Page images

The claim covers a process for emulsifying resin soap in water, consisting in heating resin soap, mixing it with water under steam-pressure and injecting the heated mixture in atomized state into lime-water, for the purpose of bringing about perfect emulsion.


Henry William Hemingway, of Walthamstow, England. Patent No. 781,826, dated February 7, 1905.

In carrying out this process nitrate of soda or nitrate of potash are added to sulphuric acid, together with a suitable quantity of water, the quantity of sulfuric acid being slightly in excess of that necessary for combining with the soda (or potash). The mixture is made in an earthenware retort or covered pan so constructed that the temperature can be raised to 170° Fahrenheit, provision being made for carrying away the vapors yielded and conducting them through a series of Woulfe's bottles, towers, or other form of condensing apparatus. The mixture having been heated to about the before-mentioned temperature, protosulphate of iron is added (common green copperas) either continuously or in frequent small charges. The protosulphate of iron becomes oxidized at the expense of the nitrate of soda (or of potash) and nitrous fumes are generated. On these being condensed and air being admitted nitric acid is formed.


George Francois Jaubert, of Paris, France. Patent No. 782,609, dated February 14, 1905.

In previous applications for Letters Patent a process is described for preparing a powder containing chlorid of lime, sulphates of copper, and iron, the said powder by the action of water spontaneously evolving oxygen. From the point of view of properly preserving the product it is preferable to mix the sulphate of iron (or of manganese) only at the moment of use, because the sulphate of iron becomes transformed after a time into the little active

ferric sulphate. It is expedient, therefore, to proceed as folows: One hundred kilos of dry chlorid of lime are pulverized with five kilos of sulphate of copper, of nickel, of cobalt, or other suitable salt. A white powder is thus obtained which keeps very well and which generates oxygen when merely placed into a fifteen-per-cent. solution of sulfate of iron or of manganese.

PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING WHITE LEAD. Willson H. Rowley and John H. Montgomery, of St. Louis, Missouri, assignors of one-third to Martin Shaughnessy. Patent No. 785,023, dated March 14, 1905.

In manufacturing white lead by this process the lead is first melted in a kettle which is mounted over a furnace conveniently located. A conducting-pipe leads from the lower end of the kettle and extends into a receptacle. An air-chamber surrounds the end of the pipe, and air-pipes lead through the furnace under the kettle into the air-chamber and the air is heated as it passes through the pipes and is forced into the air-chamber. An opening is formed through the air-chamber around the inner end of the nozzle of the pipe, through which the heated air is forced to simultaneously atomize and partially oxidize the lead as it pours through the pipe. Water-spraying pipes extend across the upper side of the receptacle and the water is sprayed through the pipes and acts upon the atomized and oxidized lead, causing it to fall to the trough-shaped bottom of the receptacle, where it is moved by a carrier to the outlets, formed at one end of the receptacle. The fine particles of oxidized lead are then delivered into the common grinding-mill, where they are ground by means of the grinding-disks, which remove a portion of the surface oxid from the oxid-laden particles. After being thoroughly ground by the disk the oxidized lead and water are delivered out of the receptacle into an agitating chamber. The lead is, as before described, first partially oxidized by the action of the heated air as it leaves the mouth of the nozzle in the air-chamber, and the water entering the room or receptacle creates a moisture therein, which

assists further oxidation of the lead. The suboxid-laden particles of lead are further oxidized in their course through the grindingdisks, and the residual metallic lead, if any, is then separated by precipitation, and the comminuted suboxid of lead may be conveyed to a rotary receptacle where it is subjected to air and carbonic-acid gas to form a carbonate of lead, commonly known as "white lead."


Aurelius J. Swayze, of Danville, New Jersey. Patent No. 789,074, dated May 2, 1905.

The process comprises the production of potassium salts in the form of sulphate and sulphide by fusing potash-feldspar with gypsum in contact with a reducing agent, as carbon in the form of coke or coal.

(orthoclase, KOAL,O,6SiO)

Potash-feldspar and gypsum (CaSO4) in the presence of a reducing agent, such as coke or coal, are fused in a blast-furnace. The materials are used in a crushed state, preferably about the size of pea-coal, and the furnace is of ordinary construction, except that the exit-pipe has water in the form of spray injected therein to wash out the volatilized products. The fusion of the materials will result in the production of potassium sulphate (K2SO,) and calcium-aluminum silicate, (CaOAL,O,6SiO,) and at a high heat in the presence of the reducing agent the reduction of the sulphate to sulphide (KS) and the evolution of carbon monoxid (CO) is affected, theoretically the reactions which occur being substantially as follows: K2OA120,6SiO2 + CaSO4 = CaОAl2O36SiO2 + K2SO4

K2SO4 + 4C= K2S+4CO.

The potassium salts are volatilized and pass out through the exit-pipe of the furnace and are thereby recovered from the slag.

PROCESS OF MAKING HYDROHALOGENIC ACID. Felix Wilhelm Westhausser, of Hohenheim, near Stuttgart, Germany. Patent No. 791,306, dated May 30, 1905.

The present invention relates to a process for the production of hydrohalogenic acid, and more especially of hydrochloric acid and of hydrobromic acid.

The new process is based, on the one hand, on the observation that a mechanical mixture of chlorin and hydrogen is taken up by basic chlorids or oxy-chlorids and hydroxids under conditions stated below, a chlorid and water being formed, and, on the other hand, on the fact in itself well known that various chlorids of metals-as, for example in particular, aluminium chlorid, zinc chlorid, and chlorid of tin-if they are heated in the presence of water are decomposed partially into basic chlorids or hydroxids (on the heating being continued, into oxids) and hydrochloric acid. The additional observation is of importance, that the basic chlorids or hydroxids hereby formed can be always practically utilized again for the operation of the taking up of chlorin and hydrogen, with the formation of a chlorid and water. The reactions in the case of the use of zinc compounds, for example, proceed according to the following equations:

1. ZnCl(OH) + Cl+H=ZnCl2 + H2O.

2. ZnCl2 + H2O= ZnCl (OH) + HCl.

ZnCl (OH) + H2O=Zn(OH)2 + HCl.

The above-mentioned property is also shown by the aqueous solutions of the metal chlorids in question, such solutions showing an acid reaction which can be recognized by means of litmus, a phenomenon which indicates that a decomposition into basic chlorid or hydroxid and hydrochloric acid has already occurred.


Jacob Grossmann, of Manchester, England. Patent No. 792,515, dated June 13, 1905.

It is known that when nitrate of soda is fused with carbon in the presence of caustic alkali, nitrite of soda is produced, and as caustic soda has to be used in excess, the resulting melt contains four salts which are easily soluble and which on lixiviation go into solution-vi., sodium nitrite, nitrate, carbonate, and hydrate-be

sides silicates and other impurities. This interferes seriously with the subsequent separation and purification of the nitrite. In order to overcome this objection, the oxid or hydrate of an alkaline earth is used instead of caustic alkali. The reaction which takes place may be represented by the following equation:

2NaNO3 + Ca(OH)2+C=2NaNO2 + CaCO3 + H2O.

It will be seen that the only possible substances which on dissolving the melt can go into solution are the nitrite formed and whatever nitrate has not been decomposed, and as the resulting liquor may be boiled down to dryness and melted again with more caustic earth and carbon the ultimate products obtained in solution will be nitrite of soda and a small percentage of undecomposed niter free from other soluble compounds. Instead of the oxid or hydrate of calcium the oxid or hydrate of barium, strontium, or magnesium may be used. A small proportion of caustic alkali may be mixed with the lime or added to the melt to act as a carrier. The yield of nitrite and the loss in niter by overreduction and similar causes depends on the allotropic form of carbon used. The yield is highest and the loss in niter least in the case of graphite, natural or refined or artificial. Coke comes next and other forms of carbon after that.


Louis Descamps, of Lille, France. Patent No. 791,675, dated June 6, 1905.

This process consists in the quick addition of a reducingpowder-such as zinc, iron, tin, or the like-in a very fine and pure condition and in quantity slightly in excess of that theoretically required to a concentrated solution of sulphurous acid of industrial purity—that is, as free as possible from other acids and impurities. The solution may be an aqueous, alcoholic, glycerinous, or other solution of sulphurous acid. The mixture is stirred quickly, then allowed to deposit, and the solution finally decanted. It is of great importance that the whole of the sulphurous acid be transformed into hydrosulphite, and therefore the reducing-powder,

« PreviousContinue »