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water ; but that flatness of sound is joined with a hand-bell harder or softer, &c. And the strength of harshness of sound; which no doubt is caused by this percussion consisteth as much or more in the the inequality of the sound which cometh from the hardness of the body percussed, as in the force of part of the saucer under the water, and from the the body percussing : for if you strike against a part above. But when the saucer is wholly under cloth, it will give a less sound ; if against wood, a the water, the sound becometh more clear, but far greater ; if against metal, yet a greater; and in more low, and as if the sound came from afar off. metals, if you strike against gold, which is the more
158. A soft body dampeth the sound much more pliant, it giveth the flatter sound; if against silver than a hard; as if a bell bath cloth or silk wrapped or brass, the more ringing sound. As for air, where about it, it deadeth the sound more than if it were it is strongly pent, it matcheth a hard body. And wood. And therefore in clericals the keys are lined: therefore we see in discharging of a piece, what a and in colleges they used to line the tablemen. great noise it maketh. We see also, that the charge
159. Trial was made in a recorder after these with bullet, or with paper wet and hard stopped, or several manners. The bottom of it was set against with powder alone rammed in hard, maketh no great the palm of the hand; stopped with wax round difference in the loudness of the report. about ; set against a damask cushion; thrust into 165. The sharpness or quickness of the percussand; into ashes; into water, half an inch under sion, is a great cause of the loudness, as well as the the water; close to the bottom of a silver bason ; strength ; as in a whip or wand, if you strike the and still the tone remained: but the bottom of it air with it; the sharper and quicker you strike it, was set against a woollen carpet ; a lining of plush; the louder sound it giveth. And in playing upon a lock of wool, though loosely put in; against the lute or virginals, the quick stroke or touch is a snow; and the sound of it was quite deaded, and great life to the sound. The cause is, for that the but breath.
quick striking cutteth the air speedily ; whereas 160. Iron hot produceth not so full a sound as the soft striking doth rather beat than cut. when it is cold ; for while it is hot, it appeareth to be more soft and less resounding. So likewise warm
Experiments in consort touching the communication water, when it falleth, make not so full a sound as
of sounds. cold; and I conceive it is softer, and nearer the The communication of sounds, as in bellies of nature of oil; for it is more slippery, as may be lutes, empty vessels, &c. hath been touched obiter perceived in that it scoureth better.
in the majoration of sounds ; but it is fit also to 161. Let there be a recorder made with two fip- make a title of it apart. ples, at each end one; the trunk of it of the length 166. The experiment for greatest demonstration of two recorders, and the holes answerable towards of communication of sounds, is the chiming of bells ; each end', and let two play the same lesson upon it where if you strike with a hammer upon the upper at an unison ; and let it be noted whether the sound part, and then upon the midst, and then upon the be confounded, or amplified, or dulled. So likewise lower, you shall find the sound to be more treble and let a cross be made of two trunks, throughout, hol- more base, according unto the concave on the inside, low; and let two speak, or sing, the one long-ways, though the percussion be only on the outside. the other traverse : and let two hear at the opposite 167. When the sound is created between the ends ; and note whether the sound be confounded, blast of the mouth and the air of the pipe, it hath amplified, or dulled. Which two instances will also nevertheless some communication with the matter give light to the mixture of sounds, whereof we shall of the sides of the pipe, and the spirits in them conspeak hereafter.
tained; for in a pipe, or trumpet, of wood, and brass, 162. A bellows blown in at the hole of a drum, the sound will be diverse ; so if the pipe be covered and the drum then strucken, maketh the sound a with cloth or silk, it will give a diverse sound from little flatter, but no other apparent alteration. The that it would do of itself; so if the pipe be a little cause is manifest ; partly for that it hindereth the wet on the inside, it will make a differing sound issue of the sound ; and partly for that it maketh from the same pipe dry. the air, being blown together, less movable.
168. That sound made within water doth com
municate better with a hard body through water, Experiments in consort touching the loudness or soft- than made in air it doth with air, vide Experimenness of sounds, and their carriage at longer or
tum 134. shorter distance. 163. The loudness and softness of sounds is a
Experiments in consort touching equality and thing distinct from the magnitude and exility of
inequality of sounds. sounds ; for a base string, though softly strucken, We have spoken before, in the inquisition touchgiveth the greater sound; but a treble string, if harding music, of musical sounds, whereunto there may stracken, will be heard much farther off. And the be a concord or discord in two parts; which sounds cause is, for that the base string striketh more air, we call tones : and likewise of immusical sounds; and the treble less air, but with a sharper percussion and have given the cause, that the tone proceedeth
164. It is therefore the strength of the percussion, of equality, and the other of inequality. And we that is a principal cause of the loudness or softness have also expressed there, what are the equal bodies of sounds; as in knocking harder or softer; wind-that give tones, and what are the unequal that give ing of a horn stronger or weaker ; ringing of a But now we shall speak of such inequality
of sounds, as proceedeth not from the nature of the to come forth at their mouth, but to be an inward bodies themselves, but is accidental ; either from sound; but it may be, it is neither ; but from the the roughness or obliquity of the passage, or from motion of their wings: for it is not heard but when the doubling of the percutient, or from the trepida. they stir. tion of the motion.
176. All metals quenched in water give a sibila169. A bell, if it have a rift in it, whereby the tion or hissing sound, which hath an affinity with sound hath not a clear passage, giveth a hoarse and the letter Z, notwithstanding the sound be created jarring sound; so the voice of man, when by cold between the water or vapour, and the air. Seething taken the weasand groweth rugged, and, as we call also, if there be but small store of water in a vessel, it, furred, becometh hoarse. And in these two in- giveth a hissing sound; but boiling in a full vessel stances the sounds are ingrate, because they are giveth a bubbling sound, drawing somewhat near to merely unequal : but if they be unequal in equality, the cocks used by children. then the sound is grateful, but purling.
177. Trial would be made, whether the inequal170. All instruments that have either returns, as ity or interchange of the medium will not produce trumpets; or flexions, as cornets ; or are drawn up, an inequality of sound; as if three bells were made and put from, as sackbuts ; have a purling sound : one within another, and air betwixt each ; and then but the recorder, or flute, that have none of these the outermost bell were chimed with a hammer, inequalities, give a clear sound. Nevertheless, the how the sound would differ from a simple bell. So recorder itself, or pipe, moistened a little in the in- likewise take a plate of brass, and a plank of wood, side, soundeth more solemnly, and with a little purl- and join them close together, and knock upon one ing or hissing. Again, a wreathed string, such as of them, and see if they do not give an unequal are in the base strings of bandoras, giveth also a sound. So make two or three partitions of wood in purling sound.
a hogshead, with holes or knots in them; and mark 171. But a lute-string, if it be merely unequal in the difference of their sound from the sound of a its parts, giveth a harsh and untunable sound; hogshead without such partitions. which strings we call false, being bigger in one lace than in other; and therefore wire strings are
Experiments in consort touching the more treble, never false. We see also that when we try a false
and the more base tones, or musical sounds. lute-string, we use to extend it hard between the 178. It is evident, that the percussion of the fingers, and to fillip it; and if it giveth a double greater quantity of air causeth the baser sound; and species, it is true ; but if it giveth a treble, or more, the less quantity the more treble sound. The perit is false.
cussion of the greater quantity of air is produced 172. Waters, in the noise they make as they run, by the greatness of the body percussing; by the represent to the ear a trembling noise; and in re- latitude of the concave by which the sound passeth; gals, where they have a pipe they call the nightin- and by the longitude of the same concave. Theregale pipe, which containeth water, the sound hath fore we see that a base string is greater than a a continual trembling : and children have also little treble ; a base pipe hath a greater bore than a trethings they call cocks, which have water in them; ble; and in pipes, and the like, the lower the noteand when they blow or whistle in them, they yield holes be, and the farther off from the mouth of the a trembling noise: which trembling of water hath pipe, the more base sound they yield; and the an affinity with the letter L. All which inequali- nearer the mouth, the more treble. Nay more, if ties of trepidation are rather pleasant than other you strike an entire body, as an andiron of brass, at wise.
the top, it maketh a more treble sound; and at the 173. All base notes, or very treble notes, give an bottom a baser. asper sound; for that the base striketh more air, 179. It is also evident, that the sharper or than it can well strike equally : and the treble cut- quicker percussion of air causeth the more treble teth the air so sharp, as it returneth too swift to sound; and the slower or heavier, the more base make the sound equal: and therefore a mean or
sound. So we see in strings ; the more they are tenor is the sweetest part.
wound up and strained, and thereby give a more 174. We know nothing that can at pleasure quick start-back, the more treble is the sound; and make a musical or immusical sound by voluntary the slacker they are, or less wound up, the baser is motion, but the voice of man and birds. The cause the sound. And therefore a bigger string more is, no doubt, in the weasand or wind-pipe, which we strained, and a lesser string less strained, may fall call aspera arteria, which being well extended, ga- into the same tone. thereth equality; as a bladder that is wrinkled, if 180. Children, women, eunuchs, have more small it be extended, becometh smooth. The extension and shrill voices than men. The reason is, not for is always more in tones than in speech : therefore that men have greater heat, which may make the the inward voice or whisper can never give a tone. voice stronger, for the ngth of a voice or sound And in singing, there is, manifestly, a greater work- doth make a difference in the loudness or softness, ing and labour of the throat, than in speaking; as but not in the tone, but, from the dilatation of the appeareth in the thrusting out or drawing in of the organ; which, it is true, is likewise caused by heat. chin, when we sing.
But the cause of changing the voice at the years of 175. The humming of bees is an unequal buzz- puberty, is more obscure. It seemeth to be, for ing, and is conceived by some of the ancients not that when much of the moisture of the body, which
did before irrigate the parts, is drawn down to the to a sextuple bore; and so mark what fall of tone spermatical vessels, it leaveth the body more hot every one giveth. But still in these three last than it was; whence cometh the dilatation of the instances, you must diligently observe, what length pipes : for we see plainly all effects of heat do of string, or distance of stop, or concave of air, then come on ; as pilosity, more roughness of the maketh what rise of sound. As in the last of these, skin, hardness of the flesh, &c.
which, as we said, is that which giveth the aptest 181. The industry of the musician hath produced demonstration, you must set down what increase of two other means of straining or intension of strings, concave goeth to the making of a note higher; and besides their winding up. The one is the stopping what of two notes; and what of three notes; and of the string with the finger; as in the necks of so up to the diapason : for then the great secret of lates, viols, &c. The other is the shortness of the numbers and proportions will appear. It is not string, as in harps, virginals, &c. Both these have unlike that those that make recorders, &c. know one and the same reason ; for they cause the string this already : for that they make them in sets; and to give a quicker start.
likewise bell-founders, in fitting the tune of their 182. In the straining of a string, the farther it is bells. So that inquiry may save trial. Surely it strained, the less superstraining goeth to a note; for hath been observed by one of the ancients, that an it requireth good winding of a string before it will empty barrel knocked upon with the finger, giveth make any note at all; and in the stops of lutes, &c. a diapason to the sound of the like barrel full; but the higher they go, the less distance is between the how that should be I do not well understand ; for frets.
that the knocking of a barrel full or empty, doth 183. If you fill a drinking glass with water, scarce give any tone. especially one sharp below, and wide above, and 187. There is required some sensible difference fillip upon the brim or outside ; and after empty in the proportion of creating a note, towards the part of the water, and so more and more, and still sound itself, which is the passive: and that it be try the tone by filliping; you shall find the tone fall not too near, but at a distance. For in a recorder, and be more base, as the glass is more empty. the three uppermost holes yield one tone ; which is
a note lower than the tone of the first three. And Experiments in consort touching the proportion of
the like, no doubt, is required in the winding or treble and base tones.
stopping of strings. The just and measured proportion of the air percussed, towards the baseness or trebleness of tones, Experiments in consort touching exterior and interior
sounds. is one of the greatest secrets in the contemplation of sounds. For it discovereth the true coincidence There is another difference of sounds, which we of tones into diapasons ; which is the return of the will call exterior and interior. It is not soft nor same sound. And so of the concords and discords loud : nor it is not base nor treble: nor it is not between the unison and the diapason, which we musical nor immusical : though it be true, that there have touched before in the experiments of music ; can be no tone in an interior sound; but on the but think fit to resume it here as a principal part of other side, in an exterior sound there may be both our inquiry touching the nature of sounds. It may musical and immusical. We shall therefore enumebe found out in the proportion of the winding of rate them, rather than precisely distinguish them ; strings ; in the proportion of the distance of frets ; though, to make some adumbration of that we mean, and in proportion of the concave of pipes, &c. but the interior is rather an impulsion or contusion of most commodiously in the last of these.
the air, than an elision or section of the same : so 184. Try therefore the winding of a string once as the percussion of the one towards the other difabout, as soon as it is brought to that extension as fereth as a blow differeth from a cut. will give a tone; and then of twice about, and thrice 188. In speech of man, the whispering, which about, &c. and mark the scale or difference of the they call susurrus in Latin, whether it be louder or rise of the tone: whereby you shall discover, in one, softer, is an interior sound; but the speaking out is two effects : both the proportion of the sound towards an exterior sound; and therefore you can never the dimension of the winding; and the proportion make a tone, nor sing in whispering; but in speech likewise of the sound towards the string, as it is you may: so breathing, or blowing by the mouth, more or less strained. But note that to measure bellows, or wind, though loud, is an interior sound; this, the way will be, to take the length in a right but the blowing through a pipe or concave, though line of the string, upon any winding about of soft, is an exterior. So likewise the greatest winds,
if they have no coarctation, or blow not hollow, give 185. As for the stops, you are to take the num- an interior sound; the whistling or hollow wind ber of frets; and principally the length of the line, yieldeth a singing, or exterior sound; the former from the first stop of the string, unto such a stop as being pent by some other body; the latter being shall produce a diapason to the former stop upon pent in by its own density: and therefore we see, the same string.
that when the wind bloweth hollow, it is a sign of 186. But it will best, as it is said, appear in the rain. The flame, as it moveth within itself or is bores of wind-instruments: and therefore cause blown by a bellows, giveth a murmur or interior some half dozen pipes to be made, in length and all sound. things else alike, with a single, double, and so on 189. There is no hard body, but struck against
another hard body will yield an exterior sound are more confused, though the gross of the sound be greater or lesser: insomuch as if the percussion be greater. over-soft, it may induce a nullity of sound; but 198. The motions of the tongue, lips, throat, never an interior sound; as when one treadeth so palate, &c. which go to the making of the several softly that he is not heard.
alphabetical letters, are worthy inquiry, and perti190. Where the air is the percutient, pent or not nent to the present inquisition of sounds: but because pent, against a hard body, it never giveth an exte- they are subtle, and long to describe, we will refer rior sound; as if you blow strongly with bellows them over, and place them amongst the experiments against a wall.
of speech. The Hebrews have been diligent in it, 191. Sounds, both exterior and interior, may be and have assigned which letters are labial, which made as well by suction as by emission of the dental, which guttural, &c. As for the Latins and breath: as in whistling or breathing.
Grecians, they have distinguished between semi
vowels and mutes; and in mutes between mutæ Experiments in consort, touching articulation of tenues, mediæ, and aspiratæ; not amiss, but yet not sounds.
diligently enough. For the special strokes and
motions that create those sounds, they have little 192. It is evident, and it is one of the strangest inquired: as, that the letters B, P, F, M, are not secrets in sounds, that the whole sound is not in the expressed, but with the contracting or shutting of whole air only; but the whole sound is also in the mouth; that the letters N and B, cannot be every small part of the air. So that all the curious pronounced but that the letter N will turn into M; diversity of articulate sounds, of the voice 'of man as hecatonba will be hecatomba. That M and T or birds, will enter at a small cranny inconfused. cannot be pronounced together, but P will come
193. The unequal agitation of the winds and the between; as emtus is pronounced emptus; and a like, though they be material to the carriage of the number of the like. So that if you inquire to the sounds farther or less way; yet they do not con- full, you will find, that to the making of the whole found the articulation of them at all
, within that alphabet there will be fewer simple motions required distance that they can be heard; though, it may be, than there are letters. they make them to be heard less way than in a still; 199. The lungs are the most spungy part of the as hath been partly touched.
body; and therefore ablest to contract and dilate 194. Over-great distance confoundeth the articu- itself: and where it contracteth itself, it expelleth lation of sounds; as we see, that you may hear the the air ; which through the artery, throat, and sound of a preacher's voice, or the like, when you mouth, maketh the voice: but yet articulation is not cannot distinguish what he saith. And one articu- made but with the help of the tongue, palate, and late sound will confound another, as when many the rest of those they call instruments of voice. speak at once.
200. There is found a similitude between the 195. In the experiment of speaking under water, sound that is made by inanimate bodies, or by aniwhen the voice is reduced to such an extreme ex- mate bodies, that have no voice articulate, and ility, yet the articulate sounds, which are the words, divers letters of articulate voices; and commonly are not confounded as hath been said.
men have given such names to those sounds, as do 196. I conceive, that an extreme small or an ex- allude unto the articulate letters; as trembling of treme great sound cannot be articulate; but that water hath resemblance with the letter L; quenchthe articulation requireth a mediocrity of sound : ing of hot metals with the letter Z; snarling of dogs for that the extreme small sound confoundeth the with the letter R; the noise of screech-owls with articulation by contracting; and the great sound by the letter Sh; voice of cats with the diphthong Eu; dispersing : and although, as was formerly said, a voice of cuckows with the diphthong Ou; sounds of sound articulate, already created, will be contracted strings with the letter Ng; so that if a man, for into a small cranny; yet the first articulation re- curiosity or strangeness' sake, would make a puppet quireth more dimension.
or other dead body to pronounce a word, let him 197. It hath been observed, that in a room, or in consider, on the one part, the motion of the instrua chapel, vaulted below and vaulted likewise in the ments of voice; and on the other part, the like roof, a preacher cannot be heard so well, as in the sounds made in inanimate bodies; and what conlike places, not so vaulted. The cause is, for that formity there is that causeth the similitude of the subsequent words come on before the precedent sounds; and by that he may minister light to that words vanish ; and therefore the articulate sounds effect.
laying his ear close to the trunk : then via versa, Experiments in consort touching the motions of let the other speak below, keeping the same propor
sounds, in what lines they are circular, oblique, tion of softness ; and let him in the chamber lay his straight, upwards, downwards, forwards, back
ear to the trunk: and this may be the aptest means wards.
to make a judgment, whether sounds descend or 201. All sounds whatsoever move round; that ascend better. is to say, on all sides ; upwards, downwards, forwards, and backwards. This appeareth in all in- Experiments in consort touching the lasting and stances.
perishing of sounds ; and touching the time they 202. Sounds do not require to be conveyed to
require to their generation or delation. the sense in a right line, as visibles do, but may be 207. After that sound is created, which is in a arched; though it be true, they move strongest in a moment, we find it continueth some small time, right line; which nevertheless is not caused by the melting by little and little. In this there is a wonrightness of the line, but by the shortness of the derful error amongst men, who take this to be a distance ; linea recta brevissima. And therefore continuance of the first sound; whereas, in truth, it we see if a wall be between, and you speak on the is a renovation, and not a continuance; for the body one side, you hear it on the other; which is not be percussed hath, by reason of the percussion, a trecause the sound passeth through the wall, but pidation wrought in the minute parts, and so renewarcheth over the wall.
eth the percussion of the air. This appeareth ma203. If the sound be stopped and repercussed, it nifestly, because that the melting sound of a bell, cometh about on the other side in an oblique line. or of a string strucken, which is thought to be a So, if in a coach one side of the boot be down, and continuance, ceaseth as soon as the bell or string are the other up, and a beggar beg on the close side ; touched. As in a virginal, as soon as ever the jack you will think that he were on the open side. So falleth, and toucheth the string, the sound ceaseth ; likewise, if a bell or clock be, for example, on the and in a bell, after you have chimed upon it, if you north side of a chamber, and the window of that touch the bell, the sound ceaseth.
And in this you chamber be upon the south; he that is in the cham- must distinguish that there are two trepidations: the ber will think the sound came from the south. one manifest and local; as of the bell when it is
204. Sounds, though they spread round, so that pensile : the other secret, of the minute parts; such there is an orb or spherical area of the sound, yet as is described in the ninth instance. But it is true, they move strongest, and go farthest in the fore-lines, that the local helpeth the secret greatly. from the first local impulsion of the air. And there likewise that in pipes, and other wind-instruments, fore in preaching, you shall hear the preacher's the sound lasteth no longer than the breath bloweth. voice better before the pulpit than behind it, or on It is true, that in organs there is a confused murmur the sides, though it stand open. So a harquebuss, or for a while after you have played; but that is but ordnance, will be farther heard forwards from the while the bellows are in falling. mouth of the piece, than backwards, or on the sides. 208. It is certain, that in the noise of great ord
205. It may be doubted, that sounds do move nance, where many are shot off together, the sound better downwards than upwards. Pulpits are placed will be carried, at the least, twenty miles upon the high above the people. And when the ancient land, and much farther upon the water. But then generals spake to their armies, they had ever a it will come to the ear, not in the instant of the mount of turf cast up, whereupon they stood ; but shooting off, but it will come an hour or more later. this may be imputed to the stops and obstacles which This must needs be a continuance of the first sound; the voice meeteth with, when one speaketh upon for there is no trepidation which should renew it. the level
. But there seemeth to be more in it; for And the touching of the ordnance would not extinit
may be that spiritual species, both of things visible guish the sound the sooner: so that in great sounds and sounds, do move better downwards than up- the continuance is more than momentary, wards. It is a strange thing, that to men standing 209. To try exactly the time wherein sound is below on the ground, those that be on the top of delated, let a man stand in a steeple, and have with Paul's seem much less than they are, and cannot be him a taper; and let some vail be put before the known ; but to men above, those below seem nothing taper; and let another man stand in the field a mile 80 much lessened, and may be known : yet it is true, off. Then let him in the steeple strike the bell;
and that all things to them above seem also somewhat in the same instant withdraw the vail; and so let contracted, and better collected into figure: as knots him in the field tell by his pulse what distance of in gardens show best from an upper window or terras. time there is between the light seen, and the sound
206. But to make an exact trial of it, let a man heard: for it is certain that the delation of light is stand in a chamber not much above the ground, and in instant. This may be tried in far greater speak out at the window, through a trunk, to one distances, allowing greater lights and sounds. standing on the ground, as softly as he can, the other 210. It is generally known and observed that