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elections vote by ballot (i.e. by writing the name of the candidate on a ticket or tablet).

Cassia: this law was carried by L. Cassius Longinus Ravilla, tribune in 137 B. C., and extended the ballot to the juries in the criminal courts. Cassius was afterwards a judge and for his severity called scopulus reorum; he was the author of the saying 'cui bono?' (i.e. who gains by it? viz. the offence). The lex tabellaria of Carbo introduced the ballot for voting on laws proposed to the comitia. His law is commonly placed in 131 B.C. but there is no direct evidence for the date, and it may have been several

years later.


populum...multitudinis: the change seems made merely for the sake of variety.

§ 42. 23 quorsum haec: sc. disputo, as in post red. ad Quir. 5 quorsum igitur

haec disputo? Cf. also Cat. m. 13 quorsum igitur haec tam multa de Maximo; Phil. 7, 26 quorsum haec omnis spectat oratio; Leg. 1, 62 sed

quorsus hoc pertinet ? 25 igitur: note its position as third word in the sentence; and cf. enim in 50, 1. 7.

bonis := bonis viris, as in 18, 1. 3, and elsewhere. 26 ignari casu aliquo: note the two reasons ignari and casu aliquo

placed side by side unconnected by a conjunction. So 3, p. 28, 1. 3 praesentibus coram.

ne: in final clauses as here and 43, 1. 5; 60, 1. 8; 65, p. 49, 1. 1; 78, 1. 27; where a negative is needed ne and ut ne are used indifferently by Cicero; in consecutive negative clauses ut non stands as below, l. 26. Cf. Roby § 1636, $ 1696. [Cf. however my n. on Pro Sulla § 27.] alligatos: possibly Cic. wrote illigatos, which he always uses in a bad

entrapped', or ‘entangled'. 27 in magna...peccantibus: 'when sinning in some public matter of im

portance'. Cf. the phrase sunma res publica; also pro Balbo 14 in tanta re publica versari ; also n. on 15, 1. 8. In old editions in magnam rem publicam used to be read, but apart from the unsatisfactory sense here, the construction peccare in rem publicam does not occur, while the abl. is found often, as in Att. 7, 1, 3. The accusative is even in other expressions rare; Cic. generally says peccare in aliquo, not aliquem; cf. Tusc.

2, 12. 28 nec vero: this phrase, which occurs also in 65, 1. 32, corresponds to the positive expression et...quidem (cf. 7, 1. 11), the phrase nec...

...quidem being unused by good writers; see n. on 30, p. 38, 1. 30 quis clarior: for omission of erat cf. 22, 1. 20 quid dulcius... and 30,

p. 38, 1. 3 Africanus indigens mei? See also n. on 14, 1. 31 sin illa veriora.

Themistocle: so Acad. 2, 2 Themistocle quem facile Graeciae principem ponimus.

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imperator :=otpatnyòs of the Athenians. The whole Grecian fleet at Salamis was commanded not by Themistocles but by Eurybiades the

Spartan. 32

invidiam:=daßolny, 'unpopularity'. 33 ingratae etc.: did not bear with the injustice of his thankless country

as he was in duty bound to do'.

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P. 42.
viginti annis ante: the ostracism of Themistocles happened in
471 B. C. while the banishment of Coriolanus from Rome is assigned
to the year 491.

Coriolanus: he is compared with Themistocles in Brut. 42; Att.
9, 10, 3. Varying accounts were current concerning the death of
both these men, as Cic. himself states in Brut. 42 and 43, where he
refers to Thuc. I, 38. In Att. 9, 10, 3 he assumes that Coriolanus
died a natural death.

nemo: the inference intended is so much worse are the Romans now than their forefathers, and than the Greeks of Themistocles' time'.

§ 43. 3 talis: i.e. such as that described in § 41.

supplicio: a stronger word than poena above (42, 1. 28); in its strict sense supplicium means summary execution'. For supplicio

omni= summo cf. pro imp. Cn. Pomp. 11. 6

concessum: ‘permissible'.
7 quod etc. : ‘now this, considering the course affairs have begun to

take, will probably come about'. In Cicero haud scio an always
introduces something which is probable; in some later writers, however,

something which is improbable; cf. n. on 20, p. 34, 1. 3. 8 curae: n. on cordi in 15, 1. 14.

§ 44.
haec igitur... faciamus: these words almost exactly repeat the first
sentence of $ 40. Notice that in this sentence the clauses are put
side by side without connecting particles. Many edd. read vero for
verum against the weight of mss evidence. The fact that the other
clauses have no connecting particles is in favour of verum, for the sense
of which cf. 90, 1. 10 cuius aures clausae veritati sunt, ut ab amico verum

audire nequeat. 13

libere:=metà tappnolas, 'with all freedom of speech'; cf. 91,
In Tacitus libertas has frequently the meaning of mappnoia.
15 non modo etc. : 'not only frankly, but even sternly'. Cf. 91, l. 21

monere et moneri proprium est verae amicitiae et alterum libere facere,
non aspere, alterum patienter accipere, non repugnanter.

§ 45.
17 nam: 'I say this, for'; slightly elliptic; see 41, l. 15 n.


1. 22.

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quos audio etc.: cf. n. on 24, 1. 18 doctum quendam, and for audio n. on 41, l. 12. Observe that Cic. writes habitos, not haberi. 18 placuisse : 'I think that some...have held as dogmas '; the word placere has often a much stronger sense than our 'please'.

mirabilia: napádoča, a word which Cic. translated sometimes by mirabilia (Acad. 2, 136), sometimes by admirabilia (Parad. prooem. 4; Fin. 4, 74), sometimes by admiranda.

sed: in contrast to mirabiliaparadoxes indeed, but'. 19 quod etc. : 'which they do not refine upon (lit. track out) in their subtlety'.

partim : there is slight anacoluthon here; the sentence is closed without the second partim which should correspond to this, and its place is taken by alios at the beginning of the next sentence. Both partim and alii refer to quibusdam. Such anacolutha, where only one of a pair of words such as alter alter, alius alius etc. is expressed and the other replaced (in another sentence) by some other expression, are very common in Cic.; cf. n. on 73, 1. 3. Madvig has collected a large number of exx, in the first excursus to his De Finibus.

fugiendas etc. : that a man should avoid making too much of his friendships' (lit. 'that too-much friendships, excessive friendships are to be avoided'). Through not seeing that homini (not hominibus) is to be supplied after fugiendas, some editors have against Latin usage forced nimias into meaning nimis multas, because of pluribus below. In the words that follow, the emphasis lies not on unum pro pluribus (for it is assumed that each man will have more friends than one) but on sollicitum. Cic. is evidently here imitating a chorus of the Hippolytus of Euripides, l. 253 sq. The nurse of Phaedra speaks:

χρήν γάρ μετρίας εις αλλήλους
φιλίας θνητούς ανακίρνασθαι
και μη προς άκρον μυελος ψυχής,
εύλυτα δ' είναι στέργηθρα φρενων
από τ' ώσασθαι και συντείναι.
το δ' υπέρ δισσών μίαν ώδίνειν
ψυχήν χαλεπόν βάρος, ως κάτω
τησδ' ύπερ αλγώ.
ούτω το λίαν ήσσον επαινω
του μηδέν άγαν

και συμφήσουσι σοφοί μοι. The sentiment is the same as that in Sophocles' Ajax 680 és te τον φίλον | τοσαύθ' υπουργών ωφελεϊν βουλήσομαι | ως αιέν ου μενούντα.

satis superque etc.: 'each man has of his own business enough for himself and to spare'. For the almost pleonastic sibi cf. Tusc. 5, 42 omnia sibi in se posita censebit, and the use in comedy of suus

sibi. 23 laxissimas habenas: a representation of l. 4 of the passage quoted

above, εύλυτα δ' είναι στέργηθρα φρενών. The collocation habenas habere


seems intentional; cf. 22, l. 18 vita vitalis. Lucr. 2, 1095 has quis habere profundi indu manu validas potis est moderanter habenas.

quas: here=ita ut eas. 24

adducas...remittas: ánó ? boao bau kal ouveîval. For adducere 'to draw tight' cf. Verg. Aen. 9, 587 a. habenas; Liv. 9, 10, quin adducis lorum ? For the position of cum velis see n. on 8, l. 21 cum summi viri tum amicissimi.

caput: 'the chief matter'; cf. maximum est in 69, p. 49, 1. 33. 25

beate vivendum: in the Latin of Cicero's time there was no one word to represent the Greek cúdaluovia=happiness. Cic. himself in one passage (N. D. 1, 95) coined beatitas and beatitudo, but did not again use the words, though they became current later. Cf. 84, 1. 6 beata vita.

securitatem: as Seyffert remarks, Cic. uses this word as well to express the evduula (cheerfulness) of Democritus, as the árábela (absence of emotion) of the Stoics, and the ndovn of Epicurus.

qua frui non possit : in the oratio recta this would be qua frui non potest. In representing in oratio obliqua clauses with a relative which is simply connective (qui=et is or nam is) Cic. allows himself a certain latitude between the construction with acc. and inf. (qua frui non posse animum) and the subjunctive construction which we have here. We find in Acad. I, 42 ... scientiam nominabat : ex qua exsisteret etiam opinio ; but in Fin. 3, 64 mundum autem censent regi numine deorum eumque esse communem urbem et civitatem hominum et deorum, et unum quemque nostrum eius mundi esse partem, ex quo illud natura consequi, ut... The subjunctive verb in the one passage and the infinitive verb in the other would each of them be present indicative in oratio recta, and their constructions would be exactly similar. Cf. also Tusc.., 3, 69 Theophrastus accusasse naturam, dicitur quod cervis et cornicibus vitam diuturnam quorum id nihil interesset, hominibus, quorum maxime interfuisset, tam exiguam vitam dedisset; Acad. I, 28 ex quibus effectum esse mundum, extra quem nulla pars materiae sit; Fin. 4, 16 aiunt artis requisitas quae naturam adiuvarent, in quibus ea numeretur...; N. D. i, 106 hoc idem fieri in deo, cuius crebra facie pellantur animi. Cf. also below, 88, l. 18 fuisset. It will be seen that the ordinary grammar rule, thus given by Mr Roby ($ 1781) 'those relative sentences [? clauses) in which qui=et is, or nam is, cum=et tum etc., being not really subordinate sentences [? clauses), are put in the infinitive', requires considerable modification. There is a very similar, but less common vacillation between infinitive and subjunctive in putting questions of the form quid facio? or quid facit ? into oratio obliqua. For this see Roby $ 1782 n. [The present passage (from qua to pluribus) might be regarded as really in oratio recta, the oratio obliqua having been abandoned. Cf. Fam. 5, 16, 4 saepissince et legi et audivi, nihil mali esse in morte; in qua si sensus resideat immortalitas illa potius quam mors ducenda sit; sin sit amissus, nulla videri miseria debeat quae non sentiatur.] R. L.



26 tamquam parturiat: a hesitating translation of wồively in the passage

of Euripides; cf. n. on 49, 1. 33.

§ 46. alios: the Cyrenaics and Epicureans; cf. 52, l. 28 homines deliciis diffluentes.

dicere aiunt: phrases like dicere dicunt are exceedingly rare in Cic., but Stuerenburg on Arch. 20 is wrong in saying that Planc. 35 supplies

the only instance; see Fam. 3, 7, 5; 9, 16, 5; 11, 20, 1. 27

inhumanius: cf. humanius in Fin. 2, 82 where Cic. is contrasting the sordid view of friendship put forward by Epicurus himself, with the gentler views of his later followers.

quem etc.: 'a topic which I have briefly touched on already'. 28

ante : § 26 sq.

praesidi adiumentique: 'protection and assistance'; cf. 51, l. 21. 29 expetendas: 'choiceworthy'; n. on 22, 1. 24. 30 ut quisque minimum: see n. on 19,


23. haberet : in quotations Cic. often puts the past tense where we should expect the present; e.g. N.D. I, 40 idemque disputat aethera esse eum

quem homines lovem appellarent. The change to quaerent is odd. 31 appetere: = επιθυμεϊν, εφίεσθαι; different from expetere = προαιρείσθαι.

mulierculae: this diminutive here expresses pity: often however contempt; cf. gúvalov.




§ 47. P. 43.
praeclaram; ironical, as often; cf. Acad. 2, 94; Tusc. 1, 49.

solem enim etc.; cf. closely $8 20, 22, and for the metaphor Att. 9, 10, 3 sol, ut est in tua quadam epistula, e caelo cecidit.

a dis: sc, datum. 3 quae : almost =quanti, as often; 'of what worth?'

blanda: 'enticing': an epithet often applied to the Epicurean ndon (voluptas).

reapse: cf. the common contrast between loyw and èpyu. Corssen 112 847 quotes from Festus a fragment of a speech by Scipio where reque eapse occurs. We have i-p-se and in Plautus eo-p-se, eum-p-se, eam-p-se. All these words contain the enclitic particle pe which appears in nem-pe, quis-p-iam etc. : also the remains of a lost demonstrative pronoun once declined so-s, sa, sum, the same in fact as the definite article é, in Greek. The only difference in meaning between reapse and the simple re is one of emphasis. [Reapse was in Cic.'s time archaic: Sen. Ep. 108, 32.]

multis locis: not different in sense from 48, l. 21 multis in rebus. For locis cf. 22, l. 29 nullo loco; 22, 1. 36 pluribus locis; 67, 1. 16 hoc loco. 5 consentaneum : 'consistent', i.e. 'with your other actions'. 6 rem: =Apâyua; actionem =īpašu course of action'.

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