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οὗτος μέν γε οὐκ ἀεὶ συμπαρών] though this last it is true is not always there with them'. Hermes would not be there when gone up to earth for a fresh batch of souls.

§ 7.

ὕπαρχοι καὶ σατράπαι] lieutenants and viceroys'. σατράπης was the title of the provincial governors under the Bartheus or Great King of Persia. The sa rap was obliged to make good the moneytributes and other imposts for which his province was set down in the imperial registers. But he was left to govern the province as he pleased. He was therefore not unlike a Turkish pasha.

Mivws] a famous king of Crete in early times; he and his brother Rhadamanthus were made after death judges in the nether world. Odyssey XI 568-571, Virgil Aen VI 431-3, 566—9.


Eeldav etc] whenever they are gathered together in any number'. That is, they do not send them on one by one but in lots.

'Hotov] the Elysian plain was the Paradise of Greek mythology, to which the spirits of the good and brave were despatched. See Virgil Aen VI 638-641, 673—5, 743—4, and the Odyssey IV 561-8, especially 5635 αλλά σ' ἐς Ηλύσιον πεδίον καὶ πείρατα γαίης ἀθάνατοι πέμψουσιν, ὅθι ξανθὸς Ραδάμανθυς, τῇ περ ῥηίστη βιοτὴ πέλει ἀνθρώ


§ 8.

ταῖς ἐρινύσι παραδόντες] for the giving in charge of the wicked to the Furies after trial, to be driven off into Tartarus, see Virgil Aen VI 570-2, 605-7.

Tov Tŵν àσeßŵv xŵpov] 'the place of the wicked'. See Virgil Aen VI 548-627, and compare in particular the phrase impia Tartara Aen V 733, VI 543.

Kaтá Nóуov Tŷṣ dôklas] in proportion to their wrong-doing. Compare gallus § 26 oỷ kaтà Xóyov Toû Todós (said of an ill-fitting shoe).

σтρeßλοúμεvo] being stretched on the rack.

Kalóμevo] being burned. Perhaps this may refer to the purification by fire also spoken of by Virgil Aen VI 742.

Tò yuv] this refers to Tityos, whose liver was ever being devoured by a vulture and (according to one version of the story) ever growing again. See Odyssey XI 576-581, Virgil Aen VI 595-600.

Tроx] this refers to Ixion who was represented as bound tight upon a wheel, which continually spun round with him. Pyth II 21-3, Virgil Aen vi 616—7.

See Pindar

Moovs] Sisyphus was condemned to roll a stone up to the top of a hill: but no sooner had he got it close to the top than it bounded down again full speed. See Odyssey XI 593–600, Virgil Aen vi 616.

Távraλos] see on Charon § 15.









§ 9.

οἱ δὲ τοῦ μέσου βίου etc] that those who have on earth been neither actively good nor actively bad are after death kept in a place apart, neither Elysium nor Tartarus, is a doctrine found also in the sixth book of Virgil's Aeneid. This part and its inhabitants are loosely described by him in lines 426-547. See also V 734 and Conington's


vπd τŷ åøî etc] for the impalpable nature of the shades see Odyssey XI 204-8, Virgil Aen II 792-4, VI 290-4, 700-2.

ǎpa] 'it seems'. Ironical sense, as often.

xoaîs] the pouring of libations at tombs was a very ancient custom and is continually referred to in the Greek writers. The dead were supposed to enjoy honour and power among the spirit world in propor. tion to the honour paid to their tombs by libations and other sacrifices. This is especially brought out in the play of Aeschylus called xonpópol. There was also a notion that the spirits fed somehow on these libations and offerings, especially on blood. See Odyssey X 516-540, XI 23— 50, 88-9, 95-9. Compare the remarks of Lucian below § 19, Charon § 22.

is et Tw etc] 'since if any man has no friend or kinsman left behind on earth, he dwells among them a corpse unfed and hungering'. See in particular Aesch Choeph 164, 260—1, 483—5.

§ 10.

περιελήλυθε] has gone round. We say 'has penetrated' or 'has taken such hold of'. Compare Odyssey Ix 362 aνтàρ étel Kúkλwwa περὶ φρένας ἤλυθεν οἶνος, Lucian de hist conscr § 2 (τὸ πάθος) τοὺς πολλοὺς τῶν πεπαιδευμένων περιελήλυθεν.

¿Bolov] see on Charon § 11.

ÈS Tò σTÓμа AνT] to him into his mouth='into his mouth', a common Greek idiom.

кaтéðŋkaν] aorist of action repeated. We can only say 'they deposit' not expressing 'on each occasion. See § 21 έκαυσεν.

voμioμa] anything sanctioned by usage; hence, the established current coin of any state: which latter is the common meaning. Render 'without having first enquired the nature of the coin in use and currency among those below, and whether an Athenian or Macedonian or Aeginetan obol passes for good with them, nor (reflected) that it had been far better not to be able to pay their fare ;-for then, the ferryman not having received it, they would have been sent back to earth and come into the world of men again'.

Súvara] seems here to be used simply has force, is worth something. There were many currencies in ancient Greece. That of Aegina was very ancient and widely adopted, dating back from the times when the island was an independent state.

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κάλλιον ἦν] see on Charon § 1 καλῶς εἶχε

ἀναπόμπιμοι] sent up to the earth from the world below. πάλιν goes both with this and with ἀφικνοῦντο.

ἐς τὸν βίον] compare piscator § 14 τί αὖθις ἐς τὸν βίον, and see note on Charon § 15 τὸν βίον.

§ 11.

Novoavres] for the washing of the corpse compare Eurip Phoen 1667 σὺ δ ̓ ἀλλὰ νεκρῷ λουτρά περιβαλεῖν μὲ ἔα, Iliad XVIII 343351, Virgil Aen VI 219.

ὡς οὐχ ἱκανῆς] that is, οὔσης.

Page 60.

Xploavres] the corpse was anointed with precious sweet perfumes after the washing. See Iliad XVIII 350-1, Virgil Aen VI 219.

Tρòs dvowdlav etc] 'being by this time overpowered so as to make a stink'. That is, being so decomposed as to be offensive. Tpòs duowdiav = in relation to, or in the direction of, a stink. Compare Thuc II 65 § 8 πρòs пdový Tɩ λéyew=to say something to please (the Athenians), 53 § 3 ταχείας τὰς ἐπαυρέσεις καὶ πρὸς τὸ τερπνὸν ἠξίουν ποιεῖσθαι = they were resolved to take their enjoyments in haste and so as to secure pleasure (from them). See also on piscator § 8 πрòs ópyýv.

τοῖς ὡραίοις ἄνθεσι] with the flowers in season. For the custom of placing garlands on the corpse see Aristoph Eccles 537-8.

προτίθενται] ‘lay it out' on a bed (κλίνη). πρόκειται in § 12 is the passive in use of this verb. The πpóleσis was on the second day after death.

λаμπρŵs àμpiéσаvres] having wrapped it in splendid raiment. There is no doubt that the outer shroud or pall was always white, but whether the under garment was not sometimes of a bright colour, such as purple or scarlet, may well be doubted. See Iliad XVIII 352-3, Virgil Aen vi

221-2, XI 72-7.

piyev] the change to the plural shews that Lucian, though he has been speaking of Tò σŵua in the singular, merely means 'the body in any particular case'. Hence we resume with a supplied nominative 'the dead'.

παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν] see on Charon $ 18 παρὰ τὸν βίον. Render ‘that they may not be cold of course on their journey nor be seen naked by Cerberus'. dλov or indicates the ironical nature of the remark.

τῷ Κερβέρῳ] this dative of the agent as it is called is only used in Greek prose of the best age after the perfect and pluperfect passive. Remember that ẞλéπowтo literally be looked upon.

§ 12.

povoobμevai] being reddened; that is, with the blood from









και που καὶ] ‘and perhaps too.

ὥσπερ ἐς πομπὴν etc] 'as though adorned for a procession

§ 13.

ἐκ μέσων etc] ‘having come forth from the throng of relations and flung his arms around the departed'.

προκείσθω γάρ etc] “we must suppose that it is some handsome youth who is laid out, to heighten the tragic effect of the scene at his funeral '. προκείσθω literally = let there be laid out. The yap cannot be rendered in English: it introduces the parenthesis in the sense of 'it should be said that'.

ἀκμαιότερον] with more vigour (ἀκμή, prime) about it.

τὸ ἐπ' αὐτῷ δρᾶμα] the performance over him. δράμα = stage effect, especially tragic. It is used of pitiful appeals made by a man on his trial in Plato Apol 35 b πολὺ μᾶλλον καταψηφιεῖσθε τοῦ τὰ ἐλεεινὰ ταῦτα δράματα εἰσάγοντος καὶ καταγέλαστον τὴν πόλιν ποιοῦντος ἢ τοῦ ἡσυχίαν ἄγοντος.

αλλοκότους] see on piscator § 25.

εἰ λάβοι φωνήν] often said of inanimate objects. Elect 548 φαίη δ' ἂν ἡ θανοῦσά γ', εἰ φωνὴν λάβοι. παρατείνων] • drawling out his words one by one.

Compare Soph

Compare what

is said of an echo in a house, de domo § 3 (οἶκος) παρατείνων τὰ τελευταῖα τῆς φωνῆς καὶ τοῖς ἱστάτοις τῶν λόγων ἐμβραδύνων.

οἴχη μοι] see on § 17.

κωμάση] take part in a revel (κῶμος).

8 14.

26 οἰόμενος δεῖσθαι etc for this argument against the muddle-headed popular conceptions of the condition of the dead see Lucretius III 830-930 especially 896-901.




καὶ μετὰ τὴν τελευτήν] ' even after his death

καὶ ἵππους etc] I think this passage must be suggested by the account of the funerals of the Scythian kings in Herodotus IV 71, 72, especially by these words ἐν δὲ τῇ λοιπῇ εὐρυχωρίῃ τῆς θήκης τῶν παλλακέων τε μίαν ἀποπνίξαντες θάπτουσι, καὶ τὸν οἰνοχόον καὶ μάγειρον καὶ ἱπποκόμον καὶ διήκονον καὶ ἀγγελιηφόρον καὶ ἵππους, καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἅπαντων ἀπαρχὰς, καὶ φιάλας χρυσέας. The custom of burning or burying things for the use of the dead is of immemorial antiquity. Not only is it often alluded to by ancient writers, but amply attested by excavations. So in Nigrinus § 3o Lucian says of Romans οἱ μὲν ἐσθῆτας ἑαυτοῖς κελεύοντες συγκαταφλέγεσθαι οἱ δ ̓ ἄλλο τι τῶν παρὰ τὸν βίον τιμίων.

ἐκεῖ] in the other world. Often used thus to denote the life of the soul after death as opposed to this life' (ἐνθάδε).

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§ 15, page 61.

Tpaywôeîv] to declaim in the style of tragedy, or as we say 'to take on '.

οὐκ ἀκουσόμενον] that is, τὸν παῖδα.

ZTÉVTOPOS] the loud-voiced Greek of Iliad v 786 ös róσov avdñoɑox' ὅσον ἄλλοι πεντήκοντα.

opoveîv] to 'feel' thus. Compare Soph Aias 942 col μèv dokeîv ταῦτ ̓ ἔστ' ἐμοὶ δ' ἄγαν φρονεῖν.


avr] what has befallen the boy in relation to him what has befallen his son. See on piscator § 48 Kevóv σo for this delicate dative, which I cannot express separately in English.

μâλλov dè] 'or strictly speaking'. See on piscator § 5.

Tòv Blov avròv] our life itself, the present world. See on Charon

§ 15.

où yàp âv] 'for then he would never have'. See on § 5.

§ 16.

πаρaiтησáμevos] 'having won over Aeacus and Aidoneus to let him peep over the mouth (of Hades) for a short space'. Here we have the double construction (a) with the accusative, as piscator § 4, Aristoph Vesp 1257 παρητήσαντο τὸν πεπονθότα ‘they prevail upon the man whom they have assaulted' (to say nothing about it), and (b) with the infinitive of the thing one gets leave to do, as Herodotus IV 146 παραιτήσαντο αἱ γυναῖκες......ἐσελθεῖν ἐς τὴν ἑρκτὴν “the women got leave to enter the dungeon'. We have the same sense in Charon § I expressed by airnoάuevos Tapà with the genitive, followed by an infinitive as here. And in piscator § 14 we have Tapaiтnoáμevoi followed by a simple accusative μíav nμépav TaÚTηy in the sense 'having begged off this one day' (of residence below)='having got a day's leave of absence, where the accusative resembles that in παραιτεῖσθαι ζημίαν and similar phrases.

Διακὸν] see on Charon § 2 ἐμπολῶν. We must remember that only the soul is spoken of here, or we shall not understand § 18.

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TEρKUα] the subject of this verb is avròs to be understood, and is constructed with this explanatory infinitive as though wore were also there. The full construction then is παραιτησάμενος τὸν Αἰακὸν ὥστε αὐτὸς ὑπερκύψαι. Such too it must be in the passage of Herodotus quoted above, and often elsewhere when the explanatory infinitive is employed.

ματαιάζοντα] a late form= ματάζοντα.

Timoλns] 'on the surface'. This is a late phrase=πions, which the writers of the best age use. Compare Nigrinus § 35 ov yap ἐξεπιπολῆς οὐδ ̓ ὡς ἔτυχεν ἡμῶν ὁ λόγος καθίκετο, where Bekker writes it as one word.

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