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13. Etwas frei haben, to be free to take something. Comp. the phrase employed in the German railway service: ein Reisender hat fünfzig Pfund Gepäck frei, a passenger is allowed fifty pounds of luggage (carriage-free).

17. Der Morgen graut is a common expression, even in prose, of the first dawning of day.

18.

town.

vom Lager (her): the spectators look from the camp towards the

19. das bedrängte Thor=das Thor der bedrängten (belagerten) Stadt.— leise, leise means ‘very softly'; comp. also 6, 5. Repeating the adjective is a frequent mode of intensifying the idea of it, comp. also the familiar bon-bon.

22. Der Eheherr (cofhmonly used in the trisyllabic form) is a more formal and respectful appellation than Ehemann or the simple Mann.

23. arg=argliftig, cunning.-Wicht, 'wight,' a fellow of the train. 24. bedeutsam, with a tone full of meaning. In this sense Goethe uses the participle bedeutend (Hermann and Dorothea, 4, 111).

25. der fromme Herr is Conrad. He is styled fromm here because he keeps his promise even under the construction laid upon it by these cunning women.

27. In English we may say, 'what has been said, cannot be unsaid.'

28. zerbeuteln is a very unusual word. The suffix -eln expressing pettiness, deuteln means to attempt to change the sense of a word by petty and paltry shifts; the prefix zer denotes division and dissipation. The meaning of the whole expression would therefore be, 'to get rid of a royal pledge by means of a petty interpretation.'

29. Gold der Krone should be understood of the splendour of the regal dignity and faith.

30. herüber, to us; hinüber, to others.

XIII.

Frederick I., or Barbarossa (i.e. 'Red-beard'), the most glorious Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, reigned from 1152-1190. At the close of his reign, he took the Cross and went on a crusade into the Holy Land, the kings of France (Philip Augustus) and of England (Richard Cœur de Lion) being engaged in the same enterprise. Frederick perished while bathing in the river Calycadnus in Syria.

The present ballad narrates, in a quaint and popular style, an episode of this Crusade. It is based upon a passage in the Byzantine historian, Nicetas Acominatos of Chonae, who relates it in his second book, in the Life of the Emperor Isaac Angelus, previous to the battle of Iconium (May 18, 1190). Before Uhland, this tale had been further embellished by J. P. Abelin and the famous preacher Abraham a Santa Clara, who was the first to state that the valiant German knight was a Swabian. (See Götzinger, Deutsche Dichter, I. p. 519.) There is a dash of local patriotism in it, the poet Uhland being himself a Swabian. It should be observed that Schwabenstreich commonly means a mad and reckless prank. The Swabians are likewise said not to grow rational before the fortieth year of their age.

1. lobesam is a somewhat antiquated and quaint word, of pretty much the same meaning as vortrefflich, ehrenwerth. Comp. einsam, beredfam, etc.

2. For the construction er fam gezogen, see n. on 5, 191.

3. Das fromme Heer, the army of the Crusaders. They are called 'pious' on account of the religious nature of their expedition.

5 The imperf. erhub is less usual in modern German than erhob. Both forms are derived from the old imperfect erhuob.

8. The Germans have always had a certain reputation for hard drinking. In that sterile and dry district many a German knight had to forego his favourite pastime owing to the scarcity of drink.—Sich (dat.) etwas abthun means the same as sich etwas abgewöhnen.

10. die Mähre originally means 'the horse' in general, but in modern German it is often used in the contemptuous sense of a jaded horse.

15 sq. Er würde es nie aufgegeben haben, auch wenn es ihn das eigene Leben gekostet hätte.—nimmer is a stronger negation than nie. The word is, moreover, very frequently used in the Swabian dialect in the place of the simple negation.

19. in die Quer(e), across the road.

20.

Both funfzig and fünfzig are in use.

23. Er forcht sich nit is purposely put in the Swabian dialect, instead of the correct er fürchtete sich nicht.

24. Schritt vor Schritt, step by step.' We may also employ the preposition für in this phrase.

25. spicken is properly used of the 'larding' of joints.

26. See n. on 5, 60.

27. Die Zeit wird mir zu lang, I find the time too long for me.

28. Perhaps the compound Krummsäbel (omitted in Grimm's Dic tionary) is more commonly used of the Turkish scimitar.

29. See our note on Goethe's Hermann and Dorothea, 4, 153.

34. mit Macht, ' with all his might' or 'amain.’

37.

The usual phrase is in Stücke hauen.

41. For the noun der Graus, see n. on 4, 57.

42. in alle Welt hinaus is a proverbial phrase, like 'everywhere and anywhere.'

43. Es ist mir, als wenn (of)... I feel, as if...

45. In the phrase tes Weges kommen (zichen, wandern, reiten, &c.) we should observe the idiomatic use of the genitive. Compare Homer, Iliad, Β. 8οι ἔρχονται πεδίοιο, Τ. 285 ἐπειγόμενός περ ὁδοῖο, &c.

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47. mit gutem Beracht = the adv. bedächtig, at their good leisure.' 48. In prose we should say was für Arbeit. In the phrase employed by Uhland, Arbeit should be understood as a genitive=quid laboris.

52. It should be observed that der Streich means (1) the stroke, the blow, (2) the trick, the feat.

53. The Swabians are witty, and never at a loss for an answer and retort, in spite of their proverbial slowness.

54. im Schwange sein or gehen, 'to be in fashion,' a very idiomatic phrase. Comp. e.g. Luther's translation of Psalm lxxxv. 14, daß Gerechtigkeit dennoch vor ihm bleibe und im Schwange gehe. 2 Maccab. iii. 1, als man nun wieder in gutem Friede zu Jerusalem wohnete und das Geseß fein im Schwange ging.

56. halt is a kind of asseverative interjection much used in the Swabian dialect. It may, perhaps, be rendered by the Irish faith.

XIV.

Under the Emperor Frederick I. the German Empire attained its greatest splendour and power, and that heroic Emperor succeeded in making himself feared and respected both at home and abroad. It is for this reason that the German people have long cherished his memory, and conceived an idea that the Emperor was not dead, but merely sleeping and biding his time in the Kyffhäuser, in Thuringia. Jacob Grimm, in his German Mythology, p. 906 sq., gives the following account of this legend, which may serve as a kind of commentary upon Rückert's ballad:

Auf dem Kyffhäuser in Thüringen schläft Friedrich Reihbart: er sigt am runden Steintisch, den Kopf in der Hand haltend, nickend, mit den Augen

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zwinkernd, sein Vart wächst um den Tisch und hat schon zweimal dessen Ründung umschlossen; wann er das drittemal herum gewachsen sein wird, erfolgt des Königs Aufwachen. Bei seinem Hervorkommen wird er seinen Schild hängen an einen dürren Baum, davon wird der Baum grünen und eine bessere Zeit werden. Doch Einige haben ihn auch wachend gesehen; einen Schäfer, der ein ihm wohlgefälliges Lied gepfiffen, fragte Friedrich:,, Fliegen die Raben noch um den Berg?", und als der Schäfer bejahte: „, So muß ich hundert Jahre länger schlafen." (See also Grimm's Deutsche Mythologie, p. 366.) It should, however, be stated that when the legend first appears it is related, not of Frederick I., but of his grandson, the Emperor Frederick II. It may be added that the Welsh similarly believe their ancient king Arthur to lie in Snowdon, and one of these days they expect him to come forth from the mountain and to reestablish the splendour of the kingdom of the Cymry by driving the Saxons out of Britain.

2.

Friederich (i.e. rich in peace) is the original trisyllabic form of the name now commonly used as Friedrich.

12.

zu seiner Zeit, in his own good time.'

14. Darauf as a relative is obsolete now; we should now say worauf, as we have it v. 16.

15. marmelsteineru is archaic, instead of marmorn, or aus Marmor.
His beard is not of flaxen colour, but as red as fire.

17. 20.

Observe the somewhat heavy accentuation aūsrúht, instead of the ordinary aúsrūht.

23. je denotes repetition after pauses, each of which is long.

24.

We may

Knabe and Knappe ('a page') were originally identical in meaning, and merely different forms of one and the same word. translate it here with the old English knave, which retained its original sense of 'page' in the language of Shakespeare.

XV.

The present ballad may be looked upon as an attempt to substantiate, by free and original invention, a title handed down from remote ages. The Counts of Limpurg (a castle situated at a short distance from Schwäbisch-Hall, in the modern kingdom of Würtemberg) claimed from times immemorial the title and privileges of cup-bearers to the German Emperor, and are repeatedly styled pincernae de Limpurg in ancient documents. They became extinct in 1713. As the tale related here is of Uhland's own invention, it remains uncertain which of the Hohenstaufen Emperors is the one spoken of in the present poem.

I. Die Feste (often spelt Veste) = Feftung, stronghold.

5. allerwegen (properly two words of genitival formation) = überall.

8. leid is etymologically connected with E. loth; hence Einem etwas verleiden may well be translated, 'to make some one loth to do some. thing.'

11. Wilde Feder is apparently meant to denote the feather of a wild bird.

13. an der Seiten is purposely archaic instead of an der Seite; comp. Auc § 137, note. See also below, v. 75.

14. Buchs Buchsbaumholz, boxwood.

15. schreiten incedere, or like the compound ausschreiten.

17. For the plural Mannen see Aue § 148, note 2.-Instead of wohl ('indeed'), we might also turn the sentence this way: Obwohl (obschon, wenngleich) er Knechte und Mannen und ein tüchtiges Roß hatte, ging er, &c. 20. Troß, his menial train.

21. Geleite, company.

22. Comp. 5, 165.

26. The phrase adopted here is somewhat homely when used of Imperial state. But the poet employed it intentionally.

27. mit hellen Haufen, with a large and noisy train. Haufe is rather an undignified word: see n. on Kohlrausch, p. 1, 3.

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31. Jagdgesinde means the same as Troß, v. 20. Gesinde is a collective noun derived from O. H. G. sind, corresponding to Gothic sinps and Anglo-S. si 'road,' 'journey,' whence O. H. G. kisindo, Gothic gasinpa'a roadfellow,' 'an escort.'

32. Forst always denotes an extensive forest, while Wald is the ordinary wood.

36. In prose: mit mannigfaltigen Blumen, variis floribus.

39. Die Häge, plural (rarely used) of der Hag, for which word see note on 5, 39.

40.

Graf.

A more usual order of words would be und vor ihm stand der

41. ánhèben is more dignified than anfangen, the original notion being that of raising his voice.

42. hie is archaic instead of hier. It is more frequently used in the compound allhie.

44. Both tommt and kömmt are correct forms of the third person sing. In the same manner we have both bu fommst and du fömmst, but

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