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11 the masses rich in alkalies and the biotite-peridotites. which is in Hades, and in the Book of the Gates, Mr. Kynaston (p. 102) regards this rock, with the the dead man is not the principal figure. In fact, granites and diorites of the north-west area, as con- in the first-named (hereinafter called “The Book of the temporaneous with the Ben Cruachan granite, that i Tuat”), he hardly appears at all; the book is merely is, as later than the Lower Old Red Sandstone lava- a description of the other world as it appears to the flows. The regional metamorphism of the older rocks beatified spirits who follow the bark of the sun-god of mid-Argyll is not due to these numerous intrusive in its passage through Hades (the Tuat) from west masses, nor to any concealed dome of granite. It to east, from his setting to his rising. During the increases in intensity from north-west to south-east, night the dead sun-god, known as Auf ( his limbs," and also along the strike of the ancient sedimentary i.e. the carcass of the sun), sails through the regions series in a north-easterly direction, so that com- of the underworld to give light to the dwellers paratively unaltered rocks of the “ Loch Awe group therein, and during his voyage the souls of the (p: . 76) pass, outside the limits of Sheet 37, into blessed rise up and join themselves to his boat. It schists of a very pronounced degree of crystallisation. is a weird conception, and the description of these Local thermal alteration tends to mask both the regions of the dark beyond, as given in Dr. Budge's original clastic structures and the subsequent foli- book, is still more weird. The Tuat is divided into ation (p. 39).
several distinct Tuats, each corresponding to one of The form of the lake-floors in connection with the the great Egyptian necropoles, Abydos, Thebes, passage of ice across them is interestingly discussed Sakkara, and Heliopolis. Each has its peculiar in chapter xiii. At the time of maximum glaciation, features, and appears to be tenanted by demons and the upper portion of the Loch Fyne ice moved out spirits with unpronounceable names and of strange westward towards the Sound of Jura, the general appearance, some of whom are good and help the south-westerly course being resumed as
the ice bark of the god on its way, while others are bad thinned down again and became guided by the and seek by every means in their power to oppose topographic features. It is held that Loch Awe at its progress. These are vanquished in succession as one time drained southward, when the level of the sun passes their territories. The “Book of the its waters was nearly 200 feet higher than at Gates" is so called on account of its chief feature present.
being the successive mention of the gates of the The economic resources of the district, which are Tuats, each of which has its demon-guardian, who is neither conspicuous nor generally accessible, are re- i passed by means of the appropriate spell. In it the ferred to at the close of the memoir. If petrographic details naturally predominate in such a work, they only testify to the
BIT* 7311 scientific thoroughness with which the Geological Survey is encouraged to explore the Scottish highlands.
ย THE EGYPTIAN HEAVEN AND
14 HELL, In his . Egyptian Heaven and Hell”.Dr.
Wallis Budge has contributed another work to his already long list of books dealing with the subject of ancient Egyptian religions. It appears in three-volume form in the useful little series of " Books on
Fig. 1.-The Boat of the Sun towed by Gods of the Tuat. From “The Egyptian Egypt and Chaldæa," written by Dr.
Heaven and Hell," vol. ii., The Book of Gates. Budge and Mr. L. W. King, and published by Messrs. Kegan Paul. Those who are interested god Osiris appears, but not to the extent to which in the subject are familiar with Dr. Budge's edition he appears in the “ Book of the Dead," the chapters of the “ Book of the Dead" in the same series, of which seem to have originally emanated from the These volumes form a companion work, being an original seat of his worship at Busiris in the Delta. edition of the two subsidiary collections of funerary Indeed, the “ Book of the Tuat” may be a much later texts, “ The Book of the Am-Tuat (that which is in invention of the Theban priests, designed to divert Hades)” and “The Book of the Gates, which I the attention of the faithful from the northern Osiris accompanied the great “ Chapters of Coming Forth to the sun-god of Thebes. It is homogeneous in into the Day,” the “* Book of the Dead” proper. As plan, which the “ Book of the Dead" is not. Dr. in the former work, Dr. Budge gives the text, transla- Budge gives a parallel version of both subsidiary tion, and illustrations from the original papyri.
books in his third volume, so that they can conThe two subsidiary books differ somewhat in pur- veniently be compared. In the same volume are to pose and scope from the “ Book of the Dead" itself. be found his introduction and a most compendious The latter is a collection of spells and “words of index. magic wer to be learnt the dead in order to The pictures of these two books are extremely win their way past the dangers of the unseen world remarkable. Their general appearance will be well into the presence of Osiris. The individual dead known to those who have visited the tombs of the man, identified with Osiris, “the Osiris N," is the kings at Thebes, or have seen the wonderful alabaster central figure of every chapter of the “ Book of the sarcophagus of King Seti 1. in Sir John Soane's Dead." “ Chapter so-and-so. I, the Osiris so-and
in Lincoln's Inn Fields. Under the so, say," and so But in the Book of That eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties the walls of the
1 " The Egyptian Heaven and Hell." By E. A. Wallis Budge, Litt.D. royal tombs were decorated with scenes from the Vol. i., The Book Am-Tuat, pp. viii+278; vol. ii., The Book of Gales, “ Book of the Tuat” and “Book of the Gates," so pp. viii + 306 ; vol. iii., The Contents of the Books of the Other World described and compared, pp. xviii+232. (London: Kegan Paul and Co.,
that the dead monarchs could see in pictures at least Ltd., 1906.) Price 6s. net each volume.
the weird forms which the imagination of the
Egyptians conceived as inhabiting the tomb-world; ind occasionally sarcophagi were ornamented in the
a historian or a chronologist whether the tables of
the sun and moon accurately accounted for the resame manner. Some of the best illustrations in Dr. corded phenomena of ancient eclipses, he could only Budge's book are taken from the sculptures of Seti's have replied that the tables failed altogether to account sarcophagus.
for the solar eclipses; that they had been empirically The conceptions of the rewards and punishments altered so as to account for the observed times of
certain lunar eclipses; and that the question whether the tables so altered accounted for the magnitudes of the same lunar eclipses had not even been examined. There seemed to be no possible modification of the tables that would bring them into harmony with the
recorded solar eclipses, and it was therefore the 21.91
received opinion that the historical accounts of these were untrustworthy. The first result is that two slight modifications of the existing tables will cause them to satisfy the records.
The modifications in question may be stated as follows:-Define the nodical month the period between one passage of the moon from south to north of the ecliptic and the next passage, and define the nodical year as the mean period between one passage of the sun from south to north of the plane of the moon's orbit and the next passage, purely periodic variations being left out of account. Then the eclipses show that the rate of change of length of both the nodical month and nodical year as given in the tables must be altered.
(2) The second section of the results is concerned with the question, “In order to alter the rate of variation of the nodical year, are we to alter the acceleration of the node or of the sun?” Now the motion of the node depends upon theory, and the same theory which accounts for its motion at the present time will suffice to calculate its motion at any time during the last few centuries. The motion of the sun, however, is purely a question of observation. Unknown causes may easily be conceived as altering its motion. The second result is therefore to ascribe an acceleration to the sun's motion to account for the variation in the nodical year inferred from ancient eclipses, or in other words, we may leave out the word " nodical" in our statement and say, “The ancient eclipses indicate certain definite rates of change in the lengths of the month and year.”
(3) We lastly require some physical explanation of the sun's acceleration. Here there are many possibilities. The æther may offer a sensible resistance to the passage of the earth; or an electro-magnetic theory of gravitation may compel us to take account of the small, but not infinitesimal, ratio between the velocity of a planet in its orbit and the velocity of light; or again, electrical theories of matter somewhat modify the old conception of mass, and with it the fundamental equations of motion on which planetary
theory rests. But the explanation tentatively put Pro 2 –The Gate of the Serpent Agebi. From “The forward at the April meeting of the Royal Astro
Egyptian Heaven and Heli," vol. ii., The Book of nomical Society is as follows :-Let us suppose the
acceleration of the sun to be due to a change in the of the dead in the next world as given in these two length of the day caused by tidal friction. The tides books are also well worth the attention of the check the rotation of the earth, lengthen the day, and anthropologist.
therefore apparently increase all diurnal movements by the same fraction of their whole amounts. Intro
ducing numbers for greater definiteness, let us suppose ANCIENT ECLIPSES.
that in a century the day increases in length by a THE results of recent discussion of ancient eclipses two-hundredth part of a second of time. Then in a
may for convenience be divided into three sections. The conclusion of each section depends upon
century the sun's apparent rate of motion will increase
by one part in seventeen million, which is exactly the the truth of the conclusions of the preceding sections, change indicated by the eclipses. If, however, the but oot vice versa, that is to say, the results of the moon's apparent rate of motion also increased by one fast section may be rejected without in the least im- part in seventeen million the acceleration would be ten Dairing the validity of the earlier conclusions. The times larger than that indicated by the eclipses. Tesults are as follows:
But if the tides are checking the diurnal rotation (1) lí an astronomer had been asked a year ago by of the earth, it follows from the principle of conserva
tion of angular momentum that the moon must be observed values of these terms will lay bare a whole receding from the earth, and absorbing the spin lost series of new phenomena? Physical considerations of by the earth. This implies that the moon is really the kind alluded to absolutely prevent the achievement moving more slowly. It is impossible to make of such a result, They may advantageously be reaccurate calculations, for the action of the tides on an placed in the following manner by considerations of a earth with oceans and continents of irregular shape purely geometrical character. cannot be computed, and it is impossible to say how It being, for a time at least, granted that the eclipse the tidal action varies for different positions of the of Thucydides suggests that the existing tables. moon in its elliptic orbit. Hence we cannot say how require large modifications, geometrical considerations far the action of the tides is distributed between tell us, that in order to diminish by 200" or there. changes in the length of the month and changes in abouts the difference of latitude at conjunction, we the eccentricity of the moon's orbit. But it seems a must alter the mean distances of the sun and moon plausible hypothesis that the large eccentricity of the from the node as given by the tables for the year - 430 moon's orbit was evolved somehow, presumably by by quantities of the order of 2000". The only geotides, and that the eccentricity is therefore increasing, metrical alternative is to assume alterations ten times and calculation shows that if the rate of increase as large in some other quantity such as the position of assigned to the eccentricity be about one-hundredth of the perigee, and this alternative may be put aside. a second of arc a century, the consequent change in Now the mean distances can be expanded in powers the absolute angular velocity of the moon is such as of the time, the origin of time being taken near the to cancel nine-tenths of the apparent decrease in the present day. Then modern observations forbid the length of the month, leaving the remaining one-tenth correction of the mean motions or of the terms in agreement with the change inferred from ancient independent of the time. The corrections are thereeclipses. This explanation, it should be clearly under- fore necessarily thrown about the coefficients of the stood, only shows that certain correlated quantities are square of the time, that is to say, upon what are of the right order of magnitude : it is unable to prove called the secular terms, in the mean distances of the or disprove an exact numerical relation.
sun and moon from the node. Geometrical consider. In the remaining part of this article the basis of ations therefore, combined with a becoming modesty the conclusion of the first section is examined. That
as to our powers of applying physical considerations. is the foundation, which must be rendered secure present us with two unknown quantities for correction, before interest can attach to any superstructure. one of which is the quantity admitted in Ast. Nach..
Let us select a definite eclipse, for instance, the No. 3682 to be arbitrary, while the other is a new one. eclipse of Thucydides in the first year of the Pelopon- If the preconceived theory is correct and the records nesian War. The record states that stars appeared. are trustworthy the value of the second variable will on It is certain on the other hand that the eclipse, at the solution turn out to be zero or so nearly zero as to most, could only have been annular. There is there- suggest that zero is the true value. if no values fore a strong presumption that Athens was not far satisfy all the equations of condition, then some of the from the central line of the eclipse, or in other words, records are untrustworthy or the geometrical considerat the time of conjunction in longitude as seen from ations have been carelessly thought out. If the equaAthens, the difference of apparent latitudes must have tions can be satisfied simultaneously, and the value been small. The hypothesis that Athens was the place of the second variable is not zero, a very strong case of observation has been objected to. This however is is established against the physical considerations of the natural interpretation of the passage in Thu- the preconceived theory. cydides; let us adopt it for the present and see where If we write down five simultaneous linear equations it leads. For Athens, therefore, let the difference of in two unknown quantities x and y, all satisfied by apparent latitude for the instant of apparent conjunc- the same values of the variables, and if we then put tion in longitude be computed from the present tables. y equal to zero, or in other words, rub out the terms The result is so large as absolutely to negative the in y, we shall of course find the equations in x are possibility that stars could have been seen. Reserving inconsistent. If the equations represent historical the hypothesis that the record is untrustworthy as a data, and if, as men of science, we have a proper last refuge in case of trouble, let us suppose for the contempt for literature, we shall no doubt proceed to present that the tables require alteration.
quarrel with our evidence. This is exactly the way in What kind of alteration is permissible? It has been which astronomers have in the past treated ancient argued in Ast. Nach., No. 3682, on physical grounds, solar eclipses. When, however, equations of condition that only one unknown quantity may be introduced. involving two unknown quantities are formed for all Now against physical reasoning of this kind, strong the solar eclipses in which the place of observation objections may be urged. It proceeds necessarily on appears to have been fairly near the central line, the assumption that the general nature of the problem whereas modern tables give residuals of the order of of the apparent motions of the sun and moon is fully 200'', that is to say, make the apparent differences of understood. It absolutely limits the investigation to latitude at conjunction in longitude of the order of the numerical determination of quantities connected 200", values can be found for the unknown quantities. with a preconceived theory, and it prevents, at the which will make all the residuals less than 50'; in outset, the attainment of results of a new character. other words, whereas the present tables would leave Now as the preconceived theory was entirely based about ten per cent of the sun's diameter visible, the upon two centuries of observation, there is no im- alterations proposed never leave so much as two per probability in our knowledge being widened, when the cent. visible. period of observation is largely increased. In the Let it be here stated that no solar eclipse is an whole of astronomy there is not a single case of a exception to the above statement. The conclusions theoretical value of a secular term, that is to say, a rest, not upon the evidence of a majority but upon term proportional to the square of the time, being con- the unanimous evidence of all eclipses used. A list firmed by observation. This is because the series of of these is given in Monthly Notices, lxv., p. 861, and modern observations is not yet long enough. Is it a reference is given on p. 867 to the eclipse of not possible that one two centuries hence the Agathocles. The eclipse of Thales has not been
worked up as it occurred a hundred years before the fixture of the patterns in the races, is one of considerbirth of Herodotus; its evidence, whether for or against, able interest. To those acquainted with the details is held to be inadmissible.
of poultry breeding it is well known that any variA confirmation of these results is supplied by the ation of the colour or texture of feathers which lunar eclipses of the Almagest. On working them up, appears in any particular specimen can, by careful it is found that the residuals are so large as to show selection of the offspring, for a series of generations, that they are entitled to far less weight than the solar be readily perpetuated, and by crossing with other eclipses. Their value lies in the fact that the separate varieties almost any pattern or disposition of colour determinations from the lunar eclipses group them- can be obtained, and what is called a new breed selves round the values derived from solar eclipses. formed. This is illustrated by the engraving, which The lunar eclipses are given in Monthly Notices, lxvi., we borrow from the work, of a German race at preyp. 6–7; they are nineteen in number, and in only sent but little known in this country, called the Lakenten cases is a numerical estimate of the magnitude felder. In this the colours are transposed from their secorded. These ten cases alone therefore test the general position, and a remarkable looking fowl is newly-discovered fact which, in language that becomes produced, which is correctly represented in the appropriate only if the second section of results is engraving. admitted, states that the earth's orbital motion is sub- It is of much scientific interest to trace the extent ject to a secular acceleration of 4". Now of the ten of the variation which can be induced by careful lunar eclipses available, seven give accelerations lying ! breeding. In the fowl, these variations have been between 2" and 6'. It is therefore hard to believe i almost exclusively confined to the plumage, which in that zero and not 4" is the correct value. The times some instances has been increased to an enormous of the lunar eclipses are equally striking in their con- extent, as in the production of quill feathers 8 inches firmation of the result. Nearly thirty years ago a long on the feet of the show Cochin, and the general correction was introduced into Hansen's Tables based upon these eclipses. The main question is one of evidence. It is no use to point out in the third section of this paper how certain changes may be accounted for, if they are not shown to exist. On the other hand, no objections to a particular explanation of the physical reason can weaken the case for the observed fact that these changes are taking place. What is sufficient evidence? Two eclipses would suffice, if they had been described with a wealth of detail that established complete confidence in the records. A hundred eclipses of the actual sort would probably satisfy the most sceptical, even though the place assigned were always “tacitly assumed (to be) the capital where the record was made, or the place where the poet or historian lived." The smaller number of eclipses, which it has alone been possible to produce, should suffice to make a case almost if not completely amounting to certainty.
P. H. COWELL.
VARIATIONS OF DOMESTIC POULTRY.'
character. It is an attempt to describe all the different races of domestic poultry that exist in various parts of the world, and as such is not without
Fig. 1.–Lakenfelders. From "Races of Domestic Poultry." its value, as it gives us a description of the races of fowls as they exist, not only in Asia, but in the increase of the plumage to a great extent, so that various States of Europe and the United States of
the modern show Cochin does not at all resemble America. The book treats almost solely of the races
the original birds brought from Shanghai. In other of fowls from a fancier's point of view. The plumage
cases the plumage has been partially abolished, as and external characters which would be noticed in a
in the Nackthälse or Transylvanian naked necks, in show-pen are those that are dwelt upon, and as a scientific treatise the work cannot be regarded as
feathers, and the skin assumes the red colour of the having any special value, and would be unfairly comb. These variations are permanent, and are treated if it were regarded from the same standpoint intensified by long-continued breeding. The producas Darwin's “ Variation of Animals under Domesti- tion of spangles or dark markings at the end of the cation."
feathers, of bordered margins of black on a light The illustrations, which are very numerous, are
ground in the whole of the body feathers, and of not original, but taken from the fancy, poultry regular transverse bars across each feather of the exaggeration of the points valued by the fancier, and plumage, have all been accomplished and perpetuated bred for securing prizes. The consequence is that The various breeds of ducks, geese, and turkeys are some of them are good and others quite the reverse, also treated of. but the plumage in many is exaggerated. To scien
The work contains in an appendix a very elaborate tific ornithologists this history of the location of colour
and useful list of the names of the races in all the in the different parts of the plumage of birds, and the European languages, which will prove of great value 1 " Races of Domestic Poultry." By Edward Brown. Pp. xi+234 :
to all investigating the subject of variation. illustrated. (London : Edward Arnold, 1906.) Price 6s. net.
W. B. TEGETMEIER.
EARTHQUAKE shocks have again been common during the The gentlemen's conversazione at the Royal Society will
past week. Reuter's messages show that on April 25 a be held on Wednesday next, May 9.
disturbance was felt at 3.15 p.m. at San Francisco, and
lasted nearly a minute. This shock was also felt at Oak1 HE summer meeting of the American Chemical Society land and Berkeley. On April 26 shocks were felt at will this year be held in Ithaca, N.Y., on June 28–30. Salinas, 100 miles south of San Francisco, at 8 p.m. and It is announced that the German Government has issued
9.50 p.m., and these were followed by a third on April 27
Each of these three disturbances lasted about invitations for an International Conference on Wireless Telegraphy to meet on June 28.
four seconds. A later telegram reports that earthquakes
were felt at Salinas every day from April 18 to 27. On The sixth International Congress of Applied Chemistry April 27, too, four disturbances of increasing intensity were was opened at Rome on April 26 by the King and Queen felt at Dresden, and on April 28 in Schönberg, Brambach, of Italy in the presence of the Diplomatic Body, the and other places in the Vogtland district. Two slight members of the Cabinet, high officials of the State, and shocks were felt at San Francisco on the morning of about two thousand delegates. Speeches were delivered by April 30. Prof. E. Paternò, president of the congress, Signor Boselli, Minister of Public Instruction, Prof. O. Witt, and delegates Testing Materials, which holds its congresses about every
It is arranged that the International Association for of the chief nations represented at the congress.
three years in industrial centres in various countries, shall British delegates are Prof. W. A. Tilden, F.R.S., Prof.
this year meet in the Academy of Science at Brussels on W. N. Hartley, F.R.S., and Dr. J. J. Dobbie, F.R.S.
September 3-8. The King of Belgium has accorded the A Reuter telegram from New York states that the new congress his patronage, while Prince Albert of Belgium French liner La Provence, when 800 miles from Poldhu will be one of the honorary presidents, as also will the and 1700 miles from Cape Cod, on April 25 at 2 p.m., Ministers of Finance, Railways, War, and Trade, and the simultaneously communicated by wireless telegraphy with Mayor of Brussels. Among the papers to be read will be both stations, and received answers from both.
one on the industries of Belgium, by Baron E. de Laveleye
and M. Camerman. It is expected that a considerable ACCORDING to the Chemiker Zeitung there were 183,532
number of members and delegates from this country will persons connected with chemistry who were insured against accident in Germany in 1904 ; of these, 1535 cases received
be present at the congress. Mr. J. E. Stead, F.R.S., compensation from the insurance companies. This number Middlesbrough, is the English secretary of the association. includes 109 cases of death, 14 completely and 1040 partially Ar the annual general meeting of the Institution of Civil incapacitated from following their vocation in life, whilst Engineers, held on April 24, Sir Alexander B. W. Kennedy, 372 were only for a time unable to work; the amount
elected president of the institution. The paid to the injured or the relatives of the deceased was council has made the following awards for papers read nearly 2,200,000 marks.
and discussed before the institution during the past In honour of the International Medical Congress to be
session :-A Telford gold medal to Mr. J. A. Saner, a Watt held in Lisbon this year, there has been opened a small
gold medal to Mr. G. G. Stoney, and a George Stephenson exhibition of the products of the Portuguese colonies in
gold medal to Dr. T. E. Stanton; Telford premiums to the rooms of the Colonial Museum. The exhibits, which
Mr. Leonard Bairstow, Mr. H. S. Bidwell, Mr. J. J.
Webster, Mr. Cathcart, Mr. W. Methven, Mr. H. A. are chiefly from Cape Verde, Mozambique, the Portuguese
Mavor, Sir Frederick R. Upcott, K.C.V.O., C.S.I., and a Indies, Angola, Timor, and Guinea, deal almost exclusively with wool, coffee, cocoa, and india-rubber ; palm oil, &c.,
Manby premium to Mr. D. E. Lloyd-Davies. The presentand other raw materials of the fatty and oil industries,
ation of these awards, together with those for papers which although important exports of the Portuguese colonies, are
have not been subject to discussion, and will be announced not represented.
later, will take place at the inaugural meeting of next
session. ARRANGEMENTS are being made to hold a Country in
IN Tennyson's " Palace of Art” occur the lines :Town” exhibition at the Whitechapel Art Gallery in July. The object of the exhibition is to show East Londoners
"She saw the snowy poles and Moons of Mars,
That mystic held of dristed light what can be done to bring into the neighbourhood some
In mid Orion, and the married stars." thing of the beauty of nature. It is proposed to show This at first sight looks like a literary parallel to Swift's living things, pictures and models, materials and appli- well-known fortuitous forecast of the discovery of the ances, plans for the improvement of certain areas in Martian satellites, and Mr. J. S. Stevenson, writing London, and exhibits explaining city life in Japan and from Blairavon, Norwood, Ceylon, points out that Prof. other countries. Contributions towards the necessary ex- H. H. Turner quotes it in “ Modern Astronomy as having penses are asked for, and these may be sent to the Rev. been written in 1835. This, however, appears not to have Canon Barnett at Toynbee Hall, E.
been the case ; for Mr. Stevenson, on reference to the bioThe ninth annual meeting of the Childhood Society will
graphy of the late poet laureate by the present Lord Tenny
son has found the note, The 'Moons of Mars' is the only be held on Tuesday next, May 8, at the residence of the
modern reading here, all the rest are more than half a president, Earl Egerton of Tatton. Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B., will deliver an address. The chief object of the
century old.” Scientific discovery was thus not anticipated society is to promote the study of educational methods and by Tennyson in the mention of Martian satellites. of the environment of children during school life, best THE Paris correspondent of the Times made the followsuited to ensure satisfactory mental and physical developing announcement in a message on Monday night :-“ The ment of children. The society numbers among its members Prince of Monaco formally announced to the French representatives of educational science, teachers, medical Minister of Education to-day his decision to establish in experts, and others interested in the investigation of mental Paris the Oceanographic Institute that he has founded. and physical conditions of childhood.
He will endow the institute with the magnificent museum