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In old Attic the accusative plural of these nouns in -eus is generally uncontracted in -eas. But we have τοὺς βασιλεῖς, ΟΙ, perhaps erroneously, βασιλῆς, in Sophocl. Ajax, 388, τοὺς Πλαταιεῖς in Thucyd. II. 76, τοὺς νομεῖς or νομῆς in Xen. Cyrop. I. 1, § 2, and in vieús for vios the form Toùs vieîs alone is found. It seems that we must restore Toùs poveîs for toîs èμoîs in Æsch. Ag. 1296 (Journ. of Philol. vol. III. p. 216), and this contraction would be the more natural as povéa is sometimes a tribrach. In the orators the contracted form is common. When the termination -εύς follows a vowel, the gen. and acc. sing. and pl. are regularly contracted, ea being written a, as in Πειραιώς, Πειραιᾶ, ἀγνιῶν, ἀγνιᾶς, Μηλιώς.

191 β.. Masc. and Fem. in τους.

ó, n Boûs, "the ox or cow."

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192 With these we may compare the masc. or fem. nouns in -ws, -wos, and the feminines in -ws, -w, -oos, -oûs, for in each of these cases v, as the representative of F, has been absorbed (above, 95). Take, for example, ὁ θώς, “the jackal,” ὁ ἥρως, “ the noble warrior," for "pFaor-s', and n aidos, "the shame," for aidofis, nx for xoFís, "the echo."

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Masc. proper names in -eus frequently have a corresponding feminine in -ώ, as Νηλεύς, Νηλώ. These feminine nouns, like αἰδώς and ἠχώ, have no dual or plural.


f. Derivatives in -ns, -eos.

From neuter nouns of the class (γ) are formed compounds, chiefly adjectives and proper names, by inserting ea=ŋ for o in the masc. and fem. nominatives and accusatives, e for o in the neuter nom. and accus. The other cases remain unaltered. Thus from τὸ τεῖχος, “ the wall,” we have ὁ, ἡ εὐτειχής, τὸ εὐτειχές, “ that which is well fortified,” and from τὸ τοῦ δήμου σθένος, “the strength of the people,” we have Δημοσθένης, the name of the celebrated orator, which, though resembling κριτής in the nom., is infected after the model of τεῖχος. In some proper names, however, the analogy of κριτής is followed in the accus. sing. Thus we have both Σωκράτεα, -η, and Σωκράτην. If a vowel precedes η in the nominative of these nouns (as in compounds with κλέος), a double contraction takes place in the dative: thus Ηρακλέει becomes Ἡρακλεῖ, Περικλέει becomes Περικλεί. Although ἡ τριήρης is properly an adjective agreeing with vaûs understood, it is practically used only as a substantive, signifying "the war-galley with three banks of oars," and may serve as an example of this form of declension, by the side of the two most common forms of proper

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It will be observed that the genitive тpińpwv is not circumflexed on the last syllable. This is the rule with all these compound words in -ήρης, -ήθης, -ώδης, -ώλης, -ώρης, as συνήθων, γεώδων, ἐξώλων, νεώρων, and in all probability the e is supposed to suffer synizesis, as in the genitives πόλεως, &c. The grammarians prescribe the same accentuation for αὐτάρκων. All barytone nouns of this class throw back their accent in the vocative; thus while we have ὦ εὐλαβές from εὐλαβής, we have ὦ τρίηρες, Σώκρατες, Δημόσθενες from τριήρης, Σωκράτης, Δημοσθένης (above, 51, cc. 2). The oxytone ἀληθής becomes ἄληθες when the neuter is used as an ironical exclamation signifying "indeed!"

General Remarks on the Third Declension.

194 Dialects: (1) The uncontracted nouns exhibit the following differences:

(a) In epic verse the dual -ow is often lengthened into -ouv; e. g. ποδοῖιν for ποδοῖν.

(β) The dat. pl. in epic Greek is -σι(ν), -σσι(ν), or -εσσι(ν); e. g. βέλος makes βέλεσι(ν), βέλεσσι(ν), οι βελέεσσι(ν), and πούς makes ποσίν, ποσσίν, and πόδεσσιν ; and we have even ἀνάκτεσι and μήνεσι for ἄναξι and μησί.

(γ) In Ionic the gen. pl. sometimes ends in -εων: thus we have ἀνδρέων, χηνέων, ἀλωπεκέων; and in later Doric the termination is sometimes -āv, as in aiyâv for aiyev (Theocr. v. 148, vIII. 49).

(2) The contracted nouns present the following changes:

(α) In epic Greek nouns in -eus make the gen., dat., &c. in -ηος, -ηΐ, &c. ; thus, sing. βασιλεύς, βασιλῆος, βασιλῆι, βασιλῆα (but also Ὀδυσῆ for Ὀδυσῆα, Od. XIX. 136); plur. βασιλῆες,

βασιλήων, βασιλεῦσι (but ἀριστήεσσι for ἀριστεῦσι, Π. Ι. 227), βασιλήας. In Herod. we have βασιλέος for βασιλέως. In Doric we have, sing. -έος, -εῖ, -ή, εν, plur. -έες (-εις), -έων, εῦσι (but Δωριέεσσι, Theocr. ΧV. 93, XVII. 69), -είς (and sometimes -ές).

(β) In epic and Ionic the nouns in - retain their throughout, with occasional varieties. For example, the following is the declension of πόλις :

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(γ) Nouns in -us, vos are generally contracted by Homer in the dat. sing., thus : ὀρχηστυῒ from ὀρχηστός, πληθυῒ from πληθύς, νεκυῒ from νέκυς. The nom. pl. is generally uncontracted, but we have δρύς and ἰχθύς. Theocritus (xxΙ. 45) writes ἰχθύα for ἰχθύν. Nouns in -us, eos are sometimes contracted in Homer, sometimes not. And there is occasionally a synizesis of -ea, as in πελέκεως (Π. ΧΧΙΙΙ. 851).

(δ) In Doric we have βῶς, βῶν for βοῦς, βοῦν. We have in Ionic γρηύς οι γρηύς for γραύς, with the dat. γρη, τος. γρην οι γρηύ. There are the following variations in the declension of ναῦς :

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(e) Nouns in -ws, -wos are rarely contracted in epic Greek; but we have po as the dat. of pws (Il. VII. 453), and Mívw as the acc. of Mivws (Ib. XIV. 322). Nouns in -w, -ws, -oos are always contracted in the epic and Ionic dialects. For ews we have nos, gen. ἠούς, dat. ἠoi, acc. ή; and from χρώς we have gen. χροός, In the later Ionic we have accusatives in -ovv from nouns in -ω, as Λητοῦν, Ἰοῦν and ἠοῦν (Hedyl. ap. Ath. xi. p. 473 A).

dat. xpo, acc. xpóa. dat.xpoi,

(5) Nouns in -os, -eos are sometimes in epic Greek and other dialects contracted into -evs, as épéßevs, Oépevs, &c. Sometimes an t is inserted after e in the root; thus: σπέος and σπείοs, gen. σπείους, dat. σπῆι, gen. pl. σπείων, dat. pl. σπέσσι and σπήεσσι. The derived nouns in -ns, -eos generally remain uncontracted, but a synizesis of -eo, -ea is not uncommon (as in I. III. 27, Od. XIII. 194), and from this the later grammarians have formed contractions (as in Od. XVIII. 201). The nouns in -λns from -λéŋs form their cases in -ños, -i, -ña. But the accusative sometimes ends in -éa, the second being omitted, and this shortened form is adopted in Ionic prose, and in the Doric dialect, throughout the cases; thus we have Ηρακλέος, Ηρακλέϊ, Ηρακλέα, &c. In adjectives of this class we sometimes find an inserted, as in eüppeîos gen. from ἐϋῤῥεής, ευκλείας acc. from εὐκλεής. The nouns in -as, -aos retain only one a in the nom. and acc. pl.; thus for déπaa, xpéаa we have déπa and κpéa; and the gen. pl. is sometimes contracted into κρεών οι κρειών for κρέαων. The dat. sing. sometimes drops its characteristic 4, as in λίπ ̓ ἐλαίῳ for λίπαϊ. As in τεῖχος, the original a is sometimes changed into e; thus we have ovdeï and ovde from ovdas, and this is common in Ionic prose, which gives κέρεα and κερέων for κέραα and κεράων.

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