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tion, a brown stain is produced, owing to the reducing action of the uric acid.

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138. UREA. CH_N20 (Urine).

1. HNO3, when added to solutions of urea, unites with it, forming the nitrate, which separates out in crystalline plates, which are tolerably soluble in hot water and alcohol, but nearly insoluble in HNO3.

2. KHO added to urea decomposes it on heating, and NH, is evolved.

139. CHOLESTERINE. C26H440 (Biliary Calculi).

1. KHO does not saponify cholesterine, although in many of its properties it resembles oils and fats.

2. Boiling alcohol dissolves cholesterine, and on cooling it crystallizes out in colourless plates.

140. GRAPE SUGAR. C6H1206 (Fruit, Honey, Diabetic Urine, &c.).

1. H2SO4 forms with grape sugar a definite compound of a yellow colour. No charring occurs as in the case of cane sugar.

2. Solution of grape sugar, when mixed with a few drops of CuSO4 and excess of KHO, produces on boiling a red precipitate (Cu,O), caused by the reducing action of the grape sugar. Solution of cane sugar does not give this reaction until boiled with a single drop of H2SO4, which converts it into grape sugar.

141. ALBUMIN (White of Egg.)

1. Boiling water causes albumin to coagulate and it becomes at the same time insoluble, so that if a solution in cold water be heated, coagulation at once takes place.

2. Hg Cl, coagulates albumin, even when present in exceedingly small quantities. Coagulation also takes place with solutions of other salts, e.g. CuSO4, SnCla, AgNO3

142. STARCH. CpH1008 (Potato, Wheat, &c.). See

43, 6.

143. TANNIC ACID. C27H22017 (Gall-nuts).

1. Solution of gelatin (isinglass) produces a yellowish Aocculent precipitate. A piece of animal membrane gives the same precipitate.

2. Fe Cle produces a dark bluish black precipitate (ink).


144. GALLIC ACID. CyH60. (Gall-nuts).
1. Solution of gelatin produces no precipitate.

2. Fe,Clo produces in neutral solutions a bluish black precipitate.


(a) CARBON.—Mix the substance intimately with powdered CuO, place in a hard glass tube, fill up with small pieces of CuO, and close the tube with a cork




through which a conducting tube passes into a flask containing clear lime-water. On heating, the carbon is oxidized to CO2, which renders the lime-water turbid. Organic liquids are examined in a similar

way : they are placed in a small bulb-tube which is placed inside a hard glass tube and gently heated as soon as the CuO in front is red-hot. In this way the vapour passes over the CuO, and CO2 is produced.

(6) HYDROGEN.—Proceed as in a (taking care to use perfectly dry CuO), but connect the conducting tube with a weighed CaCl, tube. Heat the hard glass tube as before, and then weigh the CaCl, tube. Gain in weight indicates that water has been formed by the oxidation of the hydrogen in the substance. When much water is present, it is visible in the bulb of the CaCl, tube.

(c) NITROGEN.—Mix the substance intimately with powdered soda-lime, and observe if NH3 is given off on heating. Ascertain this by the smell and by the action on red litmus paper.


146. Separation of Organic Acids. Remove the metals of the Silver, Copper, and Iron Groups by their respective group reagents. Neutralize the

solution with (N H2) HO, add Ca Clg, shake well, and allow to stand for at least twenty minutes.


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Oxalic and Tartaric

Remaining Acids.

Add to filtrate 3 volumes of strong alcohol, and filter.
Wash with water, add

to precipitate cold
NaHO and filter. Citric and Malic Acids. Succinic and Benzoic Acids, &c.
RESIDUE. FILTRATE. Wash with alcohol, dissolve in HCl, add Heat to expel alcohol, neutralize exactly
(NH4)HO, boil and filter.

with HCl, and add Fe, Cl. Filter.



Confirm by Confirm by
tests 3 & 4,
tests 3 &


Succinic and Acetic and
4,122, to
100, to
Confirm by dissolv- Add alcohol, and

Benzoic Acids. Formic Acids,
ascertain ascertain ing again in HCl, and test precipitate for Wash the preci- &c. &c.
the pre- the pre- adding (NH4)HO. Malic Acid. pitate, warm with

sence of

Confirm by tests 4
Oxalic Tartaric

(NH) HO,boildown
and 5, 123, to as-

and divide into two
certain the presence

parts (A and B).
of Citric Acid.
Acetic and formic acids are tested for in the original

solution. Neutralize (if necessary) with Na,CO3, boil

Add a mixture of BaCl2 Add HCl to obtain shin-
down to dryness, and test a portion for Acetic Acid solution and alcohol. Preci- | ing crystals of Benzoic
by ether test 128, 3. Or distil with H2SO4 and digest pitate indicates Succinic Acid. Consirm by test 3,
distillate with excess of PbO to obtain basic acetate of Acid. Confirm by test 4,

lead. To another portion of dry residue add dilute

125. H,SO4 and distil. Heat part of the distillate with PbO to obtain crystals of lead formiate. To another part add Uric(137), tannic, and gallic acids are separately tested. (NH4)HO till neutral, and then AgNO3 (test 1, 129), Gallic and tannic are separated by isinglass, or by dialy. to ascertain the presence of Formic Acid.

sis through a smaall piece of bladder (143 and 144). PART V.



147. The following rare metals are considered here by themselves, and their position in the various groups indicated. For their separation from each other and from the commonly occurring metals, a larger manual must be consulted.

Tungsten, Thallium, Palladium, Rhodium, Osmium, Ruthenium, Gold, Platinum, Iridium, Molybdenum, Selenium,* Tellurium, Uranium, Indium, Beryllium, Zirconium, Cerium, Lanthanum, Didymium, Titanium, Tantallum, Vanadium, Lithium, Cæsium, Rubidium.

* Selenium, although a metallid, is conveniently included here.

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