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19 ol úuiv súvarai] what is it able for you ?='what can it do for you?' úzîv is a sort of dativus commodi, 'for you'='to gratify you'.

To åkpator] the unmixed draught of wine, as opposed to that of milk and honey (uellaparov). See on Charon $ 22.

ÉTÈ TW Kabaylouậv] what happens at the funeral rites'. In 99 we have the verb kabaylfw used of sacrificing to the dead. But évayisw seems to have been the more usual word.

Td voor(MÁTatov] that which was most fresh, all that was most refreshing'. For this sense compare de merc cond § 39 (treatment of dependant by patron) όλως γαρ όπερ ην νοστιμώτατον έν σοι απανθισάμενος και το εγκαρπότατος της ηλικίας και το ακμαιότατον του σώμα

τους επιτρίψας...ήδη περιβλέπει σε μέν οί της κόπρου απορρίψει φέρων. 23 undéu tl etc) 'having done no good whatever to us below'. Here

again the un should have been oů. 25 εκτός ει μη] see on piscator 8 6. 27 dpx”] empire, realm.

ảo podelos) a kind of lily with edible root. For its reputed growth in the world below see § 5. 28 Tloløbvny] one of the epivúes. See $$ 6, 8. 29 εφ' οίς έποιείτε) ŠTĚkelvous à ÉTOLETTE. “At what you were doing'. See on Charon § 17 '' wv eltrov.

παμμέγεθες ανακαγχάσαι] to burst into a loud guffaw. See on Charon § 20.

ÉT VEL] it would come upon me, enter my head. Compare Plato Rep 388 d ει και επίοι αυτώ τοιούτον ή λέγειν ή ποιείν. 30 Ý 606vn] the winding-sheet. In Charon § 3 we had it =sail.

èpia etc] 'the woollen bands with which you bound fast my jaws'.

$. 20, page 63. ws ãpa etc) from Iliad XXII 361, said of Hector. Here it is brought in with bitter irony, the corpse wrapped and tied up and the sarcastic remarks put into the mouth of the soul just above being in strong contrast to Hector and Hector's last words.

ÉTTLOtpapels etc] having turned round to us, and rested himself upon his elbow. 3 ουκ αν οιόμεθα] see on Charon 8 17 άρ' αν σοι δοκεί. 5 Ooplotnv] in Lucian's time this word had come to be used in the

sense of Professor of Rhetoric', and even as here in that of ‘Professor' simply. It is well known that hired mourners were employed. Becker (excursus in Charicles) thinks that Lucian is referring here rather to the Tpbbeols (second day after death) than to the expopa (third day). But have we not had enough of the apóleous in SS 11, 12 above?

ovveidoxbra] who has gathered together, made a collection of. So Dem Meidias p522 και συνείλοχα ύβρεις αυτού και ατιμίας τοσαύτας όσας

ακούσεσθε αυτίκα δή μάλα. ήν δ' η συλλογή ραδία. 5 ouvaywvloth) see on piscator § 26. 7 xopny ] "conductor'.

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Kataxportal] make full use of. 8 ¿E&pxn] 'lead off'. Frequent in the Iliad of starting a lamentation, as XVIII 51 Θέτις δ' εξήρχε γόοιο, XXIV 76Ι.

étaiágortes) that is, tớ verpą. "Crying alas (alal) over the dead in time with the funeral dirge' (it pds to uédos). Compare deor dial 14 8 2 of the hyacinth ήδιστον και ευανθέστατον ανθέων απάντων, έτι και γράμματα έχον έπαιάζοντα των νεκρώ.

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diebuevol kata etc] 'having divided for themselves the burials according to tribes”; that is, each nation having adopted that form of burial which suits it best. Compare Thuc VII 19 8 1 Δεκέλεια» ετείχιζον κατά πόλεις διελόμενοι το έργον.

Ékavoev] 'burns'. This is again the aorist of frequency, meaning in full 'burns whenever occasion arises'. Becker (excursus to Charicles) clearly shews that this is a loose statement, and that in fact cremation and interment were both practised by the Greeks. The two practices likewise coexisted among the Romans.

Dayev] the burning of a body was revolting to both Persians and Egyptians. See Herodotus III 16.

válw] alabaster. This may refer to the Aethiopians in Herodotus III 24, who are said to place their dead in a hollow pillar of valos, which being transparent allowed the body to be seen without any unpleasant stink. But ztepexplel is strangely used. We can only render it anoints' or 'besmears'. Yet what the Aethiopians rubbed on their dead was not the valos, but chalk or gypsum, which covering they then painted to resemble the man before they put it in the upright coffin of alabaster.

Kateo Olel] this horrible custom (eating the dead on principle) is attested by several passages in Herodotus, and also by Strabo, Pomponius Mela, Petronius and Plutarch. See Herod 1 216, III 38, 99,

Tap.XEVEL] “pickles'. This refers in strictness only to that part of the embalming process which consisted in laying the body to soak in a bath of Nitpov or vitpov (hydrocarbonate of soda, according to Blakesley). For the preparation of Egyptian mummies see Herodotus II 86—88.

OUTOs mév ye] 'the last indeed for his part'. 13 Empávas] in the most perfect method of embalming the intestines

were extracted, and as little as possible was left beyond the mere bones and skin, so that at the end of the process the body was easily dried and then swathed in linen bands.

O ÚVDELTVOV etc) for the account of the carrying round of a wooden figure at entertainments, representing a corpse, see Herodotus 11 78. 15 Thy droplav] ‘his difficulty': that is want of money.

évéxupov yevóuevos] having been put in pawn. The regular phrases are évéxupov tíð éval, keîolai, Naußável (to put, to be put, take, in pawn).

IV 26.

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§ 22. 16 χώματα] mounds, heaps. See Charon 8 22. 17 πυραμίδες] the pyramid was a form sometimes employed in monu

ments, The great ones of the Egyptian kings are the best known in

stance. 18 περιττά] superfuous, useless.

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αγώνας etc] yet some even hold games or deliver funeral speeches at the monuments'. To hold athletic contests at a grave was a great honour to the dead. Iliad XXIII contains a description of this.

διέθεσαν] arrange, conduct.
λόγους] this custom is too well known to need illustration.

ώσπερ etc] as though they were counsel or witnesses for the dead party before the court below'. συναγορεύοντες] taking the side of, pleading for.

§ 24. επί πάσι τούτοις etc] following on all these comes the funeral feast, and the relatives are present and seek to console the parents of the dead'.

το περίδειπνον] compare Dem de corona 8 288 p 321 και ουχ ο μεν δήμος ούτως, οι δε των τετελευτηκότων πατέρες και αδελφοί οι υπό του δήμου τόθ' αιρεθέντες επί τας ταφας άλλως πως, αλλα δέον ποιείν αυτους το περίδειπνον ως παρ' οικειοτάτω των τετελευτηκότων, ώσπερ τάλλ' είωθε γίγνεσθαι, τούτ' έποίησαν παρ' εμοί. εικότως· γένει μεν γαρ

έκαστος εκάστω μάλλον οικείος ήν εμού, κοινή δε πάσιν ουδείς εγγυτέρω. 23

τους γονέας] he still keeps to the supposed case of the death of a promising son. 26 απηυδηκότας] “having failed' = being exhausted’ with fasting three

days on end. απαυδώ is used like απαγορεύω and απείπον. 27

έασoν etc] let the spirit of the departed go to rest'. μακαρίτης “the blessed dead' is used of the lately dead, much as the Latin beatus. 28 δαίμονας] found thus Latin manes only late Greek. It is

perhaps a rendering of the Latin word, at least the plural being used of the spirit of one person seems to point to such an origin.

El kal etc] 'but if you have absolutely made up your mind to weep, to this very end you must not abstain from food, that you

may last out the greatness of your mourning'. 29

απόσιτον] compare de hist conscr 8 21 το μεν πάθος εκείνω πάν τριών, oίμαι, ημερών έγένετο, απόσιτοι δε και ές εβδόμης διαρκούσιν οι πολλοί. 31 στίχοι] lines.

Page 64. και γάρ τ' etc] Iliad XXIV 6o2. 3 γαστέρι δ' ούπως etc] Iliad XIX 225. 5 ει φανούνται etc] to think that they shall be seen after the death

of their dearest still abiding in human passions'. That is still affected by human weaknesses. For πάθεσι see on Charon 8 τ8 πάθη.

See 8 13.

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§ 2, page 1.
dXld] often thus answers an oů, compare $ 16, piscator $ 12.

$ 6, page 3 13

Tapà ulkpdr] add the saying of Socrates quoted by Diogenes Laertius II 8 32 τό τε ευ άρχεσθαι μικρόν μεν μη είναι παρά μικρόν δε, 'a good beginning is not a little thing but within a little': that is, of the end.

§ 7. Opéyn] the future is in sense about equivalent to the optative with äv, so that here we have (as often) it substituted for the more common form of condition (as el D&NOLS...... Tpépoco dv). Compare bis accus § 17 el åKoúsaLTE...... Eto eo be, gallus § 16 etc, and see on § 8 ει γένοιο...... δόξεις.

§ 8, page 4. 15

Bon diépuyev] slipped at once from my memory'. For non see § 15.

$ 10, page 5. ούτε...ούτε...αλλά και] for αλλά και thus opposed to a negative see bis accus 8 20 ουκ αγνοώ μεν......αλλά και ορώ.

$ 12. 31 ouva] so in de hist conscr $ 39 Lucian says that the true his

torian should have an eye not to his hearers in the present but to those who will afterwards have intercourse with his writings (Tous μετά ταύτα συνεσομένους τους συγγράμμασιν).

§ 13, page 6. 8 åpels] giving up (following in their steps).

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§ 4, page 12. Davuášw el dokel] see on piscator S$ 32, 34.

αρχιτέκτων Όμηρος] see the story of the vision of Homer whereby Alexander was said to have been guided in the choice of a site for

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his new city Alexandria. I fancy that Lucian is here thinking of this story, which Plutarch records very doubtingly, and giving a sly rap at the appetite for the marvellous displayed by the writers of his own day.

§ 5, page 13. 15 katd roll olco Onpou] I find this construction again in Arrian v 7

§ 1, where a pile bridge is said to be katà roll totajoû, 'down into the river'.

§ 8, page 15. 24 TeOvñfeolau] Milon died, it is said, by being nipped in a half

cleft tree which he strove in the pride of his strength to tear completely asunder. See Strabo VI I § 12 (p 263), Juvenal x 10.

§ 10, page 16. onolv oŮtos etc] observe that Charon breaks in to explain Solon's reference. The reason is that he can recognize the names of two of his recent passengers.

§ 12, page 18. ol ougoutes etc) compare Juvenal viII 258 pluris enim Decii quam quae servantur ab illis.

§ 20, page 24. åel &Mwv) so Horace epist II 2 174 permutet dominos et cedat in altera iura.

§ 23, page 26. 26 kal mblecs] so Rutilius de reditu 1 413—4 non indignemur mortalia corpora solvi : cernimus exemplis oppida posse mori.

24, page 27. 7 ÚTop Toû redlov etc] compare Hamlet act iv scene iv lines 17—26,

60—65.

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§ 2, page 29. την γλώτταν αυτήν] αυτήν merely adds a Somewhat awkward emphasis, which points to the tongue being named as the offending member.

§ 3. 26 επί τον Ευριπίδης] perhaps Lucian is thinking of the story of the

Athenian prisoners at Syracuse who were said in some instances to have gained the favour of the masters to whom they had fallen by recitations from the pathetic tragedies of this poet.

§ 4, page 30. 13 é, ayopas] compare Demosth p 121 (Phil III § 49) vûv so

άπανθ' ώσπερ εξ αγοράς εκπέπραται ταύτα.

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