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LAUD, lords of the council that the book might not be pressed upon Abp. Cant. them until the king's pleasure was further known. The secret

council perceiving the city disaffected, and apprehensive of some dangerous consequence, issued out three proclamations. The first to discharge their meeting with reference to Church

affairs, commanding them all to repair to their respective October 17. homes, excepting those who could show the board sufficient

reasons for their staying. The second was for removing the session or term from Edinburgh to Linlithgow. The third, published about three days after, ordered the calling in and burning a seditious pamphlet, entitled “ A Dispute against the English Popish Ceremonies obtruded upon the Kirk of Scotland.” These proclamations enraged the people, and brought great bodies of women upon the former enterprise. And the next day the bishop of Galloway going to the councilhouse, was pursued all along with reproaches; and had in all likelihood been torn in pieces had he not been rescued with great difficulty. The earl of Traquair receiving advice of this outrage, forced his passage through the rabble, and gained the council-house. But being got in, he found his condition no better than the bishop's; for the place was immediately beset, and the lords within terribly menaced. Upon this the assistance of the provost and common-council was desired, to disengage the lord-treasurer and the bishop; but answer was returned they were under the same circumstances, and no less formidably invested than themselves : that under this extremity of duresse they had been forced to sign a paper to adhere to the mutineers, in opposition to the service-book ;

and to restore Ramsey and Rollock, two silenced ministers, L'Etrange. and one Henderson, a silenced reader.

The noise of the Edinburghers having joined the addressors against the Common Prayer, made such an impression upon the boroughs, that notwithstanding the former neutrality of most of them, they came now all into the cause, Aberdeen excepted. And, to shew their heartiness, pushed forwards with the greatest fury imaginable ; so that neither the clergy, or any others of a different sentiment, could live amongst them.

When the council sat at Dalkeith, the noblemen and commissioners of the faction presented a declinator against the bishops; for the ministers had lately signed a remonstrance against their prelates ; complained of them as betrayers of


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Dec. 19.



religion, and desired they might be brought to justice. The CHARLES bishops being thus, as it were, impeached, and lying under a criminal character, these petitioners did not think it reasonable they should be allowed the privilege of judges, and vote at the council table. And here the lord-treasurer Traquair, sir James Carmichael, treasurer-deputy, or chancellor of the exchequer, sir Thomas Hope, advocate, and sir John Hamilton, justice-clerk, opened themselves more than formerly, and discovered their inclination to the petitioners. And, in short, none of the board spoke heartily for the bishops, excepting sir John Hay, clerk-register, or master of the rolls.

To proceed: the lords of the council, having procured a protection for themselves from some of the malcontent nobility, published a proclamation for preventing such disorders as had lately happened ; but the government had lost the ascendant : for the burghers sent some of their body to the council table to demand the restoring the ministers to their places, and the performance of other extorted articles. Not long after, the council was solicited with another petition against the liturgy and canons. This address came strongly supported, countenanced by all degrees, and signed by noblemen, barons, ministers, burgesses, and commons.

This petition being sent up to the king, he replied to the substance in a proclamation, in which his majesty “acquaints them with the piety of his intentions in sending them the liturgy; that he meant nothing less than the maintenance of the true religion professed amongst them ; that there was nothing in the service-book but what had been perused and approved by himself before it was printed ; that the book would be a guard to their religion, and for this he did not question to give them satisfaction in due time; that he should overlook what was past, upon condition of better behaviour. His majesty proceeded to forbid the like tumultuous meetings upon pain of treason. And the term being now removed to Stirling, he commanded that no strangers should repair thither: and that all persons, unless particularly licensed, of what degree soever, being neither lords of the council or session, nor Feb. 19, inhabitants of the town, should, within six hours after this A.D. 1637-8. publication, quit the place under the forfeitures of treason.” The proclamation concludes with this gentle sentence, “that his majesty would not reject their petition upon this, or any



p. 147.



LAUD, other subject, provided neither the matter or form was deroAbp. Cant.

gatory to his regal authority.” Bib. Regia,

Immediately after the reading this proclamation, the earl of Hume, the lord Lindsey, and others, pursuant to what had

been preconcerted, protested against it in form. And now the L'Estrange. party broke out into open defiance: and being resolved to go

through with the enterprise, in despite of the government, they posted to Edinburgh ; where, after having consulted Hope, the advocate, and some others of that profession, they set up a counter-authority, consisting of four tables.

The nobility made one; the barons another; the burgesses a third ; and the ministers a fourth. These four were to prepare and digest matter for the general table, formed of several members delegated from the rest. And here the last and binding resolutions were taken.

The first business of these tables was renewing the ancient confession of the Kirk already related. To this there was a band annexed, suited to the design in hand. By this band they solemnly engaged for the maintenance of their religion then professed, and the preservation of his majesty's person. But both by the tenor of the instrument, and their own explanation, it is evident their meaning was otherwise. For by

the band they obliged themselves to defend each other, against 780. all persons whatsoever, the king himself not being excepted.

Whereas the engagements of this kind in the late reign had an express clause for the defence of the king's person and authority. Besides, there was another great disparity between this confession or covenant, and those subscribed in the late reign : the former being either signed by the king or by the lords of the council, at the request of the general assembly; whereas this covenant was subscribed, and the subject en

joined to swear it without any face of authority, either in Hanmond. Church or State. And further, under the general names of L'Estrange.

popery, heresy, and superstition, then solemnly renounced, not King's Large only the Common Prayer-book and canons, but episcopal go

vernment, and the five articles of Perth, though confirmed by parliament, were comprehended. While the covenanters were thus enterprising at Edinburgh, the lords of the council continued at Stirling, and were little regarded.

Spotswood, lord chancellor, and archbishop of St. Andrew's, finding the country too troublesome, withdrew to London,




and Con,

the pope


where he died the next year. The rest of the bishops, who CHARLES knew themselves most maligned, made for the same shelter; only four of them continued in their country. Three of these, Alexander Ramsey, bishop of Dunkeld, George Graham, bishop of Orkney, and James Fairly, bishop of Argyle, rescued themselves from persecution, by deserting their station, and publicly renouncing their order: but the fourth, John Guthrie, bishop of Murray, endured the storm with great resolution; and notwithstanding he fell under the discipline of the Presbyterians, lost his liberty, and suffered in his fortune, he maintained the lawfulness of episcopacy to his dying day.

To return to England: the Roman Catholics were not negligent in soliciting the queen, and improving their interest at court. About three years since, Panzani, the pope's agent, Panzani came to London, and made his application to the lord Cotting- agents for ton and secretary Windebank. Part of his business was to

England. discover whether the king would permit those of his communion a Catholic bishop of the English nation : and to make the motion pass the better, they were contented this bishop should be nominated by his majesty, and not exercise his function but under such limitations as should be set him by the prince. Upon this request a query was put to Panzani, “whether the pope would allow the nominating such a bishop as held the oath of allegiance a lawful engagement : and whether his holiness would give the English of his communion leave to take the oath ?" Panzani, finding himself somewhat embarrassed with the question, declared he had no commission to speak to that matter. Upon this disappointment he went lower in his request; and by some correspondence at court, moved the king that the queen might be permitted an agent from the pope for directing her affairs in religion. The king, by the advice of his council, condescended to the motion, upon condition that the person sent should be no priest. This Panzani, after having pursued his instructions in Eng- Hist. King

L'Estrange's land about two years, tempted some of the court clergy to no Charles 1. purpose, and brought the seculars and regulars to a tolerable accommodation, returned to Rome, and left seignior Con, a Scotchman, in his post.

This agent of the pope's arriving in England last summer, brought a great many relics, medals with the pope's effigies, and other recommending curiosities, to be distributed among


The arch

LAUD, the ladies of that persuasion. And being a person of dexterity Abp. Cant.

and address, he worked himself into a conversation with some of the ministry. The king was not displeased with his correspondence; his majesty being not without hopes this Con might prove a serviceable instrument at the court of Rome, and make the restoring the elector palatine more practicable. Con, perceiving the archbishop of Canterbury had no small direction of the public affairs, endeavoured to make an acquaintance with him ; but Laud having no good opinion of the man, or his business, kept himself aloof, and would not so much as admit of a visit of ceremony. However, by the king's connivance, and the queen's favour, the Papists came somewhat forward, appeared in greater numbers at court, and frequented their devotions at Somerset-house with more freedom than formerly. This being observed, and probably magnified beyond matter of fact, the blame was chiefly laid upon Laud. Several libels were scattered in London, in which the archbishop was aspersed as an encourager of mass, and little better than the pope's

pensioner. It must be confessed Walter Montague, a younger bishop re

son of the earl of Manchester, and sir Toby Matthews, son to

the late archbishop of York, had been very active in their against the mission; and, amongst other successes, had lately proselyted liberties taken by the the countess of Newport, related to the duke of Buckingham.

Now, the archbishop finding himself attacked with calumny, took this opportunity to disprove the imputations; and being at the council table, he addressed himself to the king, and in a full discourse acquainted his majesty with the growth of the Roman Catholic interest ; that the Papists met frequently at Somerset-house; that Montague and Matthews had taken unsufferable liberties, practised upon his majesty's subjects, and particularly upon those within the verge of the court : humbly beseeching him they might be under some restraint, and either quite barred coming to court, or else obliged to be inoffensive in their behaviour. This speech being well received by the king, Montague and Matthews were ordered to retire. The queen at first was much displeased with this remonstrance, and discovered it in her face whenever the archbishop happened to see her. But within a few months, after some expostulation, she seemed to drop her resentment.

And now to touch a little upon the archbishop's annual account of his province to the king. He acquaints his majesty,

monstrates at the council-table



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