« PreviousContinue »
have heretofore given, in the preceding numbers of this Magazine.
We have here a full view of one of Messrs. Hoe's large double
The want of letters or figures on the different parts would pre-
-o-o-o-o-o- ~~~ * ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This engraving has been lying at hand for several weeks, and we have often wished to present it to our readers: for of all places we have ever visited, none could make such impressions on our feelings as Pompei. But so small a picture, giving a view of but one part of that city, is so far short of what we desired to have as an illustration, that we laid it by, as a thing unfit for our use. Turning, however, to Gell's work on Pompei, with its numerous, and beautiful copper-plate engravings, we had a similar reflection to make, on its insufficiency. In fact, nothing but the original, the ancient city itself, can ever satisfy one who has seen it; and, without wai:ing for any more satisfactory representation of it, we will proceed to state a few interesting facts connected with its history and condition.
If the reader will turn to the Epistles of Pliny the Younger, he may read the description of the destruction of Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabioe, by an eruption of Mount Vesuvius, one thousand, seven hundred and seventy-four years ago, in the reign of the Emperor Titus. That elegant writer tells us what he him. self saw, from the opposite side of the Bay of Naples; and his works contain almost everything known, until within about a century, even by the most learned men of Europe, respecting the cities above mentioned.
It appears, however, that the peasants inhabiting their neighborhood, for unknown years, had occasionally dug up fragments of tessalated pavements and
other pieces of buildings, particularly in sinking wells, on a tract of flat ground, extending a mile or more near the foot of the mountain, and raised about thirty feet above the surrounding country. They were acquainted with several stone towers, and other edifices, whose summits projected above the surface, which, however, were mostly concealed by trees and shrubbery, and did not attract the attention of intelligent men, until about a century and a half ago. Excavations were then commenced, which have been gradually extended ever since, with occasional interruptions; and about one quarter of the hill has been removed, leaving an equal portion of a small city, of which, it appears, the eminence was formed by a mass of ashes and cinders showered upon it by the burning mountain. A more interesting sight cannot easily be imagined, than that which is presented to the traveller, as he stands upon the brow of the hill, and with festoons of vines hanging from tree to tree over his head, and an extent of pasture-land behind him, while just below he sees streets and numberless houses, interspersed with temples, forums (or market places,) theatres and colonnades, gene. rally in good preservation, except that the roofs, which were crushed in by the mass of ashes, have left the buildings uncovered. As the eye follows the lines of streets and houses, and sees them disappeared in the earth beneath his feet, and realizes that these are the remains of a city as it was left deserted by its inhabi. tants, in a moment of sudden alarm, and
- +---~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE.
the mind is affected in an uncommon and an indescribable manner. No one could ever have expected to witness such a collection of antiquities, so well preserved, and in their proper positions. The light which has been cast on the manners and habits of the ancients is important in a thousand particulars. [To be Continued.
The New York Ethnological Society. The last meeting held in January, like that which preceded it, was attended by a number of invited friends. They, with the members, listened with great interest to the reading of two letters: one from Mr. Thompson, one of our missionaries in Syria, giving an account of his late travels in the northern parts of that country, with notices of several ancient cities, not visited by Burkhardt or others; and the second from the enterprising English explorer, Mr. Layard, with a long description of his excavations near the Tigris, at a place twenty miles below Niniveh. A palace which he opened yielded a great number of sculptured figures and historical scenes, generally resembling those discovered by M. Botta, and copied by Mr. Flandin, but some of them in a superior style and F. of an older date. Some have een shipped for England, and many others have been copied in plaster. A number of interesting and recent works were lying upon the tables, as usual, and a lithograph was presented, of several figures on the walls of Niniveh, copied by M. Botta. But the object which excited most interest, was a map of Jeddo, the famous capital of Japan, which Mr. Williams procured by a fortunate accident. The Japanese have been as successful as the Chinese, in preventing the free access of foreigners into their country: so that many of the numerous peculiarities of that people remain unknown to the world. Of course one of their own maps of their own capital, must naturally have attractions for a curious eye, especially one of large size, and filled with minute details. It is six feet square, made of their own paper, as Mr. W. informed the company, which is produced by macerating the leaf of a species of mulberry tree, and spreading and drying it, somewhat as our paper-makers do with the pulp of cotton and linen rags. It bore a consid
erable resemblance to the tapa, or mulberry cloth of the Pacific ocean islands, although not made of bark, nor laid in successive sheets, as that is. By holding it before the light the texture appeared uniform, but lines were seen at which the small fibres, of which it is composed, were pasted together.
The streets of Jeddo lie delineated on its surface, presenting an irregular, confused appearance, thickly spotted with names, in the Chinese character, and many squares, with temples, also named. The military emperor has his abode in the centre, with an extensive wall, or fortified line enclosing his quarter, somewhat in the form of an irregular European fortress; while numerous smaller enclosures, throughout the rest of the city, indicate the precincts of princes and officers, or nobleman, each of which is distinguished by a figure, which is the armorial ensign of its owner. Immediately around the emperor's district is a row of princely wards or districts, each with its palace and square, marked with a small double globe; while beyond these are the divisions occupied by officers, in which a variety of marks are observa ble.
The native Brazilians have been represented as almost destitute of ideas of any religion, almost without government. They have vague and indefinite notions of some superior power, and of a future state. Although peaceful among themselves, they are desperate in battle, and generally feast upon the bodies of their slaughtered enemies. The female is perhaps less degraded than is usual among heathen nations. Yet they are considered as much inferior to man, and perform most of the manual labor.
Polygamy is practised by the chiefs and nobles of the country, and marriage may be dissolved at pleasure. To be eligible to the married state, according to their “theories,’ a man must have taken a captive in war and given him to the tribe to be devoured—though we have a right to believe that this pre-requisite is not always required. Captives are often kept a long time before being put to death, treated with the utmost kindness, and often permitted to marry the nearest kindred of the captors. But when the dreadful day arrives and the fatal hour
The nations of Buenos Ayres, who have never been subdued, are similar in their social habits and customs to the Brazilians. They seldom wear clothing, though they are, like other savage nations, extremely fond of ornaments. They guard with great strictness and severity their domestic rights, and exhibit no inconsiderable degree of jealousy. When twins are born, one of them is destroyed; and when the mother dies, they adopt the cruel and inhuman practice of burying with her the living infant.
The institution of Matrimony is recog
nised by all the tribes of North America. .
But their particular views of the subject are as widely diverse from each other as their respective habits. Some countenance polygamy, while others do not— some consider marriage a sacred union for life, while others indulge its dissolution at pleasure. nia, for instance, have no ideas of the obligations imposed by this union, and recognise none. They pay very little regard to morality—the men often staking everything as prizes and wagers at their games. The females are slaves, and are compelled to perform all the drudgery of manual labor in times of peace and war, except the actual encounter of battle.—Sel.
The people of Califor
+-->~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -**-* *
seamen, but the most of them are immigrants from the west. The location of this population is given as follows:
San Diego, 1,300 Santa Barbara, 800 Monterey, 1,000 San Francisco, 800 Scattered, 1,100
The three most important establishments in the country are the factories of the Hudson's Bay Company, and the most important of all New Helvetia, founded by Captain Suter, a retired officer of the Swiss Guards, of Charles X., disbanded at the revolution of the three days, of 1830.-This enterprising gentleman emigrated from Missouri to California in 1838–39, and has formed the nucleus of the future empire on the Pacific. Capt. Fremont, on his visit to Capt. Suter, in 1844, states, that on his first settlement he had some trouble with the Indians, but by the occasional exercise of well-timed authority, converted them into a peaceable and industrious people. On application to the chief of a village, he obtains as many boys and girls as he can employ, and there were at that time a number in training for a woolen factory. He bought out the stock of a Russian establishment, the owners of which wished to leave the country, consisting of a large number of cattle, artillery, &c. His fort mounts 12 cannon, and can hold 100 men, but is garrisoned with 40 Indians, in uniform. The imports and exports of California, M. de Mofras gives as follows:
Mexican flag, 50,000 65,000 United States flag, 70,000 150,000 English flag, 20,000 45,000 Miscellaneous flags, 10,000 20,000 Total, 150,000 280,000
The articles exported are hides, $210,000; tallow, $55,000; peltries, wool, &c., $15,000; total, $280,000 The business done under the Mexican flag is not in Mexican vessels, but in those belonging to the citizens of other countries doing business in Mexico. . In 1841, of eleven vessels that reached California under the Mexican flag, only one, a boat of eighty-six tons, in the service of the Government, was Mexican. [Sel.
Hovsep Gamalielyan was born in Constantinople in the year 1801. He was by birth an Armenian, and was brought up in the faith of the Armenian Church, in which faith he remained until he was about fortythree years of age. Those who read this narrative, need not be told that this church, like the Greek Church and the Roman Church, has unhappily departed far from the simplicity and purity of the gospel; and it may be truly said, that in its doctrines and rites it follows the traditions of men rather than the commandments of God.
The subject of this brief sketch, besides being fully trained in the superstitious ways of his church, was also, until his fortythird year, a most notorious sinner. Being connected by relationship with one of the highest Armenian families in the capital, and having a fine voice, he was often invited, on festive occasions, to amuse the worldly and the gay by his frivolous and unbecoming songs.
Hovsep had a brother, once as vile as himself, but who, for many years, had externally reformed. His very excess of iniquity seemed, all at once, to strike him with terror, and he resolved to lead a religious life. At this time he had never yet heard the pure gospel preached; and, being entirely ignorant of God's righteousness, he went about to establish his own righteousness. In order to atone for his sins and purify his heart, he retired to a distant monastery, with the confident expectation that such a seclusion from the world would, as a matter of course, bring peace of mind and sanctity of character. Not finding his hopes realized in this res. pect, he withdrew entirely from the society of men, and lived for a time as a hermit, in the midst of an uninhabited wilderness. He soon found, however, that even by this severe mode of bodily infliction, his soul was not purified, and there remained “an aching void,” which had not yet been filled. He returned to the capital, and, concluding that the defect was in the form of religion under which he had been brought up, he embraced the Roman Catholic faith, and became chief singer in one of their churches. This was his situation when he heard of the American missionaries, and found his way to them. From them he heard the gospel preached, unmixed with human
traditions, and immediately embraced it with his whole heart, as the very thing for which he had been ignorantly seeking for so long a time. He began to labor immediately and earnestly for the salvation of his brother Hovsep, as well as of the other members of his family. Hovsep warmly opposed his endeavours, but he persevered; and not only did he make unceasing prayer to God for the conversion of his brother, but he often engaged his Christian brethren to unite with him in praying for this special object. At his solicitation several of them united, at different times, in observing days of fasting and prayer, with particular reference to the conversion of Hovsep. Nor were these prayers offered in vain. Hovsep became uneasy. He would oppose the earnest arguments of his brother as long as he could, and then go away for new strength to a friend of his, who has a reputation for much learning, and who is one of the most decided opposers of the evangelical system in Constantinople. From him Hovsep would gather a fresh
store of arguments with which to meet his
brother; but they would all vanish, like vapor before the sun, when brought within the clear atmosphere of the gospel. Some. times he would become highly excited, and would use the most abusive language. On one occasion, indeed, he spat in his brother's face: The latter meekly bore the insult, and calmly replied, “It is of no consequence; you will one day learn to do better.” At length Hovsep's confidence in his former false opinions became very much shaken. He ceased to oppose, and resolved no longer to have recourse to man for guidance to the truth, but to the Bible and to God. He brought to the test of Scripture the errors in which from childhood he had been taught to trust; and, one by one, they vanished before the clear light of the truth. Thus, auricular confession and absolution, transubstantiation, the worship and intercession of the saints and of relics, especially of the true cross, and other similar errors, came up in review, and were successively rejected. But there was one error to which he clung with surprising tenacity; and, for a while, it seemed as though he could never relinquish it. This was the worship and intercession of the Virgin Mary. To those who are imperfectly acquainted with Oriental Christianity, this may appear to be a singular fact. So deep, however,
THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE.