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different termination, was king of the Bituriges, who were Celts. Lastly, Boiorix was chieftain of the Cimbri, whom his name seems to connect with the Boii and other Celts. Divitiacus affords another instance of a name common to the two nations, for Divitiacus the Druid was a Hæduan, and there was another, a Belgic Divitiacus, who is said to have acquired great power in Britain.
In general the names of men in Belgica and Celtica are very much alike, and have similar elements. Many end in atus, as Ambigatus; others in acus; and still more in marus, as Civismarus, Indutiomarus, Viridumarus. These last are probably compound names, marus representing the frequent Welsh epithet mawr, as Britomarus, the Insubrian chief mentioned by Florus, was Brito the Great, or Brython mawr.
The names of Gauls and Britons mentioned in history appear then to furnish abundant proof that the language of the different parts, both of this island and of Celtic and Belgic Gaul, was the same, and that this language was nearly akin to the Welsh.
Boadicea, the queen of the Iceni, was the daughter of Prasutagus. She is called by Dio and Xiphilin, Bonduca. Nearly the same name occurs in an old inscription in the country of the Silures, in which Bodvuc is said to have been the son of Catot.*
It has often been observed that the names of two rivers in Southern Gaul are descriptive of them, when referred to Welsh etymons. Arar, which flowed "leni amne," is perhaps derived from arav, mild, gentle, in Welsh ; and Garonne, from garw, rough, impetuous. The initial part of Lugdunum, and many other names, is perhaps the Welsh Lhwch, a lake or inlet. The Erse loch is somewhat more remote. Lhwch is probably the first syllable of the Gallic term for Paris, namely, Lukotokia or Luketekia, as Strabo and Ptolemy have the name of that city.†
• On Margam mountain is an upright stone on a small barrow, with an inscription, mentioned by Camden, and still very legible. It is "Hic jacet Bodvuc, filius Catotis, Urni pronepos, æternali in domo." This must have been erected previously to the introduction of Christianity.
+ From lhwch (luch), water, and toki, i. e. toki, to cut. The Parisii lived on the islands divided by the Seine.
Armorica, a sea-coast land, from ar mor, Welsh; in Erse, air muir.
Arelatum, Arles, from ar, upon, and llaeth, morass.*
I shall now add a few authentic Gaulish words, preserved in classical authors, together with their meanings. As these are termed "vocabula Gallica et Celtica," they may be considered as component words of the Celtic or Gallic idiom, properly so termed, and they will tend to elucidate the question, to which modern language the old Celtic most approximated.
1. Petorritum, a four-wheeled carriage, according to Quintilian, Varro, Sestus, and Gellius, derived its name from the language of the Galli.+ Petor, four, is Welsh and Cornish ; rhod, a wheel, in Welsh. This word could not be derived from the Gaëlic or Irish, in which keathar is the term for four.
2. Pempedula, cinqfoil, according to Dioscorides, so termed from the (Celtic) Dacians. Pemp, pump, five, Welsh, Cornish, and Armorican; and deilen, Welsh for a leaf. The Irish word for leaf, duille, would answer as well for the etymon, but the Irish word for five is cuig.
3. Bascaude, a basket. A British word. "Barbara de pictis venit bascauda Britannis." Welsh basgawd, a basket, from basg, to net or plait. The Erse has baskeitt, a basket, but without the root, and perhaps derived from English.
4. Trimarkisia, according to Pausanias, a Galatian word for a knight fighting with two horsemen, as helpers. Etym. tri, three, and march, horse, both in Welsh and Erse.
5. In the life of St. Caprasius, it is said that the town of Agen in Guienne or Agennum, had its name "ab hiatu speluncæ." Agen is a Welsh word for a cleft or cave. There is no similar word in Erse with this meaning.
6. Bagaude, the rustic multitude who made an insurrection in Gaul in the time of Diocletian and Maximian.
bagad, a multitude.
• Mithridates, ii. 4.
† Aul. Gellius says, "Petorritum enim est non ex Græca dimidiatum sed totum Transalpibus. Nam est vox Gallica."
Martial, xiv. 97.
7. Bastard, in Du Fresne, derived evidently from the Welsh word bas, shallow, and tardd, springing.
8. Vergobretus, according to Cæsar,* was a term for the chief magistrate among the Hædui.
O'Brien, in the learned preface to his Irish Dictionary, derives this term from the Erse word breath, judgment. Fear go breith means in Irish "vir ad judicium."
The Welsh affords an equally apt etymology. Gwr, that is wr, vir; and cyvraith, judicial proceedings. Gur-gyvraith, meaning "vir ad leges," would be written in Latin Vergobretus.+
9. Calliomarchus, the plant termed Equiungula. The name is derived, according to Marcellus Burdigalensis, from "marc" equus and "cal, calus," ungula. March, equus, caled, durus, are words now extant in Welsh. Armoric kalet, Erse cala. 10. Caterva, according to Vegetius and Isidorus a word of Gallic origin. Cad and tyrva, a troop of soldiers, or a battle-troop in Welsh. The Erse has Cath, battle; but no word answering to tyrva. Torva or tyrva (turmha) answers to turma in Latin, and is the other component of caterva.
11. Rheda, a four-wheeled carriage, a cart, or small waggon. According to Quintilian, lib. i. c. 5, derived by the Romans, together with the term, from the Gauls. Described by Fortunatus, lib. ii. Carm. 20.
The etymon is in Welsh rhe, swift; whence rhedu, to run; rhed, a course; rhedeg, to run a course. Arm. redek, Erse reathaim, I run.
Both Erse and Welsh have this root, but the Welsh is nearest to the old Gaulish.
12. Candetum, a land measure of one hundred feet, in Columella. Cant, Welsh and Arm. a hundred.
The Erse is ked. The Welsh word is plainly the etymon.
13. Tarwos Trigaranos, an inscription on a stone found A.D. 1711 in the cathedral church at Paris, representing the form
Lib. i. c. 18.
This etymology was pointed out to me by my late excellent friend Dr. West, of Dublin.
of an ox on which three birds are sitting. Etym. tarw, meaning bull in the Welsh and Armorican; tri, the number three, and garan, a crane. The Erse words are tarbh, tri, corr, which are much more remote from the Gaulish.
Paragraph 3.-Second result deduced from the preceding examination.
We may venture to draw from the whole of this examination some further inferences.
It appears that a very large proportion of the old Celtic words found to have entered into the composition of local names in Gaul and other countries inhabited by the Celtic race, or forming either in part or wholly the proper names or epithets of individuals, are to be recognised in the British or Welsh language, while a much smaller relative number are extant in the Gaëlic or Erse. A parallel observation may be made respecting the etymons of genuine Celtic words preserved in classical authors either in terms for objects, of which the Romans happened to derive the names from the Gauls, or as epithets of Celtic gods, warriors, or magistrates. We must hence conclude that the dialect of the ancient Gauls was nearly allied to the Welsh, and much more remotely related to the Erse or Gaëlic.
It appears on the whole evident from this comparison that Strabo was correct in stating the difference between the languages of the several nations in Gaul, the Aquitani being excluded, to have been little and inconsiderable. We have reason to believe from a consideration already adverted to, that the various tribes of Gauls and Belgians mutually understood each other in conversation; and it is probable that the difference between their dialects was nearly parallel with that which subsisted between the Welsh and Cornish at the time when both these idioms were spoken in South Britain. The Welsh, which is the relic of the language of the inland Britons or Cæsar's aborigines, is most probably akin to the dialect of Gallia Celtica, and the Cornish to the idiom of the Belgæ, who overran the southern district of England, and probably sought refuge in the west when the Saxons
were extending themselves from the eastern part of the island.*
It may further be observed, that the etymons of several local names are not clearly discoverable in any Celtic dialect extant. In one or two instances the Teutonic languages seem to supply this defect, as in that of the numerous names ending in briga. The existence of such words in the Celtic language cannot be attributed to intermixtures of Germans and Gauls, according to the usual summary way of explaining such phenomena. It implies that many vocables were common to the languages of these two great races in ancient which are not extant in modern times.
When we consider the extreme paucity of true Celtic words expressive of ideas that denoted some progress in refinement, and compare this fact with the state of civilisation which existed in some parts, especially, of Celtic Gaul, the conviction forces itself upon us that we have extant but a very small part of the Celtic language. The ancient civilised Celts must have had vernacular words suited to their stock of ideas.
To this conclusion my late excellent friend Dr. West, of Dublin, had been led by his learned researches into the history of the inhabitants of the British islands. His inquiries had been pursued on a different path from my own, and they had brought him to the same result.
It is very satisfactory to me to find a similar inference drawn by a writer of great research, whose work has appeared long since the above remarks were written-I allude to Dr. Lor. Diefenbach, whose treatise, entitled "Versuch einer genealogischen Geschichte der Kelten," has been published at Stuttgart in the course of the present year, 1840. He says, after adopting a different conclusion from that which I have drawn on some particulars, and especially as to the Welsh, whom he supposes to have been Belga: "Der Ueberblick der obigen Quellen-Aussagen zeigt uns die Unterschiede der Galli und Belgæ bey weitem nicht so stark als Cæsar's Aeusserung auf den ersten Blick vermuthen lässt. Schon bey ihm wird Galli und Gallia häufig in umfassenden Sinne gebraucht," u. s. w. Celtica, ii. p. 57.
†Thus it is probable that the Celts had a native word for bridge, perhaps analogous to brig, and furnishing the etymon of names of towns ending in briga. The Welsh has no other word than pont, evidently Latin. If pont had been an old Celtic word we should somewhere find it in Celtic toponomy. Writers of the age of Pelloutier confounded both German and Celtic nations under one name. When this error was pointed out it became the custom to go to the other extreme. It is true that the Celtic and Teutonic languages are very distinct in structure and formation, and yet they have most extensive relations. A large proportion of roots are common to them. This subject has been discussed by Dr. J. E. Radlof, in a work entitled "Neue Untersuchungen des Keltenthumes, zur Aufhellung der Urgeschichte der Teutschen." Bonn, 1822.