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9 semper...violatum: the clause is an explanation of the one word

suspiciosum.

§ 66.

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suavitas : Aristot. Eth. Nic. 8, 6, 1 ou palvovrai 000 ol mpeoßútal ούθ' οι στρυφνοι φιλικοί είναι βραχύ γαρ εν αυτοίς τό της ηδονής, ουδείς δε δύναται συνημερεύειν τω λυπηρό ουδε τώ μή ηδεί. .

condimentum : 'which adds no slight zest to friendship'; cf. Q. Fr. 1, I condimentis humanitatis severitas mitigatur.

in omni re severitas: n. on 20, p. 34, 1. 2. 13 habet : 'brings with it indeed dignity'. The words illa quidem

simply serve to throw emphasis on the subject of the verb, and to contrast it with what follows. Cf. 41, l. 11; 68, l. 25, also Cat. m. 65 morositas... habet aliquid excusationis, non illius quidem iustae, sed..., Off. 3, 71 malitia quae volt illa quidem videri se esse prudentiam sed abest. It is often said that is quidem is only used for ille quidem when another ille has just gone before; this is not however the case in 41, 1. 11.

§ 67. 16 exsistit hoc loco: 'there arises at this point'.

quaestio : here like the dropla of Aristotle, a problem to be solved. 18

vetulis: this word usually expresses something of contempt, as when applied to a woman (vetula). 19 indigna homine dubitatio : in apposition to all of the sentence that precedes; cf. 71, l. 26 odiosum genus; 79, 1. 29 rarum genus.

veterrima quaeque : n. on 34, l. 16 optimis quibusque.
quod dicitur : n. on 19, l. 15.

modios salis : Eth. Nic. 8, 3, 8 ēti ar por deital Zpbvou kai ouvnbelas' κατά την παροιμίαν γάρ ουκ έστιν ειδήσαι αλλήλους πριν τους λεγομένους άλας συναλώσαι; Eth. Eudem. 7, 2 ου γαρ έστιν άνευ πείρας ουδε μιας ημέρας ο φίλος, αλλά χρόνου δεί· διό είς παροιμίαν ελήλυθεν ο μέδιμνος των άλλων. .

ut amicitiae munus expletum sit: 'so as to complete the task of friendship’, i.e. to achieve friendship.

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§ 68. 2.1 spem afferunt ut: cf. n. on verum est ut in 50, 1. 5.

herbis: here=the green shoots of corn. Seyffert quotes Ov. Her. 17, 263 sed nimium properas et adhuc tua messis in herba est.

fallacibus : so Horace calls an unproductive farm mendax. Cf. also Tibullus 2, 1, 19 et seges eludit messem fallacibus herbis. 25 fructus appareat: sc. futurus. 26 vetustatis: vetustas is often used alone for vetustas amicitiae; cf.

Acad. 1, i vetustate amicitiae coniunctum with Fam. 13, 32, 2 vetustate coniunctos; so below 74, 1. 13.

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ipso equo:

even in the case of the horse'. 28 quo consuevit: sc. uti ; cf. Brut. 327 sed ea vestitu illo orationis quo

consuerat (sc. ornari) ornata non erat; Nep. Dat. 4, 4 eoque quo studuit

(sc. venire) venit; also n. on 41, 1. 19. 31

montuosis etiam: the ancients generally felt little or no admiration for wild and mountainous scenery. Cicero had more feeling for wild picturesqueness than most Romans.

§ 69. 33 maximum: 'of the highest importance';=caput est in 45, 1. 24; cf. 29, 1. 20 quod maius est.

superiorem etc.: 'that he who has any advantage should place himself on an equality with him who is at a disadvantage'; superiorem is explained by 70, 1. 9 praestantiam virtutis ingeni fortunae. Cf. 32, l. 22 sintque pares in amore et aequales; also $ 56. Like Cicero, Aristotle accepts equality as essential to the highest kind of friendship, as in Eth. Nic. 8, 5, 5 λέγεται φιλότης ή ισότης; 8, 7, 3 ισότης, και δη της φιλίας eival dokel

. He discusses elaborately the question how this equality is to be understood and secured in friendships of different kinds, but he admits that there are friendships (such as that of parents for ildren) in which it cannot be secured (8, 13, I TW mèr év icórnti pilwv ÖVTWV των δε καθ' υπεροχήν).

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excellentiae quaedam: 'certain superiorities' =: ÚTepoxal tives; cf. 73, 1. 4 quamvis excellas; Aristot. Eth. Nic. 8, 13. I. There is however no such reference here to the αι καθ' υπεροχήν φιλίαι of Aristotle as Seyffert supposes. This will be clear to any one who reads Eth. Nic. 8, 7.

grege: the word grex was often applied to philosophical schools, as in De Or. I, 42 philosophorum greges, with which cf. Acad. 1, 34 Polemo et Crates unaque Crantor in Academia congregati. Trans. 'in our flock, if I may so call it'. For ut ita dicam used like quasi tamquam quidam etc. to qualify expressions either too strong or unusual cf.

49, 1. 33. 3

Philo... Rupilio... Mummio: see Introd. p. 19.
anteposuit : 'never claimed for himself superiority over '.

Maximum : i.e. Q. Fabius Maximus Aemilianus, the eldest son of Paulus Macedonicus, and adopted into the family of the Fabii. Africanus gave up to him his share in the inheritance of their common father. See Paradoxa 48 liberalitatem Africani qui (Pauli) hereditatis Q. Maximo fratri partem suam concessit. 5 omnino: here='no doubt', 'indeed', 'it is true'; so in 98, 1. 9,

where however the contrast is introduced by autem, as in Cat. m. 45 by sed, and in Cat. m. 28, Tusc. 2, 35 by sed tamen. For the omission of the adversative particle here cf. n. on 5, 1. 25.

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is : the insertion of a fresh pronoun was necessary, otherwise the subject to anteibat might have been supposed to be Africanus, supplied

from sibi. 6 suosque omnis etc.: see 11, l. 26 liberalitate in sorores.

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$ 70. 8 ut si quam : the first ut introduces a clause explanatory of quod'all

must do this, I they must share etc.' Cf. 14, 1. 27 id si ita est ut...

The second ut is consecutive. 9 ea: observe the change from the singular praestantiam to the plural ea, and for similar changes see n. on 14, 1. 26 quae.

nati sint: the subject is not proximi from proximis but omnes from omnibus above.

si: note si followed by si, the suppositions being parallel, and not contrasted with each other. Had they been contrasted sivesive or sisin would have been needed. In one sentence in Livy (4, 5, 5) si is thus eight times repeated.

imbecilliore animo vel fortuna : these are the persons mentioned in 59, 1. 21 saepe enim in quibusdam aut animus abiectior est aut spes amplificandae fortunae fractior.

opes...dignitati: there is really chiasmus here (see n. on 23, 1. 10) since opes refers to fortuna, honori et dignitati to animo. If one's friend is imbecillo animo (uikpóyuxos), thinking meanly of himself, one must try to confer distinction on him; if he is poor, wealth. .

honori: n. on 13, 1. 16 cordi.

fabulis : 'legends', such as that of Romulus and Remus, to which the words deorum-pastores rather point. Seyffert perversely insists on

taking the word here and in 75, l. 22 as meaning 'plays'. 13 ignorationem : some of the inferior mss have ignorantiam, a word

which is now only found in one passage of Cicero in good editions, viz. Acad. I, 42, and even there it cannot but be suspected, as we now possess no ms of that portion of Cicero older than the xvth century. The only other passages good prosewhere ignorantia occurs are Caes. B.C. 3, 68, 2 and Nep. Ages. 8, 5; Pelop. I, 1.

stirpis et generis: 'stock and family'; the only difference being that stirpis is the wider word of the two. How slight the difference is may be seen from the following passages : Verg. Aen. 4, 622 stirpem et genus omne futurum exercete odiis ; ib. 8,628 illic genus omne futurae stirpis ab Ascanio; ib. 9, 603 durum ab stirpe genus; Seneca Oedip. 124 stirpis invictae genus interimus; Attius 208 (Ribbeck) summum peri

clum contaminari stirpem ac misceri genus. 14 famulatu :=onteią, free service, as opposed to dovlela=servitute. 15 quos : here=cum eos, 'inasmuch as for many years they looked on

them as their fathers'; so often; e.g. in 50, l. 12 quae=cum ea. 16 multo profecto magis: for the collocation cf. n. on quam id recte in 10,

1. 8.

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in: as in 9, p. 30, 1. 3, 19 confertur: notice the singular verb, though there 'are really three

subjects (ingenium virtus praestantia), and cf. n. on 14, 1. 24 adessei.

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§ 71. coniunctionisque: the coniunctio is the natural association produced by kinship and the like, mentioned in § 19.

superiores : for the construction superior esse in aliqua re cf. pro Balbo 35 in foedere inferior.

non dolere: ‘not to feel a pang'. The true friendships, Aristotle says, are free from offence (ådiáßintol, Eth. Nic. 8, 6, 7; avérykintoi, ib.

9, 2, 7). 24 eoque magis. so in 2, 1. 15 et eo magis. 25 habere quod: for the omission of the antecedent to the relative cf. 29, 1. 28 n.

cum labore aliquo suo: 'with some expenditure of toil on their part'. 26 queant: queo is rarely used in positive sentences by good writers, but

the usage is well attested within narrow limits; cf. Tusc. 5, 108; Cat. m. 32; De rep. 2, 6; also found in Sallust and Columella.

odiosum genus: in apposition with plerique ; cf. 67, 1. 19; 79, 1. 29. 27 officia exprobrantium: 'who offensively put forward their services'.

Seyffert quotes Demosth. De Cor. 316 voul5w Tòv mèu Tabóvta del μεμνήσθαι τον πάντα χρόνον, τον δ' ευ ποιήσαντα ευθύς επιλελήσθαι αυτών, ει δει τον μεν χρηστου τον δε μή μικροψύχου ποιείν έργον ανθρώπου. το δε τας ιδίας ευεργεσίας υπομιμνήσκειν και λέγειν σμικρού δείν ομοϊόν εστι τώ óveldigelv; Ter. Andr. I, 1, 16 nam istaec commemoratio quasi exprobratio et immemoris benefici; Seneca, De beneficiis 2, 10, 4 inter primc praecepta et maxime necessaria sit, ne umquam exprobrem, immo ne admoneam quidem. Haec enim beneficii inter duos lex est: alter statim

oblivisci debet dati, alter accepti numquam. 28 commemorare: n. on 15, 1. 12.

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submittere se: lit. "to let themselves down', i.e. 'to be modest'. 30 sic etc.; i.e. sic debent ei qui superiores sunt extollere eos qui sunt

inferiores. 31 contemni: 'slighted' or 'neglected'. Contemnere is hardly ever so

strong in meaning as our word “despise', which is commonly used to

translate it. 32 fere: n. on 2, 1. 14; contingit: n. on 8, 1. 30. 33 qui: 'and they'.

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§ 73. 3 sustinere : Seyssert rightly explains sustinere here to mean alicui oneri

parem esse, quoting Verr. 3, 189 nam cum oratori onus aliquod imponitur, orationis ipsius vis ac ratió consideranda est, quid ea sustinere, quid pati, quid efficere possit ac debeat. Trans. 'you must confer on each person just so much as you in the first place can secure to him, next as he whom you love and aid is able to bear'. For the omission of possit to be supplied from possis cf. n. on 30, p. 38, 1. 5.

non...neque: cf. n. on 10, 1. 4. Notice that there is a slight anacoluthon, the form of the sentence being changed, and for the proper clause introduced by a second neque the clauses introduced by ut are substituted. Cf. n. on 45, 1. 19 partim. The unemphatic tu should be noticed; it is our English 'you' for 'one'.

excellas : cf. excellentiae in 69, p. 50, 1. 1. 5 perducere : lit. "to bring through', i.e. as Seyffert explains, through

all the various grades. Producere (which some editions have) is simply 'to advance' without the notion of gradation.

potuit...non potuit; cf. n. on 19, 1. 28. In Tusc. 4, 40 Rupilius is said to have taken his brother's defeat greatly to heart; and Pliny, Nat. Hist. 7, § 122 (where some recent edd. have Rutilium wrongly) enlarges the story by making him die immediately on hearing the result of the

election. 6 efficere : facere would not have done here, since facere aliquem con

sulem means 'to vote for some one's election as consul'.

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$ 74. 8 amicitiae iudicandae sunt: =iudicandum est de amicitiis 'a decision

must be come to about friendships', though Cicero would not say iudicare amicitias for de amicitiis.

corroboratis...aetatibus : 'when strength and steadiness have come over the mind and life'. Seyffert wrongly insists on taking these ablatives (which are ablatives absolute) as ablatives of measure after iudicandae sunt 'by the strengthening and steadying of the mind and life'. Had Cic. meant this he would have written corroborandis. But how can it be said that advancing years supply a measure or standard for judging about friendships? The confirmata or corroborata aetas is the time of life immediately succeeding youth, the ka@cornkvia vydala of Thucydides; cf. pro Caelio 41 qua varietate non modo haec aetas sed iam corroborata caperetur. The opposite expression is infirmissimum tempus aetatis in Acad. 2, 9; Flacc. 5.

habere: the construction is carried on as though oportet iudicare de amicitiis or something similar had preceded; old edd. indeed insert oportet, which is unnecessary. In Fin. 2, 103 quod si dies notandus fuit, eumne potius quo natus an eum quo sapiens factus est the words oportet notare have to be supplied from notandus. In his n. there Madvig excellently illustrates the usage both from Latin and from Greek.

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