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As désigned and used by Mr. R. THRELFALL, F.R.S. A Monthly Record of Educational Thought and Progress.

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HAI DANE, M.P., &c. chanical Engineers, ILLUSTRATION IN TEACHING. By Prof. John ADAMS. 19th February, 1904.) COMMON ROOM PAPERS. On Character-forming and the

Unclubbable Boy. By THEODORE WALROND. It is enclosed in a OUR LEADERS.-XI. Alexander Bain. (With Portrait.) hard-wood box, the PHYSICAL DETERIORATION. By T. W. Berry, Director of Edu

cation, Withington. top and front of PHYSICAL EXERCISES IN DAY SCHOOLS FOR GIRLS. By which are removed SUSAN CUNNINGTON.


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THE BOOK AND ITS WRITER. Professor Saintsbury's Price Complete,

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THE TEACHERS' FORUM: An Unfit Survival.


DAY TECHNICAL CLASSES : An Experiment. By W. EDWARDS. Full particulars on application.

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ROLL.) No. 13 (32 pp., January, 1905) of an important work on this subject will contain matter relating to the constancy, variation

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factory, Wellington, in the Nilgiri Hills, an effective fall of SPEAKING at St. George's Hospital Medical School on

660 feet is employed to work a turbine and alternators, Friday last, Lord Kelvin remarked :-The modern medical generating about 1000 horse-power at a pressure of 5000 man must be a scientific man, and, what is more, he must

volts. As to irrigation, the amount of land irrigated in be a philosopher. The fundamental studies of medicine are

British India is about 44 million acres. Of these 17 million of a strictly materialistic kind, but they belong to a different

are irrigated by canals, million from tanks, and 19 million world from the world which constitutes their main subject remarked that although much has been done, far more yet

from wells and other sources. In conclusion, the president -the world of life. Let it not be imagined that any hocuspocus of electricity or viscous fluids will make a living

remains to be done in opening up the country, in the precell. Splendid and interesting work has recently been done

vention of famines, in the regulation of the water supply, in what was formerly called organic chemistry, a great

in the installation of works and factories, in the transmission French chemist taking the lead. This is not the occasion

of power generated by the hill falls to those centres where for a lecture on the borderland between what is called

it can be profitably utilised, and in the general development organic and what is called inorganic; but it is interesting

of the resources of the Empire. 10 know that materials belonging to the general class of The three articles in the October number of the Zoologist foodstuffs, such as sugar, and what might be also called deal exclusively with local bird-faunas, namely, those of a foodstuff, alcohol, can be made out of the chemical

Oxfordshire, Donegal, and Jersey. The capture of a whiteelements. But let not youthful minds be dazzled by the beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) off Aberdeen imaginings of the daily newspapers that because Berthelot is recorded. and others have thus made foodstuffs they can make living Ibings, or that there is any prospect of a process being found

The director (Captain S. S. Flower) of the Giza Zooin any laboratory for making a living thing, whether the

logical Gardens, Cairo, has sent us a copy of a list of rare minutest germ of bacteriology or anything smaller or

animals recently received from the Sudan, among which greater. There is an absolute distinction between crystals

reference may be made to a female of the Niam-niam race and cells. Anything that crystallises may be made by the

of the chimpanzee (Anthropopithecus troglodytes schweinchemist. Nothing approaching to the cell of a living

furthi). crearure has ever yet been made. The general result of an “GAMMARUS,” otherwise the freshwater-shrimp (a name enormous amount of exceedingly intricate and thorough- which, by the way, appears to be omitted from the text), going investigation by Huxley and Hooker and others of forms the subject of the twelfth number of the L.M.B.C. the present age, and by some of their predecessors in both Memoirs. Miss M. Cussans, the author, seems to have the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries, is that no artificial treated her subject in the same thorough manner which has process whatever can make living matter out of dead. This been the rule in the earlier issues of this excellent series, is vastly beyond the subject of the chemical laboratory, and the four plates, although diagrammatic, are all that vastly beyond my own subject of physics or of electricity- can be desired from the point of view of the student. beyond it in depth of scientific significance and in human interest.

The greater bulk of parts i. and ii. of vol. xxv. of Notes

from the Leyden Museum is taken up by an article on the MR. H. H. JEFFcott has been appointed assistant in the beetles of the family Paussidæ by Mr. E. Wasmann. These metrological department of the National Physical Labor- beetles, which are now definitely known to live in comatory

panionship with ants, are regarded by the author as the By permission of His Majesty the King, the Sanitary

most interesting of all living creatures, since they show Institute will henceforth be known as the Royal Sanitary

better than any other group the interdependence of Institute.

morphology and biology. They are remarkable for the

enormous size of their antennæ, and are believed to be the As International Gas Exhibition will be held at Earl's

descendants of pre-Tertiary Carabidæ. Court from November 19 to December 17 inclusive, under the auspices of the Institution of Gas Engineers.

The first of three lectures on the fossil vertebrates of

Egypt was delivered at University College, Gower Street, Ax exhibition of water colours, photographs, and other by Dr. C. W. Andrews, of the British Museum, articles of interest belonging to the National Antarctic Ex- at 4.30 on October 31. This lecture was devoted to the pedition will be opened at the Bruton Galleries, Bond Street, Proboscidea. On November 7, at the same hour, the on Friday by Sir Clements Markham.

lecturer will discourse on Arsinoitherium and the HyraA SKETCH of some of the results of the public works policy coidea, while on November 14 he will take into considerin India during the last fifty years was given at the Insti

ation the sirenians and reptiles. Free cards of admission tution of Civil Engineers on Tuesday, in the address of the

to these lectures may be obtained on application to the president, Sir Guilford L. Molesworth, K.C.I.E. In the

registrar at University College. course of the address, it was pointed out that there are avail- ACCORDING to the report of the Government biologist for able in India millions of potential horse-power, in the form 1903, the Government of the Cape of Good Hope is making of water flowing from the mountain ranges, capable of being every effort to develop the local fisheries. During the year converted into electrical energy at generating stations in four large steam-trawlers arrived from Europe ; two of the hills, and conveyed, with slight loss in efficiency, to these were unfortunately wrecked, but the others have been centres even at a distance, where it can be utilised for doing good work, as have also certain vessels belonging to industrial purposes. A generating station has been erected private owners. A new fishing-ground, much nearer to at the Cauveri Falls, with a head of 380 feet. The turbines Cape Town than any of the old ones, has been discovered, drive six generators, each of 1000 electrical horse-power, and has been the chief attraction for the new trawlers. The and the current is transmitted, at a pressure of 30,000 volts, report contains reprints (without the plates) of various for a distance of ninety-one miles to the Kolar goldfields, memoirs by specialists on different sections of the South with an efficiency of nearly 80 per cent. At the cordite African marine fauna.


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· The Animals of Africa " forms the title of an article brought about as a result of the inoculations, but the case by Mr. Lydekker in the October issue of the Quarterly mortality is largely reduced. We are further of opinion Review. While admitting the African origin of the masto- that with due care the process of inoculation is devoid of dons, the author does not consider that there are sufficient direct danger, but that under special circumstances there grounds for rejecting Huxley's theory that the bulk of the may possibly be some temporary increase of susceptibility modern mammalian fauna of Africa came from the north. to infection immediately following inoculation ; and it is In an article on fatigue, Sir W. R. Gowers points out that therefore desirable that the preparation of the vaccine and the study it has received has been chiefly at the hands of the inoculations should be carried out under specially skilled Italians. The facts known relating to both muscular and supervision." In spite of this favourable verdict the brain fatigue are passed in review, and the methods of pre- advisory board still maintained its opposition, and Mr. vention are considered in turn. Mr. D. G. Hogarth de- Arnold-Forster therefore appointed another committee scribes the palace of Knossos, and his account of recent

advise him, consisting of Colonel Bruce and Dr. James researches is accompanied by a large plan. Two other Galloway, of the advisory board, together with Dr. C. J. articles also are of special interest to men of science-one Martin and Dr. A. Macfadyen, Lister Institute, Dr. Bulloch, dealing with the Panama Canal and maritime commerce, London Hospital, Dr. Bruce Low, Local Government Board, the other summarising what has been accomplished in Major Leishman, R.A.M.C., and Prof. Wright. This comWales in the provision of higher education. Referring to mittee has reported unanimously “that the anti-typhoid Sir Norman Lockyer's calculation, that to place the Welsh

inoculation has resulted in a substantial diminution in the universities on a footing of equal efficiency with the best incidence and case mortality from typhoid fever, and reuniversities of Germany and America a capital sum of four

commend that the system introduced by Prof. Wright millions is required, the writer says it is clear that Wales should be resumed in the Army." The Army Council has herself cannot raise a tithe of this large sum, and emphasises adopted this recommendation, and is proceeding to carry the fact that it is to the State that Wales must look for

out inoculations and to conduct investigations, by the agency the bulk of the money needed.

of Major Leishman, on volunteers from the 2nd Battalion

of Royal Fusiliers now proceeding to India. In a brief Bulletin issued by the Michigan State Agricultural Experiment Station (No. 218) Mr. Fred Edwards

A list of fresh-water algæ, collected by Mr. A. Howard reviews in popular language our present knowledge of soil

in Barbados, Dominica and Trinidad, and described by Mr. bacteria in their relation to agriculture.

G. S. West, appears in the Journal of Botany (October).

This contains species, some new, which are additional to The October number of Climate contains articles on

those recorded in papers previously published by the same malaria by Dr. Harford, the climate of Uganda and of

author. A species of Glæotænium, green alga, is Lovaleland by Mr. Cook and Mr. Fisher respectively, and

figured, which is distinguished by the presence of a peculiar medical articles, notes, and reviews.

opaque cruciform zone.

Biographical notes culled from Sir

M. Grant Duff's “Notes from a Diary " and other sources The Journal of the Royal Statistical Society for September include references to Sir James Paget, Brodrick, and John (vol. Ixvii., part iii.) contains the second and third reports Ball. of the committee appointed to inquire into the production and consumption of meat and dairy products in the United

The success obtained with Para rubber in Ceylon has led Kingdom, with remarks thereon by Mr. Rew, from which

to the experimental plantation of the tree in other countries. it appears that we are well ahead of other European nations

In India planters are wisely hesitating before they embark in meat consumption (122 lb. per head as against Germany's

upon a venture which yields no return for five years or 99 lb.), but appreciably behind our American cousins (150 lb.

longer. It is obviously the duty of the superintendents of per head), and much less carnivorous than our Australian

experimental gardens to investigate the possibilities, and in kinsmen (262 lb. per head). Mr. Thompson contributes a

the Tennasserim circle, Burma, the scheme instituted by Mr.

Manson for developing a large Para rubber plantation at paper on local expenditure and indebtedness in England and Wales, and Mr. Adam a newly calculated life-table for

Mergui is progressing. C'p to the present serious de Scotland.

predations have been caused by deer and pigs which attack

the seedlings, but by planting out two-year-old plants it is PROF. A. E. W'right's system of anti-typhoid inoculation,

hoped that his may be great extent obviated. The introduced by him in 1896, after being applied to the British

experiment, which was started in 1901, will be followed Army in India was forbidden by an army order in con

with considerable interest by planters. sequence of certain objections raised against it. During Tue annual report of the Royal Alfred Observatory, the South African War the inoculation of troops proceeding Mauritius, for the year 1903, states that the rainfall of the there was officially sanctioned, and Prof. Wright and his island for the year (mean of fifty-one stations) was 68.8 inches, assistants injected some 100,000 men without the slightest the average being 77.3 inches. The greatest falls in twentymishap. At the termination of the war the advisory board four hours were 9 inches at Constance d'Arifat on April 23, of the reorganised Army Medical Department recommended and 8.5 inches at Britannia on January 14. The number of that the practice of anti-typhoid inoculation should be ships which visited the island was 274, against 686 in 1882. suspended. Prof. Wright demurred to this decision, and in From the observations contained in their logs, daily synoptic consequence Mr. Brodrick referred the matter to the Royal weather charts were prepared and tracks of cyclones laid Society, and at their suggestion a special committee of the down. Photographs of the sun were taken daily when the Royal College of Physicians was appointed to examine and weather permitted ; 173 negatives were sent to the Solar report. This committee was composed of Dr. Rose Brad- Physics Committee. During the year 117 earthquakes were ford, Dr. Gee, Dr. Howard Tooth, Prof. Simpson, and Dr. recorded, particulars of which will be published in the annual Caiger, and reported unanimously that, “after careful volume observations, Mr. Claxton states that much scrutiny of the statistics from both official and private damage has been done to the library by white ants, and that sources which have been made available, we are of opinion it has been necessary to remove the books to another that not only is a lessened susceptibility to the disease position.




THE C.S. Weather Bureau has issued its meteorological usefully employed for a great number of manipulations, chart of the Great Lakes for the winter of 1903-4. This such as curve drawing, transferring outlines of mouldings, was the coldest winter in the lake region that has been &c. The parabola is of celluloid and is accurately cut, and experienced since the beginning of the Weather Bureau its axis, focus and latus rectum neatly engraved on it. In observations in 1871. Freezing temperatures commenced addition to its use for draughtsmen, teachers of matheabout the middle of November. The climax was reached matics will find it serviceable for the study of that curve. in February, when the mean monthly temperature ranged about 10° below the normal in all districts. On Lake A new general theory of errors has been contributed to Superior the ice-fields did not disappear from the eastern the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and portion until the last week in May, 1904. Several interest- Sciences, xi., 3 (August), by Mr. William Edward Story. ing photographs are given of vessels and ferries forcing their The author's object has been to develop the theory in such way through apparently impassable masses of ice as soon a way as to avoid the usual assumptions, the legitimacy as a thaw set in. When navigation is practicable storm of which, as approximations, may be questioned. It is warnings are displayed by day and night, and at almost all claimed that the present theory is based upon such simple stations a chart is issued showing the weather conditions at principles as will be generally admitted to be necessary for Sh. a.m. daily (except Sunday); masters of vessels are the mathematical treatment of any theory. The fundainvited to obtain these charts, or any other information in mental assumptions are as follows :-Possil errors form a connection with the weather, at any of the Weather Bureau practically continuous sequence from a certain lower limit oħrrs.

to a certain upper limit. The probability that the error of

an observation lies between x and x+dx, where dx is APPENDIX iii. of a report upon the basin of the Upper

infinitesimal, is $(x)dx, where $(x) is an analytical function Nile, with proposals for the improvement of that river by of x, developable by Taylor's theorem throughout the whole Sir William Garstin, contains an interesting account of the

range of possible error. The probability that the error lies Variations of level of Lake Victoria Nyanza contributed by

between given limits is independent of the unit of measureCaptain H. G. Lyons, the director of the Survey Department ci Egypt. This lake has a water surface of about 68,000 square kilometres, and is situated about 1129 metres above

ATTENTION has already been directed in these columns to sea-level. It is believed to be of shallow depth, and lies

the important innovation introduced into this country by the for the most part of the year in the region of the equatorial

Drapers' Company in granting a sum of 1000l. to University rain and cloud belt, the excess water draining off at the

College, London, for the furtherance of research in applied Ripon Falls by the Victoria Nile. After reference to the

mathematics. No better testimony to the value of this grant geology and climate of the region, a brief historical sum

could be adduced than is afforded by a reference to the Fary is given of the early lake levels as observed by

pages of Nos. 1 and 2 of the technical series of the Drapers' travellers and others visiting or residing by it; this is

Company Research Memoirs, edited by Prof. Karl Pearson. followed by a detailed study and discussion of the various

In the first of these Mr. E. S. Andrews discusses the stresses gauges. Some of the results obtained are as follows :

in crane and coupling hooks by means of the theory of The annual oscillation of the lake is from 0.30 metre to

elasticity, and describes experimental tests in verification of * 90 metre. Between 1896 and 1902 there was

his theory. The present investigation shows not only that of 76 cm. in the average level, since followed by a

the existing theory is unsatisfactory, both theoretically and rise of 56 cm. The epochs of high and low levels are given

practically, but that improvements can well be made in 25:-1878, high level; 1880-90, falling level ; 1892-95,

existing types of hooks by following lines laid down in the temporary high level ; 1896–1902, falling level ; 1903, rising

paper. In the second paper Mr. L. W. Atcherley directs

attention to certain very serious defects in the theory of level.

inasonry dams. It is shown that the stresses across vertical We have received from Mr. W. J. Brooks, 33 Fitzroy

sections of a dam are far more important than those across Street, W., some of his patent flexible curves and a para

horizontal sections, and that in many existing dams not bolic curve.

only do shearing stresses exist in the vertical sections which One of the former is a strip of celluloid with Tags at intervals along its length; when placed on paper

are far in excess of any considered safe by engineers, but

considerable tensile stresses also occur, which form a serious it can be bent to any desired curve, the fingers being placed

source of danger. These two papers are fitting illustrations on the tags to keep the strip in position; the strip does

of the many important practical problems now awaiting not yield under the pen. A second form (pattern B) has a Steel strip and is self-clamping and reversible; this in

solution, which could be solved at a very small cost by genious device maintains the steel strip in any position by

the provision of further endowments for mathematical

research. (tirans of stiff-hinged linkwork attached to metal tabs. The shape of any curve thus formed by this strip can be trans

The third revised edition of “ The Scope and Method of ferred from one drawing to another, a desirable advantage

Political Economy," by Dr. J. N. Keynes, has been pubto many workers. A third and longer form (pattern C),

lished by Messrs. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., at 75. 6d. net. also sell-clamping and reversible, has been designed for such special purposes as are required by ship and boat MESSRS. ROUTLEDGE AND SONS, Ltd., have added to their builders, but it will have a much wider field of adaptation,

series of “ Country Books a profusely illustrated edition such as, for instance, in the construction of interpolation of Charles Kingsley's “ Glaucus, or the Wonders of the Seacurves for wave-lengths in spectroscopic work, &c. This shore.” The volume is published at 3s. 60, pattern, which can be obtained from one foot up to any lengih, consists of light wooden cross-bars hinged to tabs Since the advent of the Nernst lamp, every physicist has 124 to a steel strip. The strips slide through brass spring- recognised that it would ultimately be very ser ble for clamps, and are thus held tight against a stout wooden lantern purposes. Any lecturer interested in bar running the length of the curve, Several patterns and may see a well designed lantern provide size for all the curves are obtainable, and they may be ments, in actual use, at Mr. R. W. I

a fall

ter II.

8h. 39m.

" there


MR. H. G. Wells returns to the more serious side of his

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. work in A Modern Utopia,” which is being published

ASTRONOMICAL OCCURRENCES IN NOVEMBER :month by month in the Fortnightly Review. As in

Nov. 5. Saturn. Outer major axis of outer ring= 39"-42. “ Anticipations” and “Mankind in the Making," Mr.

Outer minor axis of outer ring=11".01. Wells concerns himself with sociological problems, and 8. uh.

som. Minimum of Algol (B Persei). pictures the probable manners and customs of society in 9. 13h. Om. Venus in conjunction with Moon (Venus, a Utopia, situated on a distant planet, which is the natural

6° 30' S.).

Minimum of Algol (B Persei). outcome of continued development on modern lines.

13. 21h. om. Juno in conjunction with Moon (Juno, A REVISED edition of Mr. H. N. Chute's “ Physical

0° 8' N.). Laboratory Manual " has been published by Messrs. D. C.

14. oh. Om. Saturn in conjunction with Moon (Saturn, Heath and Co. In this edition sound and light have been

3° 53'S.).

5h. 28m. Minimum of Algol (B Persei). made to follow mechanics, because, the author says,

16h., Epoch of November meteors (Leonids, radiant seems to be a consensus of opinion among teachers that

150° +22°). : ::.. the grade is less steep than it is where these subjects 15. Venus. Illuminated portion of disc=0 832, of Mars follow electricity." A few of the problems of the first

=0.936. edition have been omitted, and new ones added.

16. 15h. Venus and Uranus in conjunction (Venus,

1° 28' S.). The first number of the Journal of Agricultural Science, 17. 5h. 5m. Transit of Jupiter's Sat. III. (Ganymede), edited by Messrs. T. H. Middleton, T. B. Wood, R.

egress. Biffen, and A. D. Hall, in consultation with other gentle

19. uh. Jupiter in conjunction with Moon (Jupiter,

1° 31' N.). men, will be published in January next by the Cambridge

loh. 24m. to Ith. 44m. Moon occults Ceti University Press. The journal will publish only definitely

(mag. 4'5). scientific work in agricultural science, and will not include

23. 5h. 2om. Near approach of Moon to a Tauri (mag. the results of the ordinary trials of manures and varieties

I'I). for demonstration or commercial purposes.

24. 6h. 39m. to Sh. 34m. Transit of Jupiter's Sat. III. Papers for

(Ganymede). publication should be sent to Mr. T. B. Wood, University 25. Vesta in opposition to Sun (Vesta, mag. 6-5). Department of Agriculture, Cambridge.

ENCKE's COMET 1904 b.-In No. 3973 of the Astronomische The seventh edition of Dr. J. Frick's “ Physikalische

Nachrichten M. M. Kaminsky gives a further ephemeris for Technik," enlarged and completely revised by Prof. O.

Encke's comet, which he has corrected in accordance with

the observation made at Heidelberg on September 11. The Lehmann, is in course of publication by Messrs. F. Vieweg ephemeris gives the daily positions of the comet from and Son, Brunswick. The first half of vol. i. has been October 14 to December 5, and the following is an abstract received, and the second half is promised shortly. The therefrom :second volume will be published in a year or two, and will

Ephemeris oh. (M.T. Berlin). complete the work. In the part before us there are 629

a app-

log. r log. A

b. pages and 2003 illustrations of lecture and laboratory Nov. 3 23 10 34

+ 24 9

O'1510 9.7380 apparatus for demonstrations and experiments in various 5 23 I 3

+23 21

0'1424 97305 branches of mechanics and physics.

7 22 51 37

+ 22 29 0*1335 97237

9 22 42 19 +21 33 0*1243 97178 A CHEAP edition (is. net) of Mr. G. F. Chambers's

22 33 II + 20 36 01147 97125 Astronomy for General Readers " has just been published

» 13 22 24 17 +19 35

0-1048 9.7080 by Messrs. Whittaker and Co. The book contains 268

22 15 34

0'0946 9*7040 , 17

7 5 +17 29 pages and 134 illustrations, most of which represent the


9'7008 » 19 21 58 49

0'0730 9.6978 pictorial efforts of bygone days. As instances of the worst of these figures, reference may be made to Figs. 29, 104,

The accompanying chart shows, approximately, the

apparent path of the comet through the constellation 105, 106, 109, and 112. Before issuing this cheap edition Pegasus into Equuelus from now until December 5. an attempt should have been made to bring the text and the illustrations in line with the present position of astronomy, instead of leaving them as they were in the original volume.

& app.




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The Journal of Anatomy and Physiology for October (xxxix., part i.) contains a number of valuable papers, but of purely anatomical interest. The principal contribution is by Dr. Huntington on the derivation and significance of certain supernumerary muscles of the pectoral region, illustrated with fourteen excellent coloured plates.

The new illustrated catalogue of physical apparatus just issued by Messrs. F. E. Becker and Co. (Messrs. W. and J. George, Ltd.) is likely to prove indispensable in the physical laboratories of all our schools and colleges. It runs to 628 large pages, and is strongly bound in cloth. Full particulars are provided, not only respecting the apparatus required in elementary and advanced physical teaching, but also concerning that necessary to the physicist in his research work. All branches of physics are included, and the instruments throughout are explained by excellent illustrations and concise descriptions, and, what is of prime importance, the figure and its appropriate text are close together.

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