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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions

expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake to refurn, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. No notice is taken of anonymous communications.]

Average Number of Kinsfolk in each Degree. As Dr. Galton has completely misunderstood the point of my last remark, I fear it will be necessary again to reopen a discussion which I had thought was satisfactorily closed.

My point is this : If we take a large number n of families antaining in the aggregate nd sons and nd daughters, and remove on an average one child of specified sex from each family, we shall have a preponderance of the opposite sex

those that remain. The average numbers under this condition will be d and d-1, and not d-) and d-), and this was how I was originally led to my first conclusion.

If, however, we wish to test the question whether a girl has the same average number of brothers as sisters, we are inly concerned with families containing at least one girl, and therefore families containing only boys must be left out of account, as I stated. When these have been removed there will be a preponderance of girls in the families that are left. It is this cause which enables us to reconcile the fact that, while the probable total numbers of girls and boys in any family may be equal, the probable numbers of brothers and sisters of a single individual of specified sex, say a girl, may still be equal. This may not be such a rigorous method as Dr. Galton employs, but it at least shows that the result is not necessarily opposed to what one would naturally infer from general considerations.


a contact of a higher order than the first with its own branch, may coincide with some other tangent at the singularity. When both tangents at a flecnode coincide, the resulting singularity is a tacnode; but the coincidence of two or more tangents at a multiple point, any of which possess this property, gives rise to a variety of peculiar singularities which do not appear to have been completely examined,

It is also possible for a mixed singularity to be formed in more than one manner; in other words, it may possess more than one penultimate form. Thus an oscnode may be formed by the union of two cusps and two stationary tangents, and additional singularities of this character are possessed by quintic and sextic curves.

To call a cissoid or a cardioid a nodal curve appears to me a glaring misuse of language, since both curves are nodeless,

A. B. BASSET. November 18.

Compound Singularities of Curves. The compound singularities of algebraic curves may be divided into three primary species. First, point singularities, or multiple points, which are exclusively composed of nodes and cusps; secondly, line singularities, which are esdusively composed of double and stationary tangents; Thirdly, mixed singularities, which are composed of a combination of simple point and line singularities. Amongst compound line singularities may be mentioned (a) a double langent which osculates a curve at one of its points of rúdtad, the constituents of which are one stationary and two ordinary double tangents; (B) a tangent having a contact of the fourth order with a curve, the constituents of which are three double and three stationary tangents.

The third species comprises the majority of compound singularities, and may be divided into the following subsidiary ones

(1) Nodes and multiple points, any tangent at which has a contact of a higher order than the first with its own hraneb, and does not touch the curve elsewhere. The flecnode and biflecnode are the most familiar examples of this species.

(2) Nodes, cusps, and multiple points, any tangent at which has a contact of the first or some higher order at some other point or points on the curve. For example, it is possible for each of the six nodal tangents of a trinodal quintir to touch the curve elsewhere, and it can be shown that the six points of contact lie on a conic.

(3) Two or more nodes, cusps or multiple points may have a common tangent. Thus the reciprocal of a biflecnode is a pair of cusps having a common cuspidal tangent, whilst a septimic curve may possess a node and a rhamphoid cusp having a common tangent.

(4) Singularities of the tacnode and oscnode type. When the number of constituent double points is unequal to Inin-1). where n is a positive integer, the singularity cannot be a multiple point, but must be of the tacnode type ; and since the constituents of a tacnode are two nodes and two double tangents, every singularity of this species must contain double or stationary tangents, or both. When the number of double points is equal to in(n-1), the singularity may be a multiple point, but when it contains line as well as point singularities, it is of the same type as the oscnode, which is composed of three nodes and three double tangents. 6) A tangent at a node or a multiple point, which has

The Origin of Lise. No doubt “

Geologist " points out a literal flaw in my statement, but I thought it would be obvious that by the

potentiality of life,” which would be destroyed by heat, I meant potentiality of life, appearing within the time of the experiment. Given countless ages, then, on the evolution hypothesis, the potentiality of life, as of the rest of nature as we know it, existed in the fluid mass of the uncooled earth, and I did not mean to say anything inconsistent with this. Nor, on the other hand, did I mean to say that by the heat applied the potentiality of life in the matter under test would be destroyed for all time. I meant potentiality of appearing within a given time, the time of the experiment, and I cannot help thinking this was the natural sense of my words.

In asking me to explain the introduction of life or its potentiality into this planet, Geologist shows that he has entirely mistaken the purport of my letter. My aim was only logical, not constructive. If I could explain how life first appeared on the earth, I should probably be able to suggest a more promising line of experiment than that hitherto followed, which I find myself unable to do. My sole object was to point out a logical error, as it seemed to me, in the view commonly taken by men of science of the results of these experiments, an error, if my memory serves me, fully shared by Huxley-in admiration for whom, I hasten to say, I yield to no one. Huxley, if I remember rightly, was so impressed with the strength of the evidence against the contemporary origination of life that he practically gave up the idea, and put the date back. In this, I am venturing to suggest, he was illogical ; through having overlooked the fact that in all the experiments the agent, which was used to destroy actual life and its germs, would probably be efficacious in destroying the potentiality of life in non-living matter on the point of assuming life, if any such there were, and, consequently, the positive result having artificially been made impossible, the negative result meant nothing, and should not be allowed to influence opinion.


Change in Colour of Moss, Agates. The following observations may perhaps throw light on the colour changes in moss agate and fint noted by Messrs. Whitton and Simmonds in your issues of November 10 and 17. Specimens of the flints from Bournemouth referred to by Mr. Simmonds were brought to this laboratory some months ago, and, though they were not submitted to any very searching examination, it was found that the colouring matter could be removed on boiling a fragment with hydrochloric acid, while the solution gave well marked reactions for iron and phosphoric acid. Now the compound Fe,(PO),.8H,O, whether prepared in the laboratory or occurring as the mineral vivianite, is colourless when pure, but becomes oxidised to ferrosoferric orthophosphate, and turns blue, when exposed to the atmosphere. It seems probable, then, that the change of colour of these flints is due to a layer of vivianite which alters on exposure.

In considering the case of the agate penholder, it should be noted that such objects are but rarely made of agate in its natural condition, it being the practice of







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the manufacturers to colour the stone artificially by chemical between 14h. 45m. and 15h. 38m. The increase in frequency treatment. Thus a fine blue colour can be developed by of meteors of the dominant shower at this period was nice soaking the stone first in a solution of potassium ferro- due to improvement of seeing conditions. cyanide and then in a solution of a ferric salt. Now In the latter watch three shooting stars coming from exposure to the action of alkalies, or in some cases to direct 160° +481° were mapped. The radiant point of the Leonida sunlight, suffices to destroy the blue colouring matter, it of November 15, as determined from eight tracks, was at would seem probable that it is in this direction that an 151° + 20° The meteors were. swift, and mostly left explanation of the change observed by Mr. Whitton is to streaks. There was a decided tendency towards green ia be sought.

their colouring In conclusion, I may add that a very instructive series Below are particulars of some of the most interesting of specimens illustrative of the artificial colouring of agate Leonids, other than those mentioned above :is on exhibition in the mineral gallery of the British Museum (Natural History); A. HUTCHINSON.

November 15. The Mineralogical Laboratory, Cambridge, November 21.


Eocene Whales.
IN NATURE for September 29 (p. 543) “ R.
Dr. Fraas's paper on the Eg zeuglodonts, dissenting 14 461819 +28 186 +284 >I

Swift. Greenisb-yellow. from the conclusions that the zeuglodonts are not whales,

rected from 1° N. y Le nis 15 671 - 9. 64 -11

ri Very swist. White, tinged blue and that the ancestors of the whales are at present un- 15 26'101 +16% 88 +121 <S

Green-yellow. known. I trust “ R. L.” will pardon me for in turn dis- 15 38 172 +348 1794+378S-21

White, tinged green. Streak. senting from these assertions, and for agreeing entirely with Dr. Fraas. So long ago as 1900, in discussing the pelvic Sheffield, November 24.

ALPHONSO KING, girdle of Basilosaurus, I pointed out that the vestigial femur suggested that of a creodont, while later, in Science for March 11, I recorded my utter disbelief in any relation

Intelligence in Animals. ship between Basilosaurus and existing whales. Conse

HAVING recently seen in NATURE some accounts of the quently, while greatly pleased at the results of Dr. Fraas's

sagacity of cats, I trust that the following facts, for which study of the small zeuglodonts, I was not at all surprised. I can personally vouch, may also be interesting to your It seems to me that our knowledge of Eocene mammals is readers. really very small, and that it will be many years before we will be able to trace the line of descent of many existing anxious to gain admittance into the house, not only lifts

We have a cat, an ordinary tabby, which, when out ari forms with any degree of certainty. This is most

the weather-board of either our front or back hall-doors emphatically true of the whales, the ancestry of which is

three or four times in succession, thereby causing a loud still obscure. At the same time I have pointed out (Science,

knock each time, but has also instructed her young kitten March 11) that the Eocene deposits of the southern United

to perform the same seat. States contain remains of a large cetacean that is at pre

Both mother and daughter now regularly koock in this sent known to us 'by a few caudals alone. This form is

manner in order to be let in.

J. E. A, T. undescribed, because it seemed to me best to await the discovery of better material than caudals. So while the ancestors of whales are still unknown, we have a hint that My room opens by a door to a hall; when our fox-ferrier they may be discovered any day.


wants to come into my room from the ball he scratches at Brooklyn Institute Museum, November 4.

my door. When he finds himself in the hall and wants to go out by another door to the garden or back-hall, he whines

for me, and, going out, I find him by the door he wants The Discovery of Argon.

opened. This--my leisure regrets—is of daily occurrence.

F. C. CONSTABLE. IN' reference to the slip indicated in the last issue of NATURE by Prof. G. H. Darwin, permit me to mention that

Wick Court, near Bristol, November 27. the slip was mine-not Mendeléeff's. In Mendeléeff's text it stands : " As to argon and its congeners--helium, neon, krypton and xenon--these simple gases discovered mainly

PATAGONIA. (preimuschestvenno) by Ramsay. - I am sorry to see HE dispute between the Argentine Republic that I had omitted the word mainly.'

In reality, my manuscript (which I enclose) contained, as you see, the words “discovered chiefly by Ramsay,


their Patagonian possessions threatened at one time

to result in a prolonged and sanguinary struggle. chiefly was not the proper word it was struck out, probably by myself, in the proof. THE TRANSLATOR.

Happily this misfortune was averted by the decision, honourable to both nations, to refer the differences that

had arisen to the arbitration of our Sovereign. A The Leonids, 1904.

British Commission was accordingly appointed to WATCHING was begun on November 14, when between examine the geographical features of the country and 18h. iom. and 18h. 4om., in a sky rapidly brightening with judge how far they could be reconciled with the terms approaching sunrise, one certain Leonid, of magnitude of the treaties the interpretation of which was in ques. excelling that of Sirius, shot from Cancer into Gemini. tion. As the head of this commission was chosen Sir

November 15,-Watch from 12h. 5m. to 12h. 4om., and Thomas Holdich, who had served his country as 14h. 5m. to 15h. 45m. The heavens were very clear at the boundary commissioner in the wild inaccessible lands I had just commenced looking out when a beautiful

that lie to the north and west of our Indian possessions, tailed Leonid, of mag. 3, shot from 851° +21° to 74° -2°. At 12h. 17m. thin, broken clouds began to pass over, the

and this selection was abundantly justified by the tact sky becoming completely covered at 12h. 40m. At 12h. 38m.

and skill with which a frontier more than 800 miles in a huge-headed Leonid, outrivalling Venus in brilliancy, was

length was traced in such a manner as to accomplish seen travelling behind small, broken clouds from 129° +351° the almost unprecedented feat of satisfying both to 107° + 43° in three-quarters of a second. The path here parties, given is probably a little too long. About 13h. 3om, the In the present volume Sir Thomas Holdich has sky began to clear again, and was pretty good by the time given us his impressions of the progressive republics of the commencement of the second watch.

There were of Chile and the Argentine, and of the scene of his many thin clouds, but the interspaces were large and very

1 - The Countries of the King's Award," By Sir Thamas Holdich clear. At 15h. 25m. the heavens became quite unclouded. K.C.M.G. Pp. xv+420. (London: Hurst and Blackett, Lid., 1904. In this last look-out' Leonids 'were more numerous, six being Price 16s. net.

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labours in Patagonia-impressions all the more valu- It is, however, the pages that describe the author's able because they are those of a distinguished soldier experiences in Patagonia ' that will appeal most and man of science who has spent the greater part of strongly to the scientific reader. The international his life in the East, and whose principal achievements differences have borne at least some good fruit. - 'In have been amongst the great mountain masses and the hope of finding evidence to support one view or plateaus of Central Asia, which find their only parallel the other the interior of Patagonia has been so in the Andes. Again and again he dwells on the like energetically explored that there are few countries of ness and on the contrasts between the new lands which there has been so rapid an increase of our geothat he was visiting and those with which he had long graphical knowledge in recent years. Comparatively been familiar.

little of the tract examined by Sir Thomas Holdich We have only space to quote one passage (p. 149) :- had been trodden by the foot of civilised man a dozen "One could not see the stiff rows of poplars streaking years before his visit." the stony slopes of the eastern Andes near Mendoza We follow'with absorbing interest the author in his without being forcibly reminded of the Indian rapid journey through the varied scenery of the central frontiers; and the plains of Chile round about Santiago depression between the Andes on the one hand and might be the plains of Afghanistan round about Kabul. the pampas on the other—a fertile land of hill and Standing on the slopes of the hills near Kabul, where valley, With here and there great lakes that occupy Baber's tomb overlooks the Chardeh valley and the the deeper hollows and overflow, some to the Atlantic

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fat range of the Hindu Kush fills up the western and others through deep breaks in the mountains to horizon, where interlacing lines of poplars chequer- the Pacific. Everywhere there are evidences of iming the purple and yellow fields mark the course of portant changes in the still recent past-the shrinkage the irrigation channels, an impression once drifted in or complete disappearance of lakes, the diversion of upon my mind of a land of promise set in the midst the drainage from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and the of barren hills, specially designed to illustrate man's retrocession of the glaciers. ingenuity in making green things to grow where no Elsewhere we read of cruises amid the channels and green thing had been before. It was the wealth of inlets of the Pacific coast, which form the submerged the poplars and the willows which produced the im- continuations of the central valley of Chile, and of the pression, contrasted with the sterility of the mountains | glens of the rivers that traverse the Andean chain. which formed their background and which were only Further inland these latter are filled with alluvium faintly visible through the summer haze, with just overgrown with impenetrable jungle. On this side, the glint of snowpatch here and there. The impression too, of the Andes there is evidence of recent changes, was reproduced with the first view of the plains stretch- for-as Darwin was the first to point out-high above ing from the foot hills of the Andes outwards to the the sea-level are raised beaches and deposits containPacific. For twenty-five years Time might have stood ing shells of forms that still live in the neighbouring still, and Chardeh, Maidan, and the road to Ghazni were all back again before me.'

But although the axis of the Cordillera and the outer



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chain of islands appear to be rising from a position of Vice-Chancellor. Many occasions arise, however, when depression, the line of the great Chilian valley is prob- it is of importance to the universities concerned that ably still sinking, for near the head of the Gulf of statesmen, such as the Prime Minister, who is ChanPenas, and south of the isthmus of Ofqui, that con- cellor of Edinburgh, Mr. Chamberlain, who is Charnects the peninsula of Taitao with the mainland, are cellor of Birmingham, Lord Rosebery, who is found forests só recently submerged as to render it Chancellor of London, and Lord Spencer, who is necessary to be cautious in steering amongst the tree Chancellor of_Manchester, should represent their tops. Future generations of mankind, the author universities in Parliament or elsewhere, and such mesi thinks, may see the isthmus submerged beneath the have usually been elected not so much on account of ocean, above which it is even now but slightly raised. their own connection with the universities they pre

Part of this isthmus is occupied by Lake San Rafael, side over as of the eminent place they have taken in which is remarkable as the “ terminus of an enormous the State, and the weight which must on all occasions glacier that scatters huge icebergs about its waters." be attached to their considered opinions. Lord Kelvin * Is there any other glacier," the author asks, “de- has been connected with the University of Glasgow scending to sea level in latitude 47° either N. or S.?" since his early boyhood, he has spent his life within We know of none; but however that may be there are her walls, and he built up his enduring fame during several that reach the sea between this point and the the fifty-three years when he was professor of natural Straits of Magellan; and yet southern Patagonia is philosophy in the university. a land of luxuriant vegetation, at least on its western Lord Kelvin's father was a north of Ireland man. coasts. “Forest was everywhere about us, dense, preparing for the ministry of the Presbyterian Church, shadowy, dark and generally dripping. The long lines In his day, and until the foundation of the Queen's of the higher sierra were thick with it up to the point Colleges in Ireland, Glasgow was the university to where the granite cliffs polished and smoothed by ice which many north of Ireland men resorted, and Lord cap and glacier gave foothold to vegetation only on Kelvin's father a distinguished student in their flat ledges. The little islets that seemed to chase Glasgow, gaining prizes in many classes more than one another through the streaky grey sea were rounded ninety years since. About eighty years ago he gave and packed with it.” In the Ultima Esperanza dis- up his studies for the ministry and became professor trict in latitude 52° there are grazing grounds where of mathematics in the Belfast Academical Institution. the sheep fatten quickly on the tufted grass of the Eight years later-in 1832—he was elected to the country, and are left to find their own shelter, while chair of mathematics in Glasgow, which he filled for in the neighbouring woods the puma waits his oppor- sixteen years with eminent success. There were no tunity as he does in the tropical forests of Brazil, better text-books anywhere than those which he pubAnd over the whole country, mountains, valleys, and lished on the subjects of his chair, and the small pampas alike, blow untiringly the strenuous western number of his students who remember him can iyinds, for the most part in blustering gales that testify that they never met a clearer or better teacher succeed one another in quick succession. of mathematics. Prof. James Thomson had a genius no country in the world, remarks our author, for teaching other things besides mathematics, and “must 'weather' and climate be so differentiated as both Lord Kelvin and his elder brother, who was pro in Patagonia. The weather is bad as bad can be fessor of engineering first in Belfast and afterwards ---wild and boisterous, bursting into fury, breaking in Glasgow, owed the best of their education to their into sunshine, freezing the blood in one's veins with a father. Lord Kelvin was only twenty-two years old when biting blizzard, or suffocating the system with the the university had the courage to elect him to the still steady glare of a noonday sun, and it may do all chair of natural philosophy, on the strength of his this and more in the course of a few hours' interval; quite exceptional brilliancy as a student first in but whether storming or shining, tearing one's tent Glasgow and afterwards in Cambridge. How he has to rags or bathing the landscape in sunshine, who can discharged the duties of his chair and how wide and describe the life-giving, purifying, sweetening,

purifying, sweetening, fruitful have been his conception of its duties is known strengthening effects of the climate.”

to the whole world of science. Such is Patagonia, a land that seems destined to

On Tuesday, after Lord Kelvin had been formally nourish a hardy race woven of many strands, among installed as Chancellor of the University, he proceeded which the sturdy Welsh colonists of the 16th of to confer the following honorary degrees of LL.D. on October Valley, of whom the author has much to the recommendation of the Senate. tell us, will not be least important. To the man of

Princess Louise (Duchess of Argyll), who was presi. science it is a land of striking illustrations of long dent of Queen Margaret College until the college established principles and of problems that will require was incorporated with the university in 1893. The many years of research to solve, for of the story of Marquess of Ailsa, who has taken a great interest in its making scarcely the first chapter -a chapter of naval architecture, and in its practical application to which Darwin wrote the opening pages--is yet the building of yachts and other vessels. Dr. J. T. complete.

J. W. E

Bottomley, F.R.S.; Dr. James Donaldson, principal of the University of St. Andrews; Idmiral Sir John Charles Dalrymple Hay, G.C.B., F.R.S.; Dr. J. M.

Lang, principal of the University of Aberdeen; Mr. LORD KELVIN AND GLASGOW

G. Marconi; Mr. Andrew Graham Murray, M.P.. UNIVERSITY.

Secretary for Scotland; the Hon. C. A. Parsons,

F.R.S. ; and the Lord Provost of Glasgow, Sir John THE installation of Lord Kelvin as Chancellor of L're Primrose, Bart. Glasgow University, which took place in the

After conferring these degrees Lord Kelvin delivered Bute Hall on Tuesday, is an event which has few,

an address, in the course of which he spoke as if, indeed, it has any, precedents in the recent annals follows:-of our universities. The Chancellor is the head of the whole university, but in practice he is rarely present is indeed a distinguished honour. For me to be Chancellor

To be Chancellor of one of the universities of our country except on ceremonial occasions, and a great part of of this my beloved University of Glasgow is more than an the work which he has had to do officially is done for honour. I am a child of the University of Glasgow. 1 him in Scotland, as it is at Oxford, Cambridge, lived in it sixty-seven years (1832 to 1890). But my venerLondon, or in the newer English universities, by theation for the ancient Scottish university, then practically


the university for Cister, began earlier than that happy ago it had the first chemical students' laboratory. Sixtypart of my life. My father, born in County Down, was for five years ago it had the first professorship of engineering of four years (1810 to 1814) a student of the University of the British Empire. Fifty years ago it had the first physical Glasgow, and in his Irish home, first as professor of mathe- students' laboratory-a deserted wine cellar of an old protuaties in the newly-founded Royal Belfast Academical In- fessorial house, enlarged a few years later by the annexation sritution, his children were taught to venerate the Uni- of a deserted examination room. Thirty-four years ago, Fensity of Glasgow. One of my earliest memories of those when it migrated from its four hundred years old site off old Belfast days is of 1829, when the joyful intelligence the High Street of Glasgow to this brighter and airier hillcame that the Senate of the University of Glasgow had top, it acquired laboratories of physiology and zoology, too conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws on my small and too meagrely equipped. And now every univerfarlier. Two years later came the announcement that the sity in the world has, or desires to have, laboratories of faculty af Glasgow College had elected him to the pro- human anatomy, of chemistry, of physics, of physiology, of Yessorship of mathematics.

zoology. Within the last thirty years laboratories of engineerIn 1834, two years after my father was promoted from ing, of botany, and of public health have been added to some Bellast to the Glasgow professorship of mathematics, Iof the universities of the British Empire, with highly benebecame a matriculated member of the University of Glasgow. ficent results for our country and the world. All these the Ta this day I look back to Prof. William Ramsay's lectures University of Glasgow now has. During the last fifty years un Roman antiquities and readings of Juvenal and Plautus our university has grown in material greatness and in workas more interesting than many a good stage play that I ing power to an extent that its most ardent well-wishers in have seen in the theatre. Happy it is for our university, the first half of the nineteenth century could scarcely have and happy for myself, that his name, and a kindred spirit, imagined possible. Two successive legislative commissions are with us still in my old friend and colleague, our senior (1858 and 1889) have re-formed its constitution and wolessor, George Ramsay. Greek, under Sir Daniel broadened its foundations, and added to its financial Sandford and Lushington, logic under Robert Buchanan, resources, and admitted women to its membership, with all moral philosophy under William Fleming, natural philo- the privileges of students and graduates. Splendidly liberal sophy and astronomy under John Pringle Nichol, chemistry subscriptions by the people of Glasgow and by a world-wide under Thomas Thomson (a very advanced teacher and in- public outside, backed by powerful aid from the National vestigator), natural history (zoology and geology) under Treasury, enabled the university, on leaving its ancient site, William Couper, were, as I can testify by my own experi- to enter into the grand group of buildings on Gilmorehill, ence, all made interesting and valuable io the students of in which it has happily lived ever since. A few years later Glasgow University in the 'thirties and 'forties of the nine

the generous gift of 45,000l. by the late Marquis of Bute trenth century. Sandford, in teaching his junior class the built the hall called after his name, in which we are now Greek alphabet and a few characteristic Greek words, and

At the same time the adjoining Randolph Hall and the Scottish pronunciation of Greek, gave ideas, and some- staircase were built by a portion of the legacy left to the thing touching on philology, to very young students, which university by the late Mr. Randolph. The Queen Margaret remains on their minds after the heavier grammar and College and grounds were presented to the university by syntax which followed have vanished from their know

Mrs. Elder, who also added largely to the endowment of the ledge Logic was delightfully unlike the Collegium engineering professorship, and founded the professorship of Logirum described by Goethe to the young German student naval architecture. Other generous donors have given an through the lips of Mephistopheles. Even the dry bones of engineering laboratory with lecture-rooms, and botanical predicate and syllogism were made by Prof. Buchanan very buildings, and great and much needed extensions in the lively for six weeks among the students of logic and rhetoric anatomical department. The Carnegie Trust and the prinin Glasgow College sixty-seven years ago ; and the delicious cipal's university equipment scheme are at present providaholastie gibberish of “ Barbara, Celarent” remains with them an amusing recollection.

ing two new buildings; one of these is for extensions in the A happy and instructive

medical school. The other, in which I naturally take the illustration of the inductive logic was taken from Wells's

most personal interest, is for the natural philosophy depart" Theory of Dew," then twenty years old. My predecessor in the natural philosophy chair, Dr. Meikleham, taught his

ment, including lecture-rooms and a physical laboratory, all students reverence for the great French mathematicians,

designed and at present being realised under the able Legendre, Lagrange, Laplace. His immediate successor in

direction of my successor in the natural philosophy chair,

Prof. Andrew Gray. the teaching of the natural philosophy class, Dr. Nichol,

In the province of the humanities the working power of added Fresnel and Fourier to this list of scientific nobles ;

the university for instruction and research has been largely and by his own inspiring enthusiasm for the great French school of mathematical physics, continually manifested in

augmented during the last fifty years by the foundation of his experimental and theoretical teaching of the wave theory

new professorships, conveyancing, English language and

literature, Biblical criticism, clinical surgery, clinical of light and of practical astronomy, he largely promoted

medicine, history (in my opinion the most important of all in scientific study and thorough appreciation of science in the L'niversity of Glasgow. In this hall you see side by side

the literary department), pathology, political economy. In

mathematics and in the science of dead matter, professortwo memorial windows presented to the university to mark

ships of naval architecture and geology ; lectureships of elecpermanently its admiration of three men of genius, John Caird, John Pringle Nichol, and his son, John Nichol, who

tricity, of physics, and of physical chemistry; and demonlived in it, and worked for it and for the world, in the two

stratorships and official assistantships in all departments

have most usefully extended the range of study, and largely departments of activity for which universities exist, the humanities and science. As far back as 1818 to 1830

strengthened the working corps for research and instruction. Thomas Thomson, the first professor of chemistry in the

I venture to congratulate the city of Glasgow on having University of Glasgow, began the systematic teaching of

for her god-daughter a university so splendidly equipped and practical chemistry to students, and by aid of the faculty

so admirably provided with workers. of Glasgow College, which gave the site and the money for the building, realised a well equipped laboratory, which preceded. I believe, by some years Liebig's famous laboratory of Giessen, and was, I believe, the first of all the labor

ANNIVERSARY MEETING OF THE ROYAL atories in the world for chemical research and the practical

SOCIETY. instruction of university students in chemistry. That was at a time when an imperfectly informed public used to regard the University of Glasgow as a stagnant survival

presented at the anniversary meeting held yesterof mediævalism and to call its professors the Monks of the

day, November 30, and the president, Sir William Molendinar!

Huggins, K.C.B., F.R.S., delivered the annual The university of Adam Smith, James Watt, and Thomas

address. Reid was never stagnant. For two centuries and a quarter

The council refers to the second general assembly of it has been very progressive. Nearly two centuries ago it

the International Association of Academies last Whithad a laboratory of human anatomy. Seventy-five years suntide as one of the chief events of the year. At the

THE report of the counçil of the Royal Society was

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