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and ten horses. She was allowed to When Norfolk was summoned to attend maintain the state of a queen, and to en- the court, he retired further from Lonjoy the sports and exercises of the field. don, sending an excuse that he was not
A very different degree of restraint to able to travel for some days. But the that in which her own subjects held queen peremptorily required his attendher at Loch-leven. There is reason to ance. Upon his arrival, the duke was believe that all parties were inclined to committed to the Tower, which decisive let the whole affair rest as it was for a step, though only intended as time; this also best suited the interests sure of precaution for a time, put a stop of England; thereby Elizabeth avoided to the proceedings of the conspirators; being obliged to act with or against the earl of Arundel, lord Lumley, and
The state papers and lord Pembroke, with the bishop of Ross, private correspondence of the queen and were all interrogated, but answered with her ministers, are now so fully disclosed, such craft and skill, that they baffled that there is no ground for charging the suspicions entertained respecting Elizabeth with unjust proceedings, or their project. acting from trumpery motives of femi- Still it was evident that evil designs nine displeasure. She told the French were in agitation in the northern counambassador, that she could so justify her ties, where Popery was most influential. conduct towards Mary, that foreign The state of Lancashire in 156.7 is thus princes would know she had no cause to noticed-Mass was commonly said, the blush ; but that the same could not be common prayer discarded, many churches said of the queen of Scots.
were shut up, those still open necessary to prevent France from again mostly served by men known to be Paobtaining control over Scotland, and to pists in their hearts, Disaffection to keep Mary from being made the tool | Elizabeth, and adherence to Mary's of foreign powers or English Papists. claims, of course prevailed in those disNone who have fairly and fully examin- tricts. In November, 1569, the earls ed existing documents will say, that of Westmoreland and Northumberlana Mary deserved more aid or kinder treat- were sent for; they had gone far in ment than Elizabeth expressed herself their preparations, even making arrangewilling, at this time, to allow her. From ments with the duke of Alva for the aid the course then pursued by the English of a Spanish force ; Vitelli, a Spanish queen, followed'important results, the general, was actually in London, ready Reformation was not crushed, and the to head the troops if any should be two kingdoms became united, and have landed. But the queen's summons since continued independent of all other alarmed the earls ; they took arms, and powers.
advanced to Durham, where they tore Norfolk went forward in his plan for the English Bible to pieces, overthrew marrying Mary Stuart, while deeper the communion table, and called upon and still more injurious proceedings were all to join them in restoring the Romish plotted by the Popish powers. The religion. They proceeded to York, and French ambassador was instructed to openly declared that Norfolk, Arundel, promote Norfolk's marriage. Some of and others of the ancient nobility, were Elizabeth's counsellors encouraged this confederate with them. The duke deproject, and were secretly in the interest nied this, admitting only his desire to of the French king ; endeavouring to marry Mary Stuart. keep her from sending aid to the Hugue- The earl of Sussex advanced against nots, they counteracted Cecil, and pre- the rebels, supported by Warwick and vailed so far, that the Protestant cause in Clinton, at the head of forces from the France was irreparably injured. The southern counties, on whom alone the Popish historian of this period states, queen’s leaders could rely. The movement that a great part of the English nobility of the northern earls was premature; they were ready to aid the plans of the pope. had neither arrangements ready, nor
Elizabeth learned something of Nor- means adequate for the occasion, and it folk’s projects, and cautioned him to be- now appears that the Spanish court did ware on what pillow he rested his head; not fulfil its written arrangements to he made a deceptive reply, speaking in Northumberland. The Spanish ambasdisparagement of Mary. About the sador required as a condition, that middle of 1569, it was painfully evident Mary's proposed union with Norfolk that a secret conspiracy was at work. I should be set aside in favour of one with a Spanish prince. This was con- | might have brought a Spanish force from trary to the policy of France, and these Flanders to the Thames, sufficient to differences caused delays fatal to the de- afford a rallying point to those engaged sign. By the end of December, the in the conspiracy, which, at this period, forces of the earls had dispersed; the included many_about the court; men leaders fled into Scotland, where North- attached to the Romish faith, whom Eliumberland was taken by the regent zabeth had attempted to conciliate, but Murray, who refused to deliver him up, all such efforts were, and ever must till he had consulted the other nobles. be, in vain. The principles of Popery A few days afterwards, Murray was shot wholly prevent the cordial exercise of when entering Linlithgow, by an assas- any feelings of a friendly nature from sin who had been deeply injured by a bigoted Papists towards those whoni follower of the regent, but whose escape their church designates as heretics. was aided by the duke of Hamilton, The chief hinderance to the designs of whom he fled for shelter on horses sup- the conspirators was the steady course plied by the duke's son. The conduct pursued by Cecil.
This was felt so of the Hamiltons, and other partizans of strongly, that the first efforts of Ridolfi, Mary Stuart, showed that they were and those whom he gained to his views, fully aware of the time the attempt to were to displace that minister. The assassinate would be made, and were correspondence of the French ambassaprepared to take advantage of the confu- dor contains particulars of three or four sion which would follow its success: the efforts made, about this time, to procure murder was not the act of an individual; his dismissal. Ridolfi, and the nobles of Mary's chief partizans knew and abetted the Papal party, considered it was absothe whole proceeding. The Papists evi- lutely necessary as a preliminary step dently thought that the Reformation in to withdraw out of the hands of the Scotland would be shaken by this mur- secretary Cecil, and those of his party, der; but their expectations were disap- the direction of the state that they pointed.
might manage the business of the CaThe duke of Alva meanwhile was tholic religion with safety.” They sucpreparing for active measures. His ceeded in getting Leicester and others to treacherous agents were in London, concur with them in this preliminary dewithout being detected ; but the duke of sign. Leicester, relying on his influence Norfolk and other nobles being kept in with Elizabeth, openly attacked Cecil's adcustody, the measures of the conspirators ministration, in a conference with the were broken, the attempt was made pre- queen ; but she at once silenced him by maturely, and failed. Yet the pope did those decisive expressions she used when not relax his efforts : he sent a large sum provoked. Leicester then saw that the atof money to be distributed in England, tempt was vain, and with his usual ficklewhich encouraged his partizans. Mary ness, took an early opportunity to dis. declared that the pope's bull prevented close the intrigue to the queen.
So dethem from obeying Elizabeth, while cidedly was Elizabeth satisfied respecting others sent by Ridolfi to the pope, de- the integrity of Cecil, and his value as clared their readiness to assist in restor- prime minister, that all the machinations ing the Popish religion, and that they against him were stopped by her interwould help to place Mary on the throne position, without any open interference upon her marrying the duke of Norfolk. on his own part. We are here remindAs Englishmen they desired that their ed of the plots against Cranmer, defeated kingdom might not be subjected to a by Henry VIII. foreign power by her marriage with a The lapse of time has made manifest Popish prince. They applied for the a circumstance which powerfully aided assistance of the Spanish force, which these Popish machinations.
This was an the pope urged Philip to afford; but a earnest desire, on the part of the leading difference between the Spanish com- nobility, to regain that power of which the manders delayed the effort, and, at this house of Tudor had despoiled the ariscritical juncture, the English govern- tocracy. This explains some proceedment was more fully informed of these ings which cannot otherwise be accountdesigns. It is evident, from the state-ed for ; it also shows how it was that ments of Popish writers, that Elizabeth some parties acted so as to counteract had for some time unconsciously been in each other, being influenced by different a state of great danger. A few hours motives; and why Leicester and others, high in favour with the queen, at times | times are made instrumental in defeating assisted her foreign enemies, especially their own designs. Turner has shown in their plots against Cecil. From what that there can be little doubt that the first was stated at the trial of the duke of intimation to Elizabeth of her danger Norfolk, two years later, it appears that from the conspiracy in favour of Mary, the plan for his marriage with Mary was proceeded from Catherine de Medicis, first suggested by the earl of Leicester, the bigoted queen-mother of France ; Elizabeth's favourite, and that it was who partly by the advice of the cardinal urged and encouraged by many of the of Lorraine, and partly from personal nobility. Such a marriage, by uniting dislike to Mary Stuart, caused secret the first of the nobles, with her who was information of the papal conspiracy to heir to the crown, in the opinion of be given to sir Henry Norris shortly most Protestants, and best entitled to after Mary had taken refuge in Engthe present possession of the throne, in land, with an intimation that Elizabeth the opinion of all Papists, would enable then “held the wolf that would devour them to limit the power of Elizabeth, or her.” At that period, Cecil was unable even to dethrone her. It is clear that fully to unravel the conspiracy, but it ambition was the sole cause of Norfolk's put him on his guard, and the measures proceedings. He had no personal re- taken in ignorance, were made effectual gard for Mary, whom he had never to arrest the designs when nearly comseen, and he had not hesitated to ex- pleted, till by degrees, they were more press his conviction of her guilt. He fully developed. Various circumstances, also was one of those facile characters connected with the northern insurreceasily acted upon by others when plausi- tion, show that many of the aristocratible reasons are alleged. It is obvious that cal part of her subjects were unfriendly the English nobles and the papal powers, to Elizabeth. The two most powerful though combining against Elizabeth, were northern nobles took arms in open renot thoroughly united. Mary, however, bellion ; that part of the country was was the great means of promoting the most under the influence of the remains schemes of both parties, and thus this of feudal feelings as well as of Popery, unhappy queen, herself deeply faulty, and there the disaffection was so great was still more mischievous as an instru- that her commanders could do nothing ment for the schemes of others, which against the rebels, till joined by forces though differing in design, and as to from the south, then the chief seat of the extent of their guilt, all aimed at trade and commerce, where the nobles the power, if not the life of Elizabeth, had far less influence. To such an exand at the destruction of civil and re- tent liad disaffection prevailed in the ligious liberty. Elizabeth openly told north, that the bishop of Durham transthe French ambassador, “I have tried mitted to Cecil the declaration of the to be a mother to the queen of Scots, sheriff, that the number of offenders and in return she has formed conspira- was so great, that few innocent remained cies against me even in my own king- to try the guilty. When the rebellion dom ; she who ill-uses a mother, de- was put down, many suffered by martial serves a step-dame.” Norfolk was the law; but Elizabeth found it was most victim of his own vanity; the prospect prudent, as well as most agreeable to of a crown induced him to forget the her own feelings, to pardon the greater claims of loyalty and religion. Although part of the guilty. a privy counsellor of Elizabeth, he en- The result of this insurrection contered into secret communication with the firmed the view she had early taken, deadly enemies of his queen and king- that the stability of her throne depended dom: we cannot then regard him as an upon the affections of her people at large. injured sufferer.
To them Elizabeth had appealed at the These designs were the plans of men, first, and she now renewed this appeal who cared not for religious truth, or in a public declaration or proclamation. were openly banded against it; but He She declared that it had been her desire that sitteth on high had their devices and practice to rule with clemency, and in derision. God was pleased to protect any unprejudiced reader of history must the life and to support the power of admit that her government was distinElizabeth, as a shelter for his people, guished for clemency when compared and a means for promoting his glory. In with the other governments of that day. such cases, the enemies themselves some- She appealed to the people whether they had not prospered under the peace she | The negotiations were protracted during sedulously maintained, and declared her several months; the chief counsellors of determination to support the Reform- Elizabeth, Burghley, Leicester, and Walation; but engaged to allow toleration, singham were unable exactly to ascertain provided there was outward conformity. her mind upon the subject. At length In this latter point, she showed that the treaty was broken off by the English as yet the principles of religious tole- queen requiring more compliance on the ration were not fully understood, though subject of religion, than the French her severe
measures were far more court was willing to grant. Hereby the lenient than those of the Papists. queen placed her refusal of the mar
It was now evident to Elizabeth and riage on a ground, which her subjects her counsellors, that a succession of plots in general fully approved. Meanwhile, was to be looked for, involving different the probability of the alliance with interests. Cecil, in August 1570, wrote France induced Mary Stuart to enter that he felt himself as in a maze. No into the negotiations with Spain, which dependence could be placed on many brought ruin upon the duke of Norfolk, of the nobility; but the removal of and caused her own treatment to be Pembroke and Throckmorton by death, more severe. about this time, relieved the secretary from some anxiety. The northern counties became more tranquil, but the parti
INSTRUCTIVE FACT. cipation of Pembroke in the papal con
IN “ The Life and Character of the spiracy became known after his death. Rev. Dr. M‘All,” prefixed to his disMany of the rebels were supported by courses, lately published, there is the the Hamiltons and other partizans of following instructive fact, communicated Mary on the borders, upon which the by the Rev. S. Thodey of Cambridge. earl of Sussex was sent, in April 1570,
“ One circumstance he related to me, to ravage their estates.
connected with his own ministrations is much to be deplored, as the sufferings among the sick, which awakened confell chiefly upon the peasantry: how siderable interest in the rieighbourhood. often has it been realized that when A pious person, residing at some disrulers contend, the people suffer ! tance from Macclesfield, had suffered
Early in 1571, Cecil was created for many years under the influence of lord Burghley. From this time, he was religious despondency, partially resemat the head of Elizabeth's government, bling the melancholy case of Cowper. of which he had previously been the As he was held in much esteem, "his most efficient and active member. This mental sufferings created much symappointment was a great means of the pathy. Many Christian friends, 'and queen's safety and that of England. eminent ministers, of different religious Burghley was now freed from the inter- persuasions, visited him, endeavouring ference of Pembroke, and placed so to kindle anew the spark of life in his manifestly above others in the favour bosom, and restore to his mind those of the queen, that he could apply full religious consolations which he formerly power to detect and counteract the de- possessed. These efforts proved wholly signs against Elizabeth. During the in vain, as he possessed, like many year 1571, negotiations were carried on others in similar circumstances, that between England and France relative to kind of preternatural acuteness which the marriage of Elizabeth with the duke led him to convert all the arguments of Anjou. . It is not probable that either and topics of consolation into the ocparty was sincere in wishing to carry casion of deeper discouragement and this union into effect. But the French gloom. It was natural for me to incourt thereby kept the Huguenot party quire-Did you go?- Yes,' he said, quiet as to the designs against the re- I did, though without any hope of a formed religion in France; while Eliza- beneficial result; but I went to express beth for a time stayed the importunities my sympathy with a disciple of Christ of her subjects who were anxious for under one of the severest afflictions her marriage. The project of an alli- which could befall a good man,
and to ance between her and a French prince, deepen my own impressions of the imalso would counteract many proceedings portance of spiritual things. You may in behalf of Mary, and prevent the court suppose,' he added, 'I was not very of France from rendering her any aid. I forward to speak; but I listened, with
unwearied attention, to the sad de- the emotions with which you still cherish tail of his doubts, his difficulties, his the remembrance of them are precious gloomy temptations, and his utterly de- in God's sight; and, whilst you have sponding forebodings and fears. Mean- your memorials of the past, God has his time, my eye was not silent, and I memorials too! He says, Yea, I noticed every circumstance, however mi- have graven thee on the palms of my nute, which might assist me to place hands; thy walls are continually before myself in his state of feeling, and to go me:"-" The mountains shall depart, along with the processes of his mind; and the hills be removed, but my lovingand I was exceedingly anxious to detect kindness shall not depart from thee, neiany little discrepancy which might arise ther shall the covenant of my peace be between the facts he advanced and the removed, saith the Lord that hath mercy conclusions to which he came. At last, on thee !" ! looking towards the head of the bed, “It pleased God to bless this convers, I observed upon the curtains several ation (which has been too briefly and pieces of paper carefully pinned here imperfectly sketched) to the afflicted and there, and apparently written upon.
His mind recovered its trust and Though I suspected what might be the consolation, and he shortly afterwards nature of their contents, I said, with
died in peace.” apparent surprise and abruptness, What are these papers ? O sir, said the bur
NOTES ON THE MONTH. dened man, they are texts of Scripture.
By a Naturalist.
Of balmy breezes, opening flowers.” but what business have they here? You APRIL, or the opening month, brings say you are a cast-away from God's with it a thousand proofs of “the wisfavour, an utter alien from his friend- dom of God in creation." Nature is ship, that all your religion was a delu- now busy; the vegetable and the animal sion, that you have no interest in one kingdoms are now awake ; flowers greet of the promises, and can look for no- us on every side ; vernal scents fill the thing but to be an eternal monument air with fragrance; innumerable insects of the Divine displeasure. Why, then, are glancing by, on rapid wings; the should you have these texts and pro
birds are weaving their snug nests, their mises of Scripture perpetually around
mingled notes resound in every wood, you, when you have no sort of interest in every thicket; and the voice of the in the religion they represent, or in
turtle is heard in the land. the Saviour they reveal ? The two
Now from the town, things do not agree together. Either
Buried in smoke, in sleep, and noisome damps,
Oft let me wander o'er the dewy fields, your despondency is excessive and un- When freshness breathes, and dash the trembling due, or those promises have no business drops there. Let me take them away. No,
From the bent bush, as through the verdant sir, no, sir, said the sufferer, do not Of sweetbriar hedges, I pursue my walk.” take them away. I love to see them. I had an interest in them once, and they Come, nature invites ; let us go forth are still precious ; the memorial of them into the fields, and rejoice in the works is sweet, though the enjoyment of them of the Almighty. How elegantly that is wholly gone. Upon this,' said Mr. green bank is enamelled with the ladyM‘All, I altered my tone, and said, smock, all “silver white” in full bloswith the tenderness I really felt-But, som, while the blackthorn (Prunus my dear friend, are you not aware that spinosa) displays its flowers in the the truths are the same as ever, and hedgerow above; over all towers the your mind clings as tenaciously as ever beech tree, the ruddy buds of which are to those truths, and the Author of all now about to burst out in leaf, and clothe those truths is the same yesterday, and the branches with renovated foliage. If to-day, and for ever?" All the differ- Galileo, pointing to a straw on the floor. ence, therefore, arises from your dis- of his dungeon, a lifeless, withered eased apprehensions of things, and you straw, could infer from that, the existare confounding the decay of consolation ence of an all-wise Creator, how much with the decay of piety. Recollect, that more positively and certainly may not while these truths are precious to you, the naturalist appeal for proof demon