. The piety of the the Roman see. The disreputable church, smotbered by wealth and means by which it had risen to power, appeared to be revived with power, and acquired the territories persecution. The Christians seemed composing its sovereignty, were not to return to the principles of " lovforgotten. The arrogance of its ing their enemies, blessing those pretensions, and the daily diminu- that cursed them, doing good to tion of the reverence and veneration those that hated them, and praying which it formerly commanded, joint. for tbose who despitefully used and ly induced people to view its humi- persecuted them.” Had the pope, liation with pleasure. Conscious with the Romish clergy been sincere of these sentiments in the generality, in such professions of humility and Duonaparte felt the less scruple in benevolence, and credit been given the severity of his transactions with to such professions, the church might the court of Rome, with which it have sprung, like a phenix, from its seems he had determined to keep no own ashes, and the tide of affairs measures ; commissioned doubtless been turned : but without inquiring by the government of France to act too minutely into the piety of the in this rigorous manner.

pope, we must commend his pruTerrified at this invasion of his dence, in advising the Romans to dominions, and totally unable to give up a part of their wealth, raresist it, the pope was reduced to iher than the whole. His boliness the necessity of suing for an armi

was a more prudent man than the stice, which was granted to him, Roman knight Nonius, who was on conditions similar to those on put to death by Tiberius, for rewhich the dukes of Parma and Mo. fusing to part with a very exquidena had obtained it: to which site and precious piece of sculpture. was added, the surrender of the All persons imprisoned for their opi. cities of Bologna, Ferrara, and the nions were now to be set at liberty ; citadel of Ancona, with the terrie the ports of the ecclesiastical state to tories of the two former, and a be open to the French, and shut to larger proportion of pictures and their enemies, and a free passage ala statues, and some hundreds of the lowed to the French troops througle most curious manuscripts from the the papal territories. This armistice Vatican library. The pope, with was signed on the twenty-third of & resignation more becoming the June : but the directory, though head of the church, than so many willing to negociate a peace with of the ambitious and daring actions the poniitt

, refused to receive the of his predecessors, yielded to new ministers he had sent to Paris for

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that purpose, on account of their of the French, and the terror of being ecclesiastics, a profession of bis arms, he was equally careful to which they had declared to admit impress the Italians with favourable no members in the quality of nego- opinions of his inclivation to prociators.

mote their general welfare, and A suspension of arms had already equally of his respect for learning been concluded with the king of and literary men. This, he knew, Naples, on terms of more equality. would exhibit an advantageous conThe multiplicity of operations, wi- trast of the respective dispositions of dertaken by the French, did not the French and the Austrians, in matpermit them to exert the like seve- ters of this nature. The neglect and rity with a prince who was so much indifference of these latter, for the more able to oppose them.

polite arts and sciences, and their In the mean time, the resolution professors had long been well known, taken by the directory, to exclude and it was a part of Buonaparte's the English from an access to any policy, by displaying his partiality port to which it could barr their io characters of this description, to entrance, prompted them to direct conciliate their esteem, and secure their general to seize on the port their prepossession in his favour. of Leghorn, on pretence of the fing To this intent he had taken with of France having been insulted there, bim, to Italy, several eminent literati and the French merchants ill-treated, from France. They were the comin violation of the rights of neu- panions of his private hours, and irality. 0:1 the twenry-eight of were looked upon as a credit to his June, a detachment of Buonaparte's expedition : with them he consulted army took possession of this place. in what manner he could make it The English merchants, however, redound to the benefit of letters and being apprised of his intentions, had pbilosophical knowledge. sufficient time to remove their pro

The cultivators of learning in perty on board their ships in the l'aly, to whom he was represented harbour, and very little was seized in this advantageous light, could not by the French.

fail to conceive amicable ideas of The seizure of Leghorn was ac- him, and he was particularly solicompanied by the reduction of the citous to improve them. An oppor. castle of Milan : this celebrated tunity offered, on the reduction of fortress, surrendered to them on the Milan, where he requested an in. last day of June. The garrison, con

terview with the celebrated astro. sisting of more than iwo thousand nomer Oriane, in order to testify men, convinced of the impossibility his respect, and that of the French of making any effeciual resistance, nation, for his extraodinary merit. yielded themselves prisoners of war. In a letter, written to him on this One hundred and fifty pieces of occasion, and addressed, through cannon, with an immense quantity bim, 10 all the Italian literari, Buoa of ammunition and stores, were naparte exerted his persuasive talents taken here by the French.

to convince bim and them of the During these various transactions, predeliction with which the rulers while Buonaparte was occupied in of France regarded all individuals extending through Italy the empire of his character, and how zealous


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they were in the protection and en- his confidence and intimacy, did couragement of polite knowledge more in conciliating the people, who and the liberal arts; and desirous had submitted to him, than the to afford them the most generous dread of his power; the clergy and and honourable countenance and the nobility excepted : to the very support. 66 All men of genius,” said existence of wbich orders the French the letter, "all those who have obe system was immediately inimical : tained a distinguished rank in the the other classes beheld in the French Tepublic of letters, are Frenchmen, a nation of warriors, who seemed in whatever country they may have to have taken up arms for the purbeen born. The learned in Italy, pose of reducing all other nations to esteemed themselves happy, if left a level of opinion and government unmolested by princes and priests: with themselves, and to barbour no but henceforth, opinious shall be enmity but to hereditary sovereigns, free, and the inquisition, intole- and the adherents to implicit obedirance, and despotism be no more. ence in matters of church and I invite,” he continued,“ the learned state. to assemble, and propose their senti- To disseminate such a disposition ments on the means necessary to be in the generality was the chief aim taken, and the assistance they may of the French general, well knowing require, to give new life and ex. that, on such a ground, he would be istence to the sciences and the fine able to erect a more durable fabric arts."

of that republicanism he had in He addressed the university of view, than on the military power he Pavia in the same style, and took pe- had establised, and which, without culiar pains to impress on the ininds those concomitances that he held of the public; that the French were out to the natives, would have been solicitous to place the people of odious to them, and have presented İtaly on the same fooling with no other picture than that of conthemselves, in whatever related to quest and tyranny. the liberty of thinking, and would In this court, that was paid by feel more satisfaction in acquiring the French general to men of letters their esteem and their approbation and genius, we contemplate a policy, of the proceedings of the French not less solid than sublime. It is government, and of the political from the opinions and spirit of maxims on wbich it acies, than in the truly learned and inteligent, the submission enforced by their that public spirit in all nations victorious arms. The conquests sooner or later derives its complexobtained over the human mind, ion with their origin. The class being of far greater importance to too that would be flattered by this inen who knew ihe difficulty of ob- address was more numerous by far, taining them, and the utility which than it will be very easy to imagine: they produced, than victories won by sw great a portion of mankind being

su the sword, and empire maintained so bighly satisfied with their own through terror.

talents and accomplishments. The Language of this kind, which professions of Buonaparte, however, was incessantly in the mouth of but ill accorded with his actions. the Freuch general, and of those in The whole of his conduct indicated

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that his main design was to establish posed a much more formidable the power and influence of the strength than that under Buonaparte. French in Italy. At Milan he But the confidence he placed in the formed the plan of a republic on valour of his men, and that which the model of that of France, and to they reposed in his superior genius be under her protection, in the same and skill, seemed, in the opinion of manner as the victorious and am- the public, to stand him in the stead bitious Romans admitted the con- of numbers. quered states to the alliances and The passes into the Tyrol were frendship of the senate and people guarded by works extending from of Rome : 'thus endeavouring to the Lake of Garda to the river Adige. subvert the authority of the empe- Here the Imperial commander, ror, and to erect that of France on newly arrived, posted himself: but its ruins, by abolishing feudal rights, the French generals Massena, and and giving the great mass of the peo- Joubert, at the head of a select ple a share and an interest in the body, broke into his lines, by turn

government. He fortified ing his right and left : they seized Verona, notwithstanding the recla. his baggage and standing camp, and mations of the Venetians; and placed forced him to retreat with the utmost general officers, in whom he could precipitation. This happened to. confide, over the Tuscan troops, as wards the close of June. well as over those of Piedmont and The first engagement, between Milan. The intentions of the Wurmser and the French, would French were still less concealed at probably have been followed with Paris; where those who bore sway, worse consequences to him, had not at the same time that they professed an insurrection taken place in a city a desire to fraternize with all na- of the ecclesiastical state, which obtions, talking of nothing but the structed for a while their intended extension of their arms, and of operations. The inhabitants of the Paris becoming the capital of Eu- city and district of Lugo, incited by rope. They boasted of the gene- the complaints of their clergy, and rous design of giving peace and iran. others who bore heavily the French quillity to all nations under the pro- yoke, took up arms, as they expressed tection of the French republic. ihemselves, in defence of their saints,

In the mean time, Buonaparte was and their lawful sovereign, the preparing to meet the new general pope. A small detachment was appointed to take the command of sent to quell them, but they forced the Imperial forces that were march- it to retire, after killing some men, ing to the protection of the Tyrol. the heads of two of whom, accordThe situation of the French at this ing to the French accounts, they ex• period was extremely critical : they posed at the town house of Lugo. had subdued an extensive range of The French general, who was sent country; to preserve which they with a sufficient force to reduce had been obliged to detach con- them, employed admonitions and siderable numbers from their main threats to that purpose : but they body. The remains of Beaulieu's set him at defiance, and made a army, and the reinforcements ar- desperate resistance : upwards of a riving with marshal Wurmser, com- thousand of them were killed and

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