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Tí vμîv dúvarai] what is it able for you?='what can it do for you?' vuîv is a sort of dativus commodi, 'for you'=' to gratify you'.
To aκpаTOV] the unmixed draught of wine, as opposed to that of milk and honey (ueкρатоv). See on Charon § 22.
Tà ÉTÌ Tŵν Kalayioμŵv] 'what happens at the funeral rites'. In §9 we have the verb kalayiw used of sacrificing to the dead. But évayisw seems to have been the more usual word.
22 TO VOOTIμÚTATOV] that which was most fresh, 'all that was most refreshing. For this sense compare de merc cond § 39 (treatment of dependant by patron) ὅλως γὰρ ὅπερ ἣν νοστιμώτατον ἐν σοὶ ἀπανθισάμενος καὶ τὸ ἐγκαρπότατον τῆς ἡλικίας καὶ τὸ ἀκμαιότατον τοῦ σώματ τος ἐπιτρίψας...ἤδη περιβλέπει σὲ μὲν οἱ τῆς κόπρου ἀπορρίψει φέρων. undev Tɩ etc] 'having done no good whatever to us below'. again the un should have been ov.
ἐκτὸς εἰ μὴ] see on piscator § 6.
dpxý] empire, realm.
do pódeλos] a kind of lily with edible root. For its reputed growth in the world below see § 5.
Tioipovny] one of the epives. See §§ 6, 8.
ἐφ ̓ οἷς ἐποιεῖτε]
= ἐπ' ἐκείνοις ἃ ἐποιεῖτε. 'At what you were doing'. See on Charon § 17 ὑφ' ὧν εἶπον.
παμμέγεθες ἀνακαγχάσαι] to burst into a loud guffaw. See on Charon § 20.
ene] it would come upon me, enter my head. Compare Plato Rep 388 d εἰ καὶ ἐπίοι αὐτῷ τοιοῦτον ἢ λέγειν ἢ ποιεῖν.
606vn] the winding-sheet. In Charon § 3 we had it=sail.
Tà pia etc] the woollen bands with which you bound fast my jaws'.
§ 20, page 63.
w's apa etc] from Iliad XXII 361, said of Hector. Here it is brought in with bitter irony, the corpse wrapped and tied up and the sarcastic remarks put into the mouth of the soul just above being in strong contrast to Hector and Hector's last words.
2 éπLOTрapels etc] having turned round to us, and rested himself upon his elbow.
οὐκ ἂν οἰόμεθα] see on Charon § 17 ἆρ ̓ ἂν σοι δοκεῖ.
σopior] in Lucian's time this word had come to be used in the sense of Professor of Rhetoric', and even as here in that of 'Professor' simply. It is well known that hired mourners were employed. Becker (excursus in Charicles) thinks that Lucian is referring here rather to the Tpb0eois (second day after death) than to the expopa (third day). But have we not had enough of the πpóleσis in §§ 11, 12 above?
Ovvelλoxbra] who has gathered together, made a collection of. So Dem Meidias p 522 καὶ συνείλοχα ὕβρεις αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀτιμίας τοσαύτας ὅσας ἀκούσεσθε αὐτίκα δὴ μάλα. ἦν δ ̓ ἡ συλλογὴ ῥαδία.
σuvayшviσт] see on piscator § 26.
Kaтaxρŵvтai] make full use of.
¿ápxn] 'lead off'. Frequent in the Iliad of starting a lamentation, as XVIII 51 Θέτις δ' ἐξῆρχε γόοιο, ΧΧιν 761.
Taιáčovтes] that is, T veKp. 'Crying alas (alaî) over the dead in time with the funeral dirge' (πpòs тò μéλos). Compare deor dial 14 § 2 of the hyacinth ἥδιστον καὶ εὐανθέστατον ἀνθέων ἁπάντων, ἔτι καὶ γράμματα ἔχον ἐπαιάζοντα τῷ νεκρῷ.
ΤΟ dieλóμEVOL Kαтa etc] 'having divided for themselves the burials according to tribes'; that is, each nation having adopted that form of burial which suits it best. Compare Thuc VII 19 § 1 Aeкéλelar ἐτείχιζον κατὰ πόλεις διελόμενοι τὸ ἔργον.
Exavσev] 'burns'. This is again the aorist of frequency, meaning in full burns whenever occasion arises'. Becker (excursus to Charicles) clearly shews that this is a loose statement, and that in fact cremation and interment were both practised by the Greeks. The two practices likewise coexisted among the Romans.
ebayev] the burning of a body was revolting to both Persians and Egyptians. See Herodotus III IỔ.
váλ] alabaster. This may refer to the Aethiopians in Herodotus III 24, who are said to place their dead in a hollow pillar of vaλos, which being transparent allowed the body to be seen without any unpleasant stink. But Tepixple is strangely used. We can only render it anoints' or 'besmears'. Yet what the Aethiopians rubbed on their dead was not the vaλos, but chalk or gypsum, which covering they then painted to resemble the man before they put it in the upright coffin of alabaster.
KaTeσle] this horrible custom (eating the dead on principle) is attested by several passages in Herodotus, and also by Strabo, Pomponius Mela, Petronius and Plutarch. See Herod 1 216, III 38, 99, IV 26.
Tapixevel] pickles'. This refers in strictness only to that part of the embalming process which consisted in laying the body to soak in a bath of Airpov or viтpov (hydrocarbonate of soda, according to Blakesley). For the preparation of Egyptian mummies see Herodotus II 86-88.
OUTOS μév ye] 'the last indeed for his part'.
Enpávas] in the most perfect method of embalming the intestines were extracted, and as little as possible was left beyond the mere bones and skin, so that at the end of the process the body was easily dried and then swathed in linen bands.
σúvdelπvov etc] for the account of the carrying round of a wooden figure at entertainments, representing a corpse, see Herodotus II 78. Thy ȧToplav] 'his difficulty': that is want of money.
ἐνέχυρον γενόμενος] having been put in pawn. The regular phrases are ἐνέχυρον τιθέναι, κεῖσθαι, λαμβάνειν (to put, to be put, take, in pawn).
Xwμaтa] mounds, heaps. See Charon § 22.
Tupaμides] the pyramid was a form sometimes employed in monu-
TEρITTа] superfluous, useless.
dy@vas etc] yet some even hold games or deliver funeral speeches at the monuments'. To hold athletic contests at a grave was a great honour to the dead. Iliad XXIII contains a description of this.
diéleσav] arrange, conduct.
Móyous] this custom is too well known to need illustration.
WoTep etc] as though they were counsel or witnesses for the dead party before the court below'.
σvvayoрevovтes] taking the side of, pleading for.
Ti Tâσι TOUTоis etc] 'following on all these comes the funeral feast, and the relatives are present and seek to console the parents of the dead'.
TÒ TEρideιTVOV] compare Dem de corona § 288 p 321 κal oυx ! μὲν δῆμος οὕτως, οἱ δὲ τῶν τετελευτηκότων πατέρες καὶ ἀδελφοὶ οἱ ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου τόθ' αἱρεθέντες ἐπὶ τὰς ταφὰς ἄλλως πως, ἀλλὰ δέον ποιεῖν αὐτοὺς τὸ περίδειπνον ὡς παρ' οἰκειοτάτῳ τῶν τετελευτηκότων, ὥσπερ τἀλλ ̓ εἴωθε γίγνεσθαι, τοῦτ ̓ ἐποίησαν παρ ̓ ἐμοί. εἰκότως γένει μὲν γὰρ ἕκαστος ἑκάστῳ μᾶλλον οἰκεῖος ἦν ἐμοῦ, κοινῇ δὲ πᾶσιν οὐδεὶς ἐγγυτέρω.
TOUS Yovéas] he still keeps to the supposed case of the death of a promising son. See § 13.
26 άπηuôηкóтas] having failed'=' being exhausted' with fasting three days on end. απαυδώ is used like ἀπαγορεύω and ἀπεῖπον.
ἔασον etc] let the spirit of the departed go to rest'. μακαρίτης “the blessed dead' is used of the lately dead, much as the Latin beatus. δαίμονας] found thus Latin manes only in late Greek. It is perhaps a rendering of the Latin word, at least the plural being used of the spirit of one person seems to point to such an origin.
el dè kal etc] 'but if you have absolutely made up your mind to weep, to this very end you must not abstain from food, that you may last out the greatness of your mourning'.
ἀπόσιτον] compare de hist conscr § 21 τὸ μὲν πάθος ἐκείνῳ πᾶν τριών, οἶμαι, ἡμερῶν ἐγένετο, ἀπόσιτοι δὲ καὶ ἐς ἑβδόμην διαρκοῦσιν οἱ πολλοί. σTiXO] lines.
kal yáp T' etc] Iliad XXIV 602.
γαστέρι δ ̓ οὔπως etc] Iliad xΙΧ 225.
el pavoûvrai etc] to think that they shall be seen after the death of their dearest still abiding in human passions'. That is still affected by human weaknesses. For πάθεσι see on Charon § 18 πάθη.
§ 2, page 1.
¿^^à] often thus answers an oủ, compare § 16, piscator § 12.
§ 6, page 3.
Tаρà μiкрòν] add the saying of Socrates quoted by Diogenes Laertius II § 32 τό τε εὖ ἄρχεσθαι μικρὸν μὲν μὴ εἶναι παρὰ μικρὸν δέ, 'a good beginning is not a little thing but within a little': that is, of the end.
Open] the future is in sense about equivalent to the optative with av, so that here we have (as often) it substituted for the more common form of condition (as ei éléλois......Tρépolo av). Compare bis accus § 17 el ȧkoújaιte......eloeσbe, gallus § 16 etc, and see on § 8 εἰ γένοιο......δόξεις.
§ 8, page 4.
hồn diépuyev] 'slipped at once from my memory'. For ïòn see § 15.
§ 10, page 5.
οὔτε...οὔτε... ἀλλὰ καὶ] for ἀλλὰ καὶ thus opposed to a negative see bis accus § 20 οὐκ ἀγνοῶ μὲν.....ἀλλὰ καὶ ὁρῶ.
ovvv so in de hist conscr § 39 Lucian says that the true historian should have an eye not to his hearers in the present but to those who will afterwards have intercourse with his writings (Tous μετὰ ταῦτα συνεσομένους τοῖς συγγράμμασιν).
§ 13, page 6.
apels] giving up (following in their steps).
§ 4, page 12.
eavμásw el doкeî] see on piscator §§ 32, 34.
ἀρχιτέκτων Ομηρος] see the story of the vision of Homer whereby Alexander was said to have been guided in the choice of a site for
his new city Alexandria. I fancy that Lucian is here thinking of this story, which Plutarch records very doubtingly, and giving a sly rap at the appetite for the marvellous displayed by the writers of his own day.
§ 5, page 13.
κατὰ τοῦ ὀλισθηροῦ] I find this construction again in Arrian v $ 1, where a pile bridge is said to be κarà тоû πотаμοû, 'down into the river'.
§ 8, page 15.
TeOveσ0α] Milon died, it is said, by being nipped in a halfcleft tree which he strove in the pride of his strength to tear completely asunder. See Strabo VI I § 12 (p 263), Juvenal X 10.
§ 10, page 16.
φησὶν οὗτος etc] observe that Charon breaks in to explain Solon's reference. The reason is that he can recognize the names of two of his recent passengers.
§ 12, page 18.
ol σújovтes etc] compare Juvenal VIII 258 pluris enim Decii quam quae servantur ab illis.
§ 20, page 24.
IO del dλλwv] so Horace epist II 2 174 permutet dominos et cedat in altera iura.
§ 23, page 26.
Kai Tbλeis] so Rutilius de reditu 1 413-4 non indignemur mortalia corpora solvi: cernimus exemplis oppida posse mori.
§ 24, page 27.
Tèρ Tоû Tedlov etc] compare Hamlet act IV scene iv lines 17-26, 60-65.
§ 2, page 29.
τὴν γλῶτταν αὐτὴν] αὐτὴν merely adds a somewhat awkward emphasis, which points to the tongue being named as the offending
26 ἐπὶ τὸν Εὐριπίδην] perhaps Lucian is thinking of the story of the Athenian prisoners at Syracuse who were said in some instances to have gained the favour of the masters to whom they had fallen by recitations from the pathetic tragedies of this poet.
§ 4, page 30.
ayopas] compare Demosth p 121 (Phil III § 49) vûv s ἅπανθ' ὥσπερ ἐξ ἀγορᾶς ἐκπέπραται ταῦτα.