« PreviousContinue »
The Ionic declines it regularly, πολλός, -ή, -όν.
The neuter of ἄλλος, “another,” is not ἄλλον but ἄλλο. In other respects the declension is regular.
(II) Adjectives of Two Terminations.
217 In the following instances there are generally two terminations of the nom. and acc.; the one common to the masc. and fem., the other appropriated to the neuter gender.
A. Of the Second Declension.
a. Compounds of a noun preceded by an adjective, a preposition, or the particles εὖ, ἀ-, δυς-, as
If the noun included in the compound admits of contraction, the same contraction will be observed in the adjective, as
ὁ, ἡ εὔπλοος, εὔπλους, τὸ εὔπλοον, εὔπλουν.
Except that adjectives involving compounds of νοῦς, πλοῦς and poûs are not contracted in the nom., acc. and voc. plur. neut.: thus we have ἄνοα, εὔπλοα, εὔροα. The contraction is also neglected in some other forms, as εὐνόων, εὐνόοις, &c.
The following compound adjectives appear in the feminine form, and mostly in Plato: ἀναξία, ἐνοδία, ἐξαιφνιδία, ἐνιαυσία, ἐπιθαλαττία, διαιωνία (Timæus, p. 39 E, but αἰώνιος, Ib. p. 37 D), συναιτία, ἡμιολία, παμποικίλη, παμπολλή, παγκάλη. following, which are of rare occurrence: ἐξαισία, ἐπιθαλαττιδία (Xen.), ἀνομοία, παρομοία (Isocr.), παραλία (Thucyd. and Theophrast.), διαδήλας (Aristot.). More regularly: ἐναντία, παραπλησία, διπλασία, &c.
219 β. Adjectives in -ιος, -αιος, -ειος, -ιμος, derived from substantives, are generally of two genders only, as
ὁ, ἡ χρήσιμος
But there are frequent exceptions; for ἀναγκαῖος is often of three genders in Plato, and Sophocles writes (Ajax, 396) ἀλκίμα θεός, though he would no doubt have written ἄλκιμος θεά.
B. Adjectives, which might be used as substantives, are generally common with masculine and feminine nouns; such are ἀκόλουθος, διδάσκαλος, κοινωνός, τύραννος; and a certain number of simple adjectives generally follow the same rule; as ἄγροικος, βάναυσος, βάρβαρος, δάπανος, δύστηνος, ἔτυμος, ἕωλος, ἥμερος, ἥσυχος and ἡσύχιος, κίβδηλος, κόλοβος, λάβρος, λοίδορος, μάχλος, τίθασος, χαῦνος, χέρσος. We find ἡ ἔρημος when the feminine refers to δίκη or γῆ.
When the form is -εως for -efos, as
ὁ, ἡ ἵλεως
The adjective πλέως and its compounds have a feminine πλέα, and their neut. pl. is πλέα, ἔκπλεα, &c., as from πλέος. Adjectives
1 This is sometimes explained as a compound of βαΰνος and αύω.
in -γέλως, -κερως, -χρεως follow the declension of dental nouns of the third declension. The following are the inflexions of σῶς :
α.. Derivatives from dental neuters of the form (γ), as
Derivatives from ós present some anomalies, as
ὁ, ἡ ἄπολις τὸ ἄπολι G. -ιδος A. -ida and -v
(III) Adjectives of One Termination.
225 These are mostly nouns, which are used in apposition with masculine or feminine substantives, and have no neuter form. because they are rarely placed in concordance with neuter substantives, as
ὁ, ἡ ἀγνώς G. ἀγνώτος
§ IV. Pronouns declined as Nouns.
226 It has been already shown (58 foll.) that pronouns, or positional words, are to be distinguished from the nouns and verbs to the formation of which they contribute. But in the later or syntactical state of the language, the pronouns are themselves liable to pronominal inflexions of case, and on that account are
classed with the noun.
227 All pronouns are by their nature demonstrative. But the ordinary nomenclature confines this term to one class of those which are connected with the third pronominal element. Without losing sight of the established terminology, the following classification presents the true subdivisions of the inflected pronoun.
228 As there are three primary positions,-here, near to here, and there,—we arrange the inflected pronouns according as they express a greater or less removal from the speaker or subject.