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be of Etruscan construction, but called the arch of Augustus. The church S. Angelo is built on the site and with the materials of an antient temple. For the Etruscan remains at Perugia, see ETRURIA (Antiquities).
Some interesting excavations are now going on at Perugia, and many objects of antiquity have just been discovered ir. the immediate vicinity of the city while making a new road. (Communication from Perugia, Jan., 1840.)
300 and 400 students: it has a library of 30,000 volumes, with some valuable MSS., among others a Stephanus Byzantinus, a botanical garden, a collection of minerals, and a cabinet of antiquities rich in Etruscan inscriptions, bronzes, vases, and medals. The academy of the fine arts has a collection of paintings by natives of Perugia and of the territory. Several noblemen have also galleries of paintings in their palaces, such as the Marquis Monaldi, Baron della Penna, Count Staffa, Oddi, &c. Perugia has a school of music, two theatres, a dramatic academy, a casino, or assemblyrooms of the nobility, and a literary cabinet or club. Perugia has long been distinguished among the provincial towns of the Papal State for its love of learning. A biographical list of authors natives of Perugia has been commenced by Professor Vermiglioli, Biographia degli Scrittori Perugini, but not completed. Vermiglioli has also published a catalogue of writers who have illustrated the history of his native city: Biblioteca Storica Perugina, 4to., Perugia, 1823. Oldoni has written Athenæum Augustum in quo Perusinorum Scripta publice exponuntur," 1678. Passeri has written the lives of the native artists: Vite dei Pittori, Scultori, ed Architetti Perugini,' 4to., 1732. Bran-in-law, having quarrelled with Octavian, and being defeated, dolesi has given an account of the works published at Perugia in the first century of the invention of printing: 'La Tipographia Perugina del Secolo XV. illustrata,' 8vo., 1807. Vermiglioli has written on the mint of Perugia: 'Memorie della Zecca e delle Moneti Perugine,' 8vo., 1816. The antiquities of Perugia, both Etruscan and Roman, have been illustrated by Orsini, Vermiglioli, and Bianchini; and the modern works of art by Mariotti and Morelli, Pitture e Sculture della Città di Perugia,' 1683, besides the common guide-books. Among the contemporary learned men of Perugia, the antiquarian Vermiglioli, Mezzanotte (the translator of Pindar and professor of Greek literature), Canali (professor of physics and rector of the university), Colizzi (professor of law), and Antinori (a poet and professor of Italian literature), deserve notice. Perugia has produced two burlesque poets, Coppetta and Caporali, the latter of whom is considered by many as equal to Berni.
The population of Perugia, including the suburbs, is 15,000 (Calindri); in the time of its independence, in the sixteenth century, the population was reckoned at 40,000. The circumference of the walls is above six miles, but much of the area within is open and unbuilt upon. The citadel, from which there is a splendid view, extending on one side along the valley of the Tiber, and on the other over the basin of the lake, the plains beyond it, and the long chain of the Apennines, was built by Pope Paul III., to keep the city in awe, and it occupies a considerable space. Perugia has some manufactories of silks, woollens, and soap, but the principal trade consists in the products of its fertile territory, corn, oil, wool, and cattle.
Among the many churches of Perugia, said to be above one hundred, the most remarkable are-1, the Duomo, or cathedral, in the Gothic style, with some good paintings by Signorelli, Baroccio, and others. A painting by Perugino, representing the marriage of the Virgin, which adorned this church, was taken away at the first invasion of Bonaparte, and it is not known what has become of it. The number of masterpieces of paintings taken from Perugia by the French amounts to about thirty. Some were restored at the peace, but it seems that, instead of returning to Perugia, they have been placed in the Vatican gallery at Rome. 2, The church of S. Francesco was plundered of the Descent from the Cross,' by Raphael, at an earlier date, by Paul V., and this picture is now in the Borghese Gallery. 3, The vast Benedictine convent of S. Pietro, one of the wealthiest in the Papal State, has several paintings by Vasari. 4, The church of S. Domenico has a fine colouredglass window in the choir, and the tomb of Pope Benedict XI., who died at Perugia in 1304, is remarkable for its sculptures. Descriptions of each of these churches are published.
The town-house, Palazzo dei Priori,' a vast Gothic building, and the residence of the delegate and of the municipal authorities, contains the archives of Perugia, among which are some curious documents of the middle ages. The old exchange, Sala del Cambio,' is adorned with beautiful frescoes by Perugino. The square before the cathedral contains a beautiful fountain, with sculptures by Giovanni da Pisa. In the square 'Del Papa' is the bronze statue of Julius III. seated in a chair, cast by Vincenzo Danti of Perugia. The Place Grimana has a handsome gate, said to
Perusia was one of the principal cities of antient Etruria, but it seems to have been built before the Etruscan dominion by a colony of Umbri from Sarsina. (Servius, x. 201.) In an Etruscan inscription in the Museum Oddi it is called Perusei. Perusia acted a principal part in the wars of the Etruscans against Rome; its troops were defeated by the consul L. Fabius Maximus, and then Perusia, together with Arretium, sued for peace, and paid tribute to Rome, 294 B.C. (Livy, x. 31, 37.) In the second Punic war, Perusia was one of the allied towns that sent timber and provisions to Scipio to fit out his armament against Africa. During the second triumvirate, the consul Lucius Antonius, brother of Marcus the Triumvir, stimulated by Fulvia, his sistershut himself up in the town of Perusia, where he sustained a long siege, and at last, through famine, was obliged to surrender to Octavian, who put to death 300 of the principal citizens of Perusia, and gave up the town to plunder. Perusia was on that occasion nearly destroyed by fire. It was afterwards rebuilt under the name of Perusia Augusta. At the fall of the Western Empire, it was devastated by the Goths under Totila. It passed afterwards through the same vicissitudes as most other towns of Italy: it ruled itself for a time as a free municipality, had its factions of Guelphs and Guibelines, its own tyrants, and at last submitted voluntarily to the rule of Braccio da Montone, one of the best and wisest chieftains of the middle ages. After his death, the government passed through the hands of several of his relatives, and from them to that of the family of Baglioni. Giovani Paolo Baglioni, being seized at Rome by Pope Leo X., was beheaded on some political charge. His descendants however governed Perugia for some years after, until Pope Paul III. united it to the Papal State and built the citadel. (Ciatti, Memorie di Perugia; Mariotti, Saggio di Memorie Istoriche della Città di Perugia.)
Twelve miles north of Perugia, in a romantic situation among the Apennines, is the monastery of Monte Corona, belonging to the order of Camaldoli, the monks of which have cultivated and planted with trees the surrounding territory. This monastery was one of the few that was spared by the French during their occupation of the Papal State. The monks have an hospice at the foot of the mountain for the reception of travellers. (Premuda, La Istoria Romoaldina, ovvero Eremitica di Monte Corona, Venice, 1590.)
PERUGINO, PIETRO, or PIETRO VANNUCCI DELLA PIEVE, DE CASTRO PLEBIS,' was the son of a certain Cristofano, a poor man of Castello della Pieve, where Pietro was born, in the year 1446. His father is said to have placed him as a shop-boy (fattorino) with a painter of Perugia. When about twenty-five years of age he visited Florence, and, according to Vasari, became a pupil of Andrea Verocchio, the master of Lorenzo di Credi and Leonardo da Vinci; but this fact seems very doubtful. In the course of a few years he attained considerable reputation, and his works were so much esteemed as to be exported. In 1475 we find him employed by the magistrates of Perugia, and the order for a payment to him in that year appears on the public records of the town. In 1480 he executed some frescoes for Sixtus IV. in the Sistine chapel at Rome: only one or two of these now remain, the greater part having been destroyed to make room for the Last Judgment of M. Angelo in the time of Paul III. The Dead Christ, and other figures so much praised by Vasari, were painted for the nuns of Santa Chiara at Florence in 1485. Francesco del Pugliese is said to have bid for this picture three times the original price, and a duplicate by Perugino, but the offer was refused. In the year 1500 Pietro executed the frescoes in the Cambio at Perugia. He afterwards visited Florence again, but, in consequence of a quarrel with the artists there, returned to the city whence he derives his name. He died at Castello della Pieve, in 1524.
The fame of Perugino has certainly been widely spread, from the circumstance of his having been the teacher of Raphael; but, at the same time, the superior genius of the
most original and tasteful edifices of its class in that city. Instead of being perplexed by the awkwardness of the site, he availed himself of it to curve the front of the building, and thereby produce so happy an effect that such form seems to have been entirely the result of choice, and independent of other circumstances. The loggia and small inner court are singularly beautiful, and the whole edifice deserves the attention it has received in a folio work, by Suys and Haudebourt, expressly devoted to it, and containing outline engravings of all its parts and details (Paris, 1818).
pupil has thrown into comparative obscurity the real merit of the master. Perugino was a most unequal painter: his early works are far better than those executed after 1500. The popularity of his pictures, and the facility which he had acquired, produced repetition and mechanical execution. Vasari says he gave all his figures one and the same air;' it must however be admitted that that air' is far superior to the contortions of Vasari himself and his fellow-pupils in the school of M. Angelo. Perugino lived to see the conflict between the old and simple style and the very different principles of the great master just named. With M. Angelo himself he is reported to have had a public quarrel: Vasari's account therefore of his moral character must be received with some little suspicion. He says that Perugino was an infidel, who could never be brought to believe in the immortality of the soul, and who would do anything for money. At the same time he gives him great credit for his technical skill, especially in colouring.
Among the best pictures of Perugino now extant are:An Infant Christ, Virgin, and Angels, painted in 1480, and preserved in the Albani Palace at Rome; a Fresco in Santa M. Maddalena dei Pazzi at Florence, executed at a later period; the Dead Christ, before alluded to (now in the Pitti Palace, No. 164); one or two pictures in the Accademia at Florence; and his frescoes in the Cambio at Perugia. Mr. Beckford, in this country, possesses a work of Perugino's best time.
Raphael was a pupil of Perugino, and his early works, such as the Marriage of the Virgin, greatly resemble those of his master. [RAPHAEL.]
The following painters were among the most eminent scholars of Perugino:-Pinturicchio of Perugia; Andrea Luigi d'Ascesi, called l'Ingegno; Giovanni Spagnuolo, surnamed Lo Spagna; and Rocco Zoppo of Florence.
(Vasari, Vite dei Pittori; Rumohr, Italienische Forschungen; Lanzi, Storia Pittorica.)
PERUVIAN ARCHITECTURE. [PERU.] PERUVIAN BARK. [CINCHONA.] PERUZZI, BALDASSA'RE, an architect of less celebrity than many greatly inferior to him in design, was born in 1481, at Volterra, to which city his father Antonio had removed, in order to avoid the civil dissensions which agitated Florence. A few years afterwards Volterra itself was besieged and sacked, and Antonio fled to Siena, where the family lived in reduced circumstances, having lost nearly all their property. On his father's death, Baldassare, who had enjoyed opportunities of access to many artists and their works, determined to apply himself to painting, which he did with so much assiduity, both from his natural inclination and from his wish to aid his mother and sister, that he made extraordinary progress. After executing some subjects in a chapel at Volterra, he accompanied a painter of that city, named Piero, to Rome, where the latter was employed by Alexander VI. The death of that pope frustrated their scheme of working in concert at the Vatican; however Baldassare remained for awhile at Rome, where he painted some frescoes in the church of S. Onofrio, and in that of San Rocco à Ripa, and distinguished himself by some others at Ostia, particularly by one in chiaro-scuro, representing a siege by Roman warriors, and remarkable for the strict fidelity of the antient military costume, which he derived from bas-reliefs and other existing monuments.
On returning to Rome he found a liberal patron in the celebrated Agostino Chigi (a native of Siena), by whom he was enabled to continue at Rome for the purpose of devoting himself chiefly to the study of architecture. The acquirements he thus made soon displayed themselves in what was then quite a new career of art, namely architectural perspectives and scene-painting; and the science of perspective and its application to pictorial illusion and effect. To what perfection he brought this branch of art may be judged from what Vasari relates, who says that on his taking Titian to see some of Peruzzi's works, that great painter could hardly believe at first that the objects were not real. Of his astonishing performances in scene painting there is now no evidence, but some idea of his extraordinary ability in it may still be formed from the painted | architecture, &c. with which he decorated a gallery in the Farnesina. It was not however in scenic and fictitious architecture alone that he displayed his talent for that art; he designed many elegant façades at Rome, and gave proof of his superior ability in the Palazzo Massimi, one of the
Peruzzi made a design for St. Peter's on the plan of a Greek cross, which, had it been executed, would have surpassed the present structure; also two different designs for the façade of S. Petronio at Bologna. On Rome being taken and sacked by the Constable Bourbon, it was with extreme difficulty that Baldassare escaped from the hands of the soldiery, and after being pillaged of everything, reached Siena, where he was most kindly received, and employed on various buildings. He returned however to Rome, and it was then that he built the Palazzo Massimi, but did not live to see it quite completed. He died in 1536, not without suspicion of having been poisoned by a rival who sought to obtain the appointment which he held as architect of St. Peter's. He was buried in the Pantheon, near Raphael.
PE'SARO E URBINO, LEGAZIONE DI, a province of the Papal State, is bounded on the east by the province of Ancona, on the north and north-east by the Adriatic Sea, on the west by the province of Forli and the grandduchy of Tuscany, and on the south by the province of Perugia. The area is estimated at 1749 square miles. (Neigebaur.) The central ridge of the Apennines, which divides the province of Pesaro e Urbino from Tuscany, projects eastward towards the Adriatic in the neighbourhood of Urbino, and sends off several offsets, which run to the seacoast, forming the natural boundary between Northern and Southern Italy. The mountain on which San Marino stands forms part of one of these offsets. [SAN MARINO.] Several streams run in a north-east direction from the Apennines to the sea. The first of these streams, reckoning from the north, is the Conca, which runs along the boundary between the province of Forli and that of Pesaro, and after a course of about twenty-five miles enters the sea near La Cattolica. The next is the Foglia, the antient Pisaurus, which rises in the Apennines of Carpegna on the Tuscan border, and after a course of forty-six miles enters the sea at the town of Pesaro. Farther south is the Metauro, the largest river in the province, which rises near Borgo Pace on the east side of the Apennines that bound the valley of the upper Tiber: it runs first due east, passing by the towns of St. Angelo and Urbania, receives the united stream of the Cantiano and Candigliano, which con es from the south from the mountains of Gubbio, then turning to the north-east_passes by Fossombrone, and enters the sea by the town of Fano, after a course of nearly sixty miles. According to a tradition among the country-people, the spot in which Hasdrubal was defeated and killed is a plain called Piano di San Silvestro, above the confluence of the Cantiano, and about six miles south of the town of Urbino. A tower on a hill called Monte d'Elce, on the right bank of the Metaurus, is called the sepulchre of Hasdrubal. The Flaminian road from Fano crosses the Metaurus above Fossombrone, and follows the course of the Cantiano, ascending the Apennines above the source of the latter river, and afterwards descending by Gualdo to Nocera. The next river in the province of Pesaro is the Césano, which rises in the mountains of Avellana, passes the town of Pérgola and the site of the antient town of Suasa, of which some remains are still visible, and enters the sea north-west of Sinigaglia, after a course of about thirty miles. South-east of the Césano is the Misa, which enters the sea at Sinigaglia, after a course of about twenty-five miles. The surface of the province of Pesaro e Urbino is hilly; some parts of it are very fertile, but the mountains are generally barren. The lower hills are planted with vines, olive, and mulberry-trees. Good pasture is also abundant. The province is divided into five districts-Urbino, Pesaro, Fano, Sinigaglia, and Gubbio, containing altogether 226,000 inhabitants. (Serristori.) The principal towns are- -URBINO, which is the old capital of the province and the residence of the former dukes. 2. Pésaro, the antient Pisaurum, a well-built town and a bishop's see, has several fine churches with some good paintings, a fine market-place, several
palaces of the nobility, and the palace of the former dukes a most expert swimmer and diver, and that he could remain della Rovere, who were once sovereigns of this little state, a longer under water than any other person on record. He public library of 15,000 volumes, with a museum and a cabinet had been accustomed from his boyhood to dive for oysters of models bequeathed by Olivieri, a learned man of Pesaro, to and coral along the coast of his native country. It is rehis townsmen. Pesaro has a small harbour, several manufac-ported that_king Frederic once asked him to dive into the tories of silks, pottery and glass, and leather, and about 11,000 sea off the Point of Faro, where the current forms a whirlinhabitants. (Calindri.) The surrounding territory, which pool known by the name of Charybdis; and as Pesce hesiis very fruitful, produces, among other things, excellent figs, tated, the king threw a golden cup into the sea, when Pesce and is covered with pleasant country-houses. Pesaro car- plunged in, and after remaining a considerable time under ries on a considerable trade in the agricultural products of water, brought up the cup, to which the king added a purse the province. A bed of coal has been discovered in the of gold as a gift. Pesce was induced to repeat the experineighbourhood. Pesaro has a civil and criminal court, and ment, but he never rose again from the sea. (Kircher, a commercial tribunal, a college, and a clerical seminary. Mundus Subterraneus, b. i.) We know now that the whirlIt is the birth-place of Pandolfo Collenuccio, a chronicler pool of Charybdis is not so fearful as it was once represented and poet of the fifteenth century; of Count Perticari, a phi- to be, and that at times there is very little agitation in the lologist and son-in-law of Monti; and of the musical composer Rossini. 3. Fano, the antient Fanum Fortunæ, is a town with about 7000 inhabitants. It has a triumphal arch dedicated to Augustus, which has been badly restored, and therefore spoiled (Poletti, Ragionamento intorno all' Arco d'Augusto in Fano), several churches with paintings by Guido and Guercino, a handsome theatre, some silk manufactories, and a public library. On the coast near Fano are taken great quantities of a small fish called 'cavallo marino,' the head of which resembles that of a horse, and has a sort of mane attached to it. 4. Sinigaglia, the antient Sena Gallica, is a bustling town with a small harbour, several churches and convents, and about 8000 inhabitants. It is chiefly remarkable on account of its great fair, one of the largest in Italy, which is held in the month of July, and is frequented by tradespeople from all parts of Italy, and also from other countries. About 200 vessels, mostly of small burthen, of the various nations which trade in the Mediterranean, arrive at Sinigaglia at that time, and bring colonial and other produce, and also French, English, and German manufactures. The celebrated singer Madame Catalani, was a native of Sinigaglia. 5. Fossombrone, situated on a hill about a mile and a half from the ruins of Forum Sempronii, which are lower down the banks of the Metaurus, is a bishop's see, has several churches and convents, a bridge on the Metaurus, and about 4000 inhabitants. The silk spun at Fossombrone is considered the best in Italy. 6. Gubbio, the antient Iguvium, a city of the Umbri, is situated out of the high road on the southern slope of the Apennines near the sources of the Chiascio, an affluent of the Tiber: it has several churches and other buildings worthy of notice, and about 4500 inhabitants. Oid Iguvium was in a lower situation than the present town; the amphitheatre is still in tolerable preservation; eighteen of the lower arches are remaining, as well as three of the upper row. There is also an antient tomb, with other remains of antiquity. No traces of the temple of Jupiter Apenninus, an old deity of the Umbri, are visible at Gubbio, but according to Micali, they are to be seen three miles from Chiascerna, the antient Clavernium, not far from the post station of La Scheggia in the Apennines, on the high road called the Furlo. In this neighbourhood also were found, about the middle of the fifteenth century, the seven bronze tablets written partly in Etruscan and partly in Latin characters, and known by the name of the Eugubine tables, which are now in the museum of Gubbio. According to the interpretation of Lanzi, they relate entirely to the religious rites of the antient Umbri. 7. Cagli, the antient Callis, a Roman colony, on the Flaminian road, has about 3000 inhabitants, and some remains of antiquity. 8. Urbania, a modern town, which derives its name from pope Urban VIII., is situated on the banks of the Metaurus, has a collegiate church, a manufactory of majolica, or Delft ware, and about 4400 inhabitants. 9. Pérgola, on the Césano, has 2500 inhabitants.ent [Calindri.]
The province of Pesaro e Urbino is very interesting for its romantic scenery, its classical recollections, and the numerous remains of antiquity which are scattered about it. PESCE, NICOLA, or COLA, a famous Sicilian swimmer and diver, who lived towards the end of the fourteenth century. His name was Nicholas, and he was surnamed 'Pesce' (the fish) on account of his expertness in diving. Frederic II., king of the Two Sicilies, employed him, and encouraged his feats. The most incredible stories are told of him; it is said that he passed whole hours under water, and whole days in the water; that he used to swim from Sicily to the Lipari Islands, carrying letters and despatches in a leathern bag, &c. The truth seems to be that he was
Mariotti, in his 'Riflessioni' on the lake of Perugia, speaks of a fisherman called Nonno di San Feliciano, who was a great swimmer and diver, like Pesce Cola of Sicily and lived almost entirely in the water. He lived till past ninety years of age.' It must be observed however that the lake of Perugia is not very deep. PESHAWER. [AFGHANISTAN.]
PESTH, the greatest commercial town and the most populous city in Hungary, is situated in 47° 30′ N. lat. and 19° 4' E. long., on the left or east bank of the Danube, about 20 miles from the spot where the course of the river, till then nearly from west to east, makes a sudden bend to the south. On the other side of the Danube, which is here about 1500 feet broad, is the city of Ofen. [BUDA.] The two cities are connected by a bridge of boats, which, including the fixed portion on the two banks, is 1500 paces in length. The city of Pesth is about seven miles in circumference. It consists of five principal parts-1, the old town, which, though antiquated and irregularly built, contains some fine buildings; 2, the Leopoldstadt, or new town; 3, the Theresienstadt; 4, the Josephstadt; and 5, the Franzstadt-so named after the sovereigns in whose reigns they were built. Leopoldstadt is now joined to the old town, the walls which formerly surrounded the latter having been levelled to make room for new buildings. Leopoldstadt is built on a very regular plan. The other three parts or suburbs are separated from these two by a very broad street. Among the fifteen churches, that of the university is distinguished by its fine steeple and excellent fresco paintings. The other Roman Catholic churches, 11 in number, are not remarkable; but the Greek church on the Danube is one of the finest buildings in the city. The two Protestant churches are very plain edifices. Of the other public buildings, the following deserve notice: the great barracks built by Charles VI.; the hospital of invalids, an immense edifice begun in 1786 under Joseph II., the building which was interrupted by the Turkish war (it is not known to what use it was destined by that emperor; at present it serves as barracks for a regiment of artillery); the theatre, a very handsome edifice, capable of containing 3000 spectators; the national museum, and the university. The university was founded in 1635 at Tyrnau. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it exercised, through the powerful agency of the Jesuits, great influence over the people. In the year 1777 it was transferred by Maria Theresa to Ofen, and in 1784 by Joseph II. to Pesth. The branches of learning taught are theology, law, medicine, philosophy, philology, and mathematics. There are 49 professors and above 1000 students. The university has a library of 60,000 volumes, a cabinet of natural history, a collection of medals, a chemical laboratory, and an anatomical and pathological collection. Dependon it are the botanic garden, the veterinary school, the university hospital, and the observatory at Ŏfen, which stands on the Blocksberg, 278 feet above the Danube, and is well furnished with good instruments. The National Museum, which is independent of the university, was founded by Count Szecsenyi, who gave his fine library and a valuable collection of Hungarian coins and medals, and induced the Diet in 1808 to endow it. It would take a volume to describe this museum. The collection of coins and medals contains above 60,000 specimens, of which the Greek, Roman, and other antique silver medals amount to above 12,000. The gymnasium of the Piarists has 800 scholars; and the city normal school (likewise in the convent of the Piarists), above 400. There are eight other Catholic schools, two Greek, and two Protestant schools. The Roman Catholic
girls' school of the English ladies, as it is called, has 400 day-scholars and 40 boarders.
Though Buda is the residence of the viceroy and the capital of the kingdom, Pesth is the seat of the high court of justice, and of the supreme court of appeal and other tribunals, and also of the government of the three united counties of Pesth, Pils, and Solther, which contains a population of 400,000 inhabitants. The manufactures are of silk, cotton, leather, jewellery, and musical instruments, but on a small scale; that of tobacco is a government monopoly. Pesth however has, next to Vienna, the greatest trade of any city on the Danube. It has four fairs, each of which lasts a fortnight. The principal articles sold are manufactures and colonial produce, and the natural productions of the country, such as cattle, wine, wool, tobacco, and raw hides, honey, wax, &c. Above 14,000 waggons and 8000 ships are employed in conveying goods to and from the fairs, the value of which at cach of them is from 16 to 17 millions of florins. The environs of Pesth are not picturesque, the city being situated on a sandy plain, but there are some fine promenades, such as the Grove, a mile and a half from the city; the gardens of Baron Orczy; and the Palatine, or Margaret Island, in the Danube, which is laid out in walks and gardens with great taste. Among the inhabitants are many noblemen, country gentlemen, professors, judges, and lawyers. The population of Pesth consisted (1833) of 62,850 inhabitants, of whom about 54,000 were Roman Catholics, 3000 Protestants, 817 Greeks, and 5000 Jews. With the addition of the garrison (9133 men) and the numerous strangers, the population amounts to 75,000. Pesth, though an antient town, is in its present form comparatively recent. It has been frequently lard waste by war, and was in the possession of the Turks for nearly 160 years, who were not finally expelled till 1686. Civil war followed, and at the beginning of the eighteenth century Pesth was one of the most inconsiderable towns in the kingdom. Its improvement may be dated from the reign of Maria Theresa, and it has since been progressive and rapid. In 1793 there were only 2580 houses: there were in 1837, 4500. The winter of 1838 was disastrous to Pesth, above 1200 houses being destroyed by the overflowing of the Danube. They were however, for the most part, the worst buildings in the city, and there is little doubt that the spirit of the inhabitants, aided by the munificent contributions sent to them from all parts of the empire, will in a few years efface all traces of the devastation.
(J. v. Thiele, Das Königreich Ungarn, vol. vi.; Oesterreichische National Encyclopädie; R. E. v. Jenny, Handbuch für Reisende in Oesterreich; Blumenbach, Gemälde der Oesterreichischen Monarchie.)
| the præcordia, are among the first symptoms of the disease. These are succeeded by a burning pain about the pit of the stomach; by a peculiar muddiness of the eyes; by coma, delirium, and other affections of the sensorium, which terminate by death in some cases on the second or third day, before the pathognomic symptoms, buboes and carbuncles, have appeared. In other cases these last-mentioned symptoms are present, together with purple spots and ecchymoses, which belong to the plague in common with other malignant fevers. Though these are the ordinary symptoms of plague, they are not all invariably observed in the same individual; but many varieties occur, which chiefly have reference to the greater or less virulence of the disease, and the absence or presence of some particular symptoms. Thus, we are informed by Sydenham that in the infancy of the great plague of London scarce a day passed but some of those who were seized with it died suddenly in the streets, without having had any previous sickness; the purple spots, which denote immediate death, coming out all over the body, even when persons were abroad about their business; whereas after it had continued for some time, it destroyed none, unless a fever and other symptoms had preceded. Dr. Russell describes six classes or varieties of plague, in some of which the fever appears to have been very violent, while in others it was proportionally mild. The most destructive forms of the disease, according to this author, were marked by severe febrile symptoms; and the infected of this class seldom or never had buboes or carbuncles. The bubo however was the most frequent concomitant afterwards; carbuncles, on the contrary, were remarked in one-third of the infected only, and were seldom observed at Aleppo earlier than the month of May, near three months after the disease began to spread. The carbuncle increased in the summer, was less common in the autumn, and very rarely was observed in the winter. The absence of bubo and carbuncle at the commencement of the plague has been one of the grounds of contention among writers as to the real nature of the disease. Diemerbroech and some others assure us that no one symptom is pathognomonic of plague, and Dr. Russell concludes that the plague, under a form of all others the most destructive, exists without its characteristic symptoms, can admit of no doubt.' From all the evidence upon this subject that we have been able to collect, it plainly appears that authors are by no means agreed on the existence of the plague as a distinct disease. The symptoms, morbid changes, history, and mode of propagation of plague, bear so close a resemblance to those of the malignant typhus of this country, that it is difficult to regard them otherwise than as types of the same disease. This opinion is strengthened by the authority of Dr. Mackenzie, who resided thirty years at Constantinople. The annual pestilential fever of that place,' he observes, very much resembles that of our gaols and crowded hospitals, and is only called plague when attended with buboes and carbuncles.' Sir John Pringle too observes, that though the hospital or gaol fever may differ in species from the true plague, yet it may be accounted of the same genus, as it seems to proceed from a like cause, and is attended with similar symptoms.' The buboes which characterise plague consist of inflammatory swellings of the glands in the groin and armpits; the parotid, maxillary, and cervical glands sometimes, but less frequently, become affected. These buboes may either suppurate or gradually disperse: when suppuration occurs, it is seldom till the fever has begun to abate, and is manifestly on the decline, as about the eighth or ninth day. Carbuncles consist of inflamed pustules or angry pimples, which, instead of suppurating, frequently terminate in mortification. They may be seated on any part of the body. The morbid changes that are met with in the bodies of those who die from plague are very similar to what we find in typhus, yellow fever, and in the carcasses of animals that have died in consequence of a putrid matter injected into their veins. The vessels of the brain and its membranes are gorged with a dark coloured blood; the lungs and liver present traces of inflammation or of gangrene; patches of inflammation and ulceration are met with in the stomach and intestines; the heart is of a pale red colour, easily torn, and full of black blood, which, according to M. Magendie, never coagulates. These changes however are not always found, and the same absence of appreciable organic lesion is sometimes observed in typhus and other diseases which prove rapidly fatal. No age, sex, or profession appears to enjoy an immunity from plague, nor does one attack secure the individual froin future infection;
PESTILENCE, or PLAGUE, is a disease of so fatal and malignant a nature, that to this very circumstance it probably owes its nomenclature; but some misapprehension exists as to its definite character, and this has originated from writers having applied the terms pestilential and pestilent in a generic sense to diseases specifically different; hence we read of pestilential small-pox, pestilential cholera, &c. In fact every virulent and contagious disease may be called pestilent, but every pestilential disease is not plague. In casting a glance over the histories of these epidemics, it is obvious that many things are involved in obscurity. Numerous facts have however been collected, and are agreed upon by all parties, and we shall endeavour, by a comparison of these, to arrive at some definite conclusion as to the nature of plague. The nosological definition of this disease by Dr. Cullen is perhaps as correct as can be given in few words:-'A typhus fever, in the highest degree contagious, and accompanied with extreme debility. On an uncertain day of the disease, there is an eruption of buboes or carbuncles.' Dr. Patrick Russell, who practised at Aleppo during the plague of 1760-1-2, informs us that its progress at its commencement is much the same in the several parts of the Levant as in the cities of Europe. It advances slowly, fluctuating perhaps for two or three weeks; and although at that period it generally proves fatal, yet it is often unattended by its characteristic eruptions. Indeed the cases in which the eruption is wanting constitute the most rapidly fatal type of the disease. The general derangement of the system which ushers in an attack of the plague, is much like that which commences the course of ordinary fever. A sense of cold, with some shivering, which is soon followed by heat and acceleration of the pulse, with giddiness, headache, depression of strength and spirits, white tongue, vomiting or diarrhoea, and great oppression about
but it has been observed that old persons, women, and children suffer less frequently and severely from its attacks than robust adults. Some persons also, who exercise particular trades, as knackers, tanners, water-carriers, bakers, and oilmen, seem to share this advantage; while smiths and cooks were noticed, during the campaign in Egypt, to be more particularly liable to it. One law appears to be universal in all plagues, namely, that the poor are the first and chief sufferers. In Grand Cairo, Constantinople, and Aleppo, it is in the low, crowded, and filthy parts of those cities, occupied by the poorest people, that the plague commits its greatest ravages. The celebrated plague of Marseille, in the year 1720, first appeared in a part of the city noted for the sordid filth, crowded state, and wretchedness of the poor inhabitants. This was likewise true of London, where, from the same circumstance, it obtained the appellation of the Poors' Plague. Like many other diseases, plague is observed in two forms: first, as an indigenous and local disease, peculiar to the inhabitants of certain countries, and from which they are never entirely free; and secondly, as a raging and fatal epidemic, not confined to its original seat, although exhibiting itself there in its most intense forms. It is the epidemic variety of this fatal malady that has engrossed so much attention from the earliest times down to the present; and we shall therefore briefly pass in review some of the principal circumstances which attend its origin, progress, and termination.
It has been observed that nearly all plagues have been preceded by certain natural signs, and by a greater mortality from malignant diseases generally than at other times. Among these precursory signals great and sudden atmospheric vicissitudes have been noted. Livy (v. 13) attributes the origin of a pestilence to this cause. The year was remarkable,' he observes, for a cold and snowy winter, so that the roads were impassable and the Tiber completely frozen. This deplorable winter, whether it was from the unseasonable state of the air, which suddenly changed to an opposite state, or from some other cause, was succeeded by intense heat, pestilential and destructive to all kinds of animals.' But in the great plague of Athens, of which Thucydides has given so minute a description (ii. 48, &c.), he observes that the year of the plague was particularly free from all other diseases; and he mentions nothing unusual as having occurred in preceding years. The city however was then greatly over-crowded with inhabitants, a great part of the population having taken refuge within the walls of Athens (ii. 16), in consequence of the war. [PERICLES.] Russell informs us that the winter of 1756-7, which preceded the petechial fever of 1758 at Aleppo, and the plague of 1759-60-1-2 in different parts of Syria, was excessively severe. Olive-trees which had withstood the weather for fifty years were killed. In the following summer a dearth ensued from the failure of the crops, and so severe a famine, that parents devoured their own children, and the poor from the mountains offered their wives for sale in the markets to buy food. The connection between famine and pestilence has been noticed in all ages of the world. An enormous increase of insects has frequently been observed to precede a pestilence. We are informed by Short, that in 1610 Constantinople was infested with crowds of grasshoppers of great size that devoured every green thing, and the next year (1613) the plague carried off 200,000 inhabitants of that city. In 1612, swarms of locusts laid waste the vegetable kingdom in Provence; and 1613 the plague appeared in different parts of France. Locusts and pestilence are frequently mentioned together in the sacred writings; and we find that the plagues of Egypt exhibited a series of phenomena, rising in progression from corruption of the rivers and fountains, swarms of insects, murrain among cattle, thunder and thick darkness, and a tribe of inferior diseases, to that fatal pestilence which swept away the first-born of the Egyptians. In fine, dearth or unwholesome provisions, pestilence among cattle, great abundance of insects, absence or death of birds, blight and mildew, appear, with few exceptions, to have separately or conjointly preceded or attended all such calamities. Plague is usually preceded by other diseases which occasion great mortality. Lord Bacon has observed that the lesser infections of small-pox, purple fever, agues, &c., in the preceding summer and hovering all winter, do portend a great pestilence the summer following; for putrefaction rises not to its height at once; and Dr. Mead states, as a general fact, that fevers of extraordinary malignity are the usual forerunners of plague. Indeed nearly all the most
The season of the year in which pestilence commits its greatest ravages differs in different countries. In Europe it has invariably raged most violently and fatally in the summer and autumnal months, especially in September. Thus, in the plague of London in 1665, the deaths from the plague were: in June, 590; in July, 4129; in August, 20,046; in September, 26,230; in October, 14,373; in November, 3449; and in December they were under 1000. In Egypt it commences in the autumn, and prevails till the beginning of June, and the vernal equinox is the period of the greatest fatality. Extremes of heat and cold generally check and not unfrequently entirely arrest its progress. In tropical climates the disease is unknown, and in Egypt, according to Alpinus, to whatever degree pestilence may be raging, as soon as the sun enters Cancer it entirely ceases. The cold weather of northern climates has been observed to check the ravages of plague; and in these countries when it has broken out in the autumn, its course has been arrested during the winter months. With respect to the progress and termination of plague, the disease appears to be subject to the same laws as regulate the course and termination of other epidemics: it is most fatal at its first outbreak, and becomes less virulent as it increases in extent. The increased mortality which occurs during the advance of plague, and which we have before shown to be at its height in the month of September, arises from the increased extension and not from the greater malignancy of the disease. With its progress and decline there has usually been observed a progressive increase and decrease in the whole train of diseases, and those which had immediately preceded plague, on its decline reappeared. The former fact will be seen by a reference to the table we have given above.
The causes of pestilence have been referred by some to a vitiated atmosphere, engendered by epidemic and endemic causes, and wholly independent of contagion; while others have attributed it solely to the latter influence. The truth probably lies between these extremes, and we have little doubt, from an examination of the evidence on both sides of the question, that both these causes do occasionally operate in the propagation of plague. As the foundation of quarantine establishments rests entirely on the supposition of the contagious nature of plague, we shall examine how far this can be supported by a reference to facts. It is asserted by the contagionists that plague is transferred from individual to individual in all the ascertained modes in which diseases are thus communicated-by contact, by inoculation with the matter of buboes, through the atmosphere, and by fomites. According to them, its appearance in Western Europe has been always owing to imported contagion; and where strict isolation from all infected individuals and articles has been observed, there it has never appeared. It is admitted however by several, among whom may be mentioned the respected names of Sydenham, Russell, and Mead, that a peculiar atmospheric condition is essential to the spread of pestilence; yet they maintain that this is inadequate to its production without importation by fomites, or the arrival of a diseased person from an infected district. In support of this opinion, they refer to the histories of the different plagues that have visited Europe, and above all to that which ravaged Marseille in the year 1720. Its introduction into this city was traced to the arrival of three ships