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7 fugimus: 'intend to avoid '; the continuous sense of the present

tense frequently borders on a future meaning. 8 necesse est...aspernetur: ut omitted, as often in Cic. after necesse est,

oportet and other impersonal phrases; cf. n. on 10, 1. 4 cave; also on 17, l. 32 censeo petatis.

bonitas: kindheartedness', as in ii, 1. 26; 29, 1. 23 etc. Little different from benevolentia in 19, 1. 27 etc.

malitia : 'evilheartedness', 'ill-will’.

temperantia: owopoo úvn, self-control, particularly with regard to bodily pleasures.

videas: sc. si adsis, or something equivalent. For the missing protasis cf. n. on 5, 1, 24.

dolere: n. on 11, l. 28.

imbellibus...modestos: note the chiasmus (for which see n. on 23, 1. 10), and cf. n. on 5, l. 19. Modestus is not ‘modest', but 'lawabiding'. It is here almost equivalent to our 'respectable'.

ergo etc.: 'it is therefore characteristic of the well-ordered mind'.


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§ 48.

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13 si cadit...qui profecto cadit : cf. 24, P. 36, 1. 1 si quae praeterea sunt credo autem esse multa.

cadit in: 'belongs to', 'affects', 'falls within the province of'; a favourite phrase with Cic.; e.g. Acad. 1, 42; Tusc. 3, 12 cadere, opinor,

in sapientem aegritudinem tibi dixisti videri; below, n. on 100, 1, 7. 15 humanitatem : 'the milk of human kindness'.

arbitramur: the present indicative as in l. 7 fugimus; cf. also arbitramur in 24, 1. 29. 16 aliquas: note the difference to the sense which ullas for aliquas

would make—the difference between getting rid of some actual troubles

(aliquas) and all possible troubles (ne...ullas). 17

motu animi: to be taken in a wide sense, as the context shews, both of emotions and intellectual perceptions. The Stoics taught that the wise inan should be unaffected by ordinary emotion, which they regarded as

sinful. Cf. Tusc. IV, passim, and n. on § 8, 1. 23. 18 dico: this has for its real object the whole phrase inter pecudem et

hominem, which may be treated as though between inverted commas, as also the whole phrase from inter hominem to eiusdem. Sometimes Cic. uses non dicam for non dico in such sentences. Cf. also n, on ne dicam

in 82, l. 17. 19 truncum aut saxum : no doubt Cicero was thinking when he wrote

this of the line in the Odyssey (19, 163) ου γάρ από δρυός εσσι παλαιφάτου, oưd'ånd tétons, which he imitates also in Acad. 2, 100. For truncus cf. N.D. 1, 84 qui potest esse in eius modi trunco sapientia ? Seyffert copi. ously illustrates the use of truncus saxum ferreus and the like to denote stupidity and insensibility.




isti : the Stoics.
quasi: 'almost'; cf. n. on 6, p. 29, 1. 5; 3, p. 28, 1. 2.
volunt: cf. 29, 1. 30; volt esse also in 98, 1. 23.
cum...tum: "'.
bonis...incommodis: = rebus secundis...adversis (18, p. 33, l. 2).

1 23 diffundatur : sc. virtus, put here, after Cicero's fashion, for vir prae

ditus virtute. Nägelsbach makes the subject to diffundatur to be amicus supplied from amici; he then sa that either this amicus is equivalent to animus amici or else animo must be understood with the two verbs. This interpretation seems clumsy. [It is possible that the subject of diffundatur may be quis understood; cf. n. on l. 27 contrahat.] When the mind is expanded it is supposed to feel pleasure, when contracted, pain. The Stoics used the terms διαχείσθαι and συστέλλεσθαι, διάχυσις

and συστολή. 25 non plus quam...repudientur: the sentence is elliptic for non plus

quam angor qui capiendus est ex virtutibus valet ut etc. The non before plus would not be required by good English idiom, though in vulgar English ‘ more than’ is common for ‘not...any more than'. Cf.

n. on 103, 1. II numquam ne minima quidem; also n. on 1o, l. 4. 27 contrahat: what is the subject of this verb? Seyffert (and after him

Nauck; Lahmeyer has no note) says the whole clause si quasi (or, as he and most edd. read against the mss, si qua) significatio virtutis eluceat, but the passages he quotes are entirely unlike ours.

It is more likely that the subject is quis omitted as in De Or. 1, 30 quo velit=quo quis velit. For the omission of the subject cf. n. on 59,

supra: an expression inadvertently used by Cic., for it implies writing and is inapplicable to a speech. Cf. however 15, 1. 3. In 8,

1. 20 we have ut est a Fannio dictum. 28 quasi significatio virtutis: cf. 32, 1. 20. Quasi indicates that signi

ficatio is a translation of some Greek word such as onuecov; for which cf. n. on 49, 1. 33.

eluceat: cs. n. on 27, p. 37, 1. 8 lumen aliquod probitatis et virtutis. 29 applicet: cs. 27, 1. 31; 32, 1. 21.

id cum contigit: cum here simply=quotiens. On contigit see n. on 8, 1. 30. For cum with perfect tense cf. 94, 1. 9.

1. 29.

§ 49. 30 absurdum: est omitted as in 22, 1. 10 quid dulcius, 14, 1. 31 etc.

multis inanibus : n. on 30, p. 38, 1. 8 multae et magnae. 32 corporis...animante: adversative asyndeton, for which see n. on 5, 1. 25; 13, 1. 16.

praedito: as animans is exceptionally used of man, it is necessary here to make it masculine, but when it is applied to the lower animals, as in 81, 1. 12, it is generally feminine. So quadripes is feminine (Parad. § 14).

eo qui: 'of such a kind that'; so 82, l. 23 cupiditatibus eis quibus. 33 redamare: coined by Cic. here to express åvtipidel and used by

him nowhere else, nor does it occur again till very late in Latin literature. Ut ita dicam is used to soften the harshness of this new word; cf. 69, p. 50, l. 2; 55, 1. 23; 29, 1. 29.



P. 44. remuneratione: this applies to redamare only, while vicissitudine applies to both amare and redamare.

$ 50. quid? This little anticipatory question, like oldè in Greek, serves to draw special attention to what follows. Its meaning really is ‘What

do you think of this that I am going to say?' 3 addimus: n. on fugimus, 47, p. 43, 1. 7.

nihil esse etc.: it will be seen that the comparison is not quite perfect, there being two members in the first branch (nihil...rem ullam) and three in the second (amicitiam ...[homines]... similitudo).

similitudo : properly this should be similitudinem in the same construction as nihil, but it is attracted into the same case with quod. Such attractions of case are common; for attractions of gender see n. on


1. 10.

5 verum esse ut: cf. 14, 1. 31 sin illa veriora ut; also 81, l. 11 apparet

ut; 68, 1. 24 spem afferunt ut. When the clause after verum est is an infinitive clause, it is regarded as embodying a fact, when an ut-clause, a consequence or result. The meaning here may be represented thus : ‘this result will be granted as true, so as to lead to the fact that the

good love the good'. 6 asciscant: "adopt.

quasi propinquitate: 'a sort of relationship’; opposed to actual propinquitas (19, 1. 27). For quasi see n. on 3, p. 28, 1. 2.

natura: 'natural affinity'.
enim : third word in the sentence; cf. 18, p. 33, 1. i and igitur in 42,


1. 25.

appetentius: when present participles lose the notion of time and become adjectives they take a genitive case.

similium: the neuter plural of the adjective in the genitive case used as substantive is rare. Cf. De Or. 2, 262 gravium autem et iocorum unam esse materiam ; also 32, 1. 13 his; 23, 1. 4 omnibus; 13, 1. 19 in plerisque; 55, l. 25 istorum; 58, 1. 15 datorum ...acceptorum;

30, p. 38, 1. i nullo; 89, 1. 10 libero. 9 ut opinor: (such is my opinion'. Sometimes opinor alone without

ut stands parenthetically beside a subjunctive, as in Att. 9, 6, 2 sed quiescamus, opinor.

bonis inter bonos: more emphatic than bonis inter se, which would have been more usual.


necessariam: sc. esse; so Cic. often leaves out the esse of the perf. pass. inf. after constat; e. g. pro Balbo 5 quem constaret ab imperatore civitate donatum.

qui: the attraction of the relative in sentences like this is almost regular in Cicero, and indeed in most other writers of the best period; e.g. Pis. 57 levis est animi i ustam gloriam, qui est fructus verae virtutis honestissimus, repudiare; Phil. 5, 39 Pompeio patre, quod imperi populi Romani lumen fuit, exstincto. Cf. 86, 1. 20; 18, 1. 7.

amicitiae fons : cf. 32, 11. 18—24.

inhumana: "unkindly'; immunis: 'unserviceable' (literally, free from munia or duties towards the state); superba : 'egotistic'. The last word is difficult to translate, as it combines the notions 'oppressive', ‘proud', 'difficult of approach'.

quae : = cum ea; so in 70, l. 15 quos=cum eos, and often.

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§ 51.

15 atque etiam : 'and again'.

utilitatis causa : either these words are merely descriptive of amicitias ('imagine friendships which are based on expediency'), for which usage cf. n. on 20, p. 34, 1. 2, or else there is an ellipse of esse (“ imagine friendships to be based on expediency), for which ellipse cf. 18, 1. 7;

64, 1. 24. Fingunt as 18, l. 9 quae finguntur aut optantur, 16 amabilissimum: n. on 4, l. 12 maxime memorabilem. Trans. the

tenderest link in the chain of friendship’. 17 amor ipse: n. on 19, 1. 25 natura ipsa. 18 : cf. n. on 25, 1. 6.

ab amico est profectum: the word proficisci is often thus used in Cicero's letters of services passing between friends; e.g. Fam. 2, 19, 2 quaecumque a me ornamenta in te proficiscentur ; ib. 3, 1, 1 intellego omnia quae a me profecta sunt in te, tibi accidisse gratissima; so Nep.

Att. 9, 4.



19 tantumque abest ut...ut: this particularly clumsy construction is

a very favourite one with Cic. Note that with all good writers the verb in such phrases (abest, afuit etc.) is always impersonal.

indigentiam: a rare word, scarcely occurring out of Cicero, who uses it above, 27, p. 36, 1. 31; 29, 1. 30 and Tusc. 4, 21.

opibus : 'because of their wealth'. Roby § 1228.
praesidi : cf. 46, 1. 28.

alterius : Cic. uses indigere far oftener with a genitive than with an ablative, though the latter is commoner in silver Latin. Above, 30, p.

38, 1. 4 Africanus indigens mei ? 23 atque : here corrective=kaltoi, “and yet'.

haud sciam an : a well-attested though rare variant for haud scio an ; cf. De Or. 1, 255; 2, 72 and 209. Haud sciam is really the apodosis to an unexpressed protasis such as si quis ex me quaereret ; for which ellipse


cf. n. on 5, 1. 24. The statement is thus conveyed in a more modest way than by haud scio an; cf. Cicero's frequent use of crediderim etc. for credo etc. Translate the whole sentence thus, 'And yet I rather think there is no advantage in friends never lacking aught'.

ne...quidem: the reason for the negative will be seen by referring to n. on 20, p. 34, 1. 3 haud scio an.

nihil umquam omnino deesse : Cic. is here striving to represent the Greek aŭtápkns=self-sufficient, for which there was no one word in

Latin. 24 ubi: here=qua in re rather than quo in loco. Cf. Tusc. 5, 102 cur

igitur divitiae desiderentur, aut ubi paupertas beatos esse non sinit ? ib. 121 me conscripturum libros arbitror, ubi enim melius uti possumus hoc otio ? Trans. where would our (=my) zealousness have displayed

its activity if etc.' 25 nec: cf. n. on ro, l. 4. 26 Scipio eguisset: see however 30, p. 38, l. 4 quid ? Africanus indi

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tia ;

§ 52. 28 homines deliciis diffluentes : 'men enervated by pleasure'; cf. De Or.

3, 131 otio diffluentes; Off. 1, 106 diffluere luxuria ; Terent. Haut. 5, 1, 73 d. luxuria et lascivia ; Tusc. 2, 52 liquescimus fluimusque molli

Liv. 7, 29, 5 fluentes luxu; also the phrase fluxa corpora, and the uses of solvi dissolvi frangi debilitari and the like. Diffuere is rather rare, not occurring in Caesar, Nepos, Virgil, Horace or Ovid, and only once in Cicero's speeches. The homines meant are of course the Epi.

cureans and Cyrenaics, as in 46, 1. 26. 29 quam ... cognitam : 'of which they understand neither the practice nor the theory'.

habent cognitam : cf. compertum habere and the like. In such phrases we have the first step towards the conversion of habere into an auxiliary verb, which is completed in the Romance languages. Cf. also

97, p. 58, l. 4. 30 - pro: so rightly spelt, not proh.

deorum fidem atque hominum : for the collocation cf. 32, 1. 21 ut et usu eius fruantur et moribus, and n. on 8, 1. 21. 31 ut : 'on condition that', so as neither to...'. Cf. Fin. 2, 74 quid

merearis, ut dicas te omnia voluptatis causa facturum ? For the general sense cf. Aristotle Eth. Nic. 9, 9, 3 ουθείς γάρ έλoιτ' άν καθ' αυτόν τα trávt' fxelv åyalá. Cicero's words are so near to Aristotle's as almost to look like a translation. Nägelsbach $ 96, 2 points out that Cic. here is trying to represent uńte piw uńte pilovuevos, and gives some instructive remarks on the modes in Latin of replacing the present participle passive. n. on 40, l. 4. 32 circumfluere : Verr. 3, 9 istum rebus omnibus undique ereptis eluden

tem circumfluere atque abundare.


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