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and envied by Hafiz, who saw in the growing influence of this chief, a mortifying diminution of his own. A mutual enmity soon produced hostilities, which ultimately involved the whole body of the Rohillas in a civil war.

On the commencement of the dissentions, Saud Ullah Kban, the nominal head of the Rohilla states, had embraced the party of Najeb-udDowlah, which he was compelled to abandon by the superior power of Hafiz Rhamut, and his partisans who, possessing the resources of the country, could indulge or,distress him at pleasure. Najeb-ud-Dowlah, perceiving his inability to combat so formidable an opposition, retired from Rohilcund, and again attached himself to the service of the court. After his arrival in Delhi, he was either directed by the ministry, or he solicited permission, to reduce the Mahometan governor of Sarunpour*, who maintained a forcible possession of that quarter* and had refused to render any account of the imperial portion of the revenue. The enemy retiring on the approach of Najeb-ud-Dowlah, the districts of Sarunpour and Ghous Ghur became an easy aquisition. The, activity and enterprise of this officer, who now commanded an approved body

* This town stands on the northern part of the Dtiab; and is at this time held by Gholam Kauder Khan, the grandson of Najeb-udDowlah. .

of soldiers, prompted him again to cross the Ganges, and seize on his former possessions, to which he annexed the lands of Tillalaoad. In the northern division of this new conquest, he founded the town Najebabad*, which in a short time was filled with commodious and beautiful structures, and became the centre of an extensive commerce. At the distance of a mile from the town, he erected the fort of Najeb Ghur|, where the adjacent inhabitants, in the event of war, might deposit their property, and find also a security for their persons. A want of more precise dates, which I have in vain searched for, has thrown a confusion and perplexity on the preceding actions of Najeb-ud-Dowlah ; but it is now seen that in the year \757%, this officer was promoted to the station of Meer Bucksy, with the title of Amir-ul-Omrah, at the instance of Ghaze-ud-Dein; who in 1753, having deposed and deprived of sight Ahmed Shah, raised to the throne Alumguir Sani, the father of the present Emperor.

* Situate in the northern division's of Rohilcund.—Vide Rennell.

*\ This fort is also called Patter Ghur.

% Dow's History of Hindostan.—In the Khazanahee Oinah, a Persian book which treats cursorily of the actions of the late Emperors of Hindostan, it is said, that Najeb-ud-Dowlah was appointed to thi* office by Ahmed Shah Duranny. I have followed Dow'5 History, from the probability that Najeb-ud-Dowlah would receive his commission from the Court, under whose authority h<* acted. '.

When the Durannies entered* Hindostan, in their fourth expedition to participate in the wreck of the Empire, Najeb-ud-Dowlah, who -was himself an Afghanf, and aware of the superior power of Ahmed Shah, attached hinself without reserve to the fortunes of that prince; dissolving the connection he had formed with Ghaze-ud-Dein, without hesitation, or an honourable regard for the favours he had received from the hand of that minister. The return of Ahmed ShahJ -into his own country, enabled the Marhattas to exercise an almost undivided authority in the upper provinces of India. Najeb-ud-Dowlah, the only Mahometan chief of power or ability, that was hostile to their interest, could not bring into the field an army of sufficient strength to oppose their progress. He had been compelled to take post in the vicinity of Sookertal, a fort situate on the west side of the Ganges^, where he was reduced to such extremity, that, had. not the approach of the Rohil

* In A. D. 1756.

f The inhabitants of the spaee of territory, lying between the river Attoc and Persia, are called Afghans.

X Ahmed Shah returned into Afghanistan, from his fourth Indian expedition, in the year 1757. .

§ Now in ruins—See Renuell's map.

las and Shujah-ud-Dowlah, who were moving to his assistance, together with the rumour of the Duranny Ahmed Shah's march towards the Jumna, obliged the Marhattas to retire, it is probable that Najeb-ud-Dowlah would have fallen under the superior force of their arms.

Jn the same year, but previously to this eveut, Ghaze-ud-Dein had cut off the Emperor*, and placed Shah Jehan the second on the throne. The capital no longer contained any grand object of ambition. The power of its princes had been sunk and trampled on, its treasures had been plundered, and its gates indiscriminately thrown open to Hindoos and Mahometans, according to the varying power of the day. The Marhattas, who in their turn gave the la\v at Delhi, deposed the Shah Jehan, who had been exhibited to promote the views of Ghaze-udDein, and raised to the throne, Jehan Bucht, the sou of AUG oh u if. After some desultory actions, the Duranny Ahmed Shah, joined by Najeb-udDowlah and their Rohilla chiefs, attacked the Maihattas, and defeated them, in a general engagement on the plains of BandellyJ, in 1770; when Najeb-ud-Dowlah singularly distinguished himself, routing it is said, with his own troops, the division of the Marhatta army commanded by Duttah Pattelle*, who fell in the held. In the battle of Panifrett t, the fortune of which was to decide the existence of the Mahometan Empire in India, the Afghans were powerfully assisted by Najeb-ud-Dowlah, who, during the period of an important intercourse with them, evinced an invaried fidelity and spirit.

* Aluinguir Sani.

t One of the domestic titles of the present Emperor.

X In the neighbourhood of Delhi, at the passage of the Jumna, called Bouraree Ghaut.

The overthrow of the Marhattas, and Ahmed Shah's return into his own country, contributed" to give the affairs of (he Empire a less distressful aspect; and the abilities of Najeb-udDowlah J, who conducted the administration of the young prince §, again reflected on the capital a glimmering ray of respect. A war now broke out between Najeb-ud-Dowlah and the Jatts, a powerful and warlike tribe of Hindoos, who in the general convulsion of the state, had seized on large tracts of territory, confining on the western bank of Jumna, and comprehending the strong holds of Deigh, Combere, Burtpoure,

* One of the Marhatta generals, and the uncle of Mhadgee Scindia, now so well known in the annals of India.

f This decisive action was fought in February 1761.

X Ghaze-ud-Dein, in 1701, left Delhi, where he could no longer preserve an influence, and where he was detested for hi* cruelties and treachery.

,$ Tewen Rucht,

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