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in a strong and passionate manner, were beyond doubt the first elements or beginnings of speech.
“ Interjections would be followed by names of objects, or nouns ; these by names of actions, or verbs ; these by qualities of nouns and actions, as adjectives and adverbs ; and these would be successively followed by prepositions, pronouns, articles, and conjunctions. • When more enlarged communication became necessary, and names began to be assigned to objects, in what manner can we suppose men to have proceeded in this assignation of names, or invention of words ? Vudoubtedly by imitating, as much as they could, the nature of the object which they named, by the sound of' the name which they gave to it.
" Wherever objects were to be named, in which sound, noise, or motion were concerned, the imitation by words was abundantly obvious. Nothing was more natural than to imi. tate, by the sound of the voice, the quality of the sound or noise which any external object made, and to form its name accordingly. Thus in all languages we find a multitude of words that are evidently constructed upon this principle. A certain bird is termed the cuckoo, from the sound which it emits. When one sort of wind is said to whistle, and another to roar ; when a serpent is said to hiss; a fly to buzz, and falling timber to crash ; when a stream is said to flow, and hail to rattle ; the analogy between the word and the thing signified is plainly dis. cernible."--Blair,
THE GOLDEN RULE Laid down by our Saviour, possesses exquisite beanty and propriety ; it is not only excel. lent in its nature, but is of universal application.
“ All things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them ; for this is the Law and the Prophets.--This sen. tence is very fitly placed towards the close of our Saviours admirable sermon on the mount ; as being, in a great measure, the epitome and sum of what the divine preacher had there expressed more at large.
« The rule which makes what we desire of other men, the measure of our dealing toward them, is to be understood not of vicious and excessive desires, but of such only as are fit and reasonable ; such requests as we can in our calmest thoughts justify to ourselves and before God.
“ It may be thought that the rule thus tem. pered and qualified will not be of any special use or moment to us, in the direction of our practice ; but the maxim of text doth ef. fectually assist us in making a free use of our reason, and forming a right judgment of things; for by the means of it we are able to consider our duty without prejudice, and to state the bounds of it impartially and fairly. It teaches us to take two several views of our duty; to eye it in different situations, and under different lights; and by that means more distinctly and thoroughly to discern it.
« Human laws are often so numerous as to es. cape our memories ; and sometimes so darkly
and inconsistently worded as to puzzle and em barrass our understandings. But here is a law attended with none of these inconveniences; the grossest minds can scarce misapprehend it, and the weakest memories are capable of retaining it. Nor can there be any one so absurd and unreasonable as not to see and acknowledge the absolute equity of this command in theory, however he may swerve and decline from it in his practice ; and to agree upon it as that golden mean which, if universally observed, would make the world universally happy, every man a benefactor, a good angel, a deity as it were, to his fellow.creatures ; and earth the very image of heaven.”--Atterbury.
THE IMAGE OF GOD
Is still impressed on the mind of man, and can. not be wholly effaced ; the contemplation of it, wherever found, must yield pleasure and delight.
“ GOD made man in his own image, and im. pressed upon him some characters of the divine original ; the principal of which is goodness, though it be not the best preserved : for it is of a tender complexion, and delicate nature; and yet the lovely traces of it are still extant, and still shine, though oft-times faintly and with a faded lustre.
« For goodness is universally approved ; justice, equity, truth, sincerity, candour,“ be. neficence, mercy, ever have passed, and ever will pass, for virtues.
“ There is no man who does not desire that others would exercise them towards him ; even
they who are deficient in the practice of them ; yet pay them the decent respect to think and to speak well of them.
" There is no man who does not condemn fraud, malice, cruelty, treachery, ingratitude, injustice, especially when he is made to expe. rience the ill effects of them.
“ No man ever acted uprightly and honourably who did not feel a calm serenity, a complacency, and satisfaction ; none ever pursued wicked courses without some degree of shame and regret, and self-condemnation, aud some struggles of expiring virtue.
“ None, except here and there a brute, ever received great favours and benefits, who had not, out of mere natural ingenuousness, a grateful sense of them, and an intention to testify it, and to make somewhat of a return.
“ No man, except hardened by a long course of villainy, ever saw others in great pain, and want, and sorrow, and distress, and found not a disposition to commiserate and assist them, though he could expect from them no other return than thanks.”--Jortin.
LABOUR Has been divided with the view of increasing its advantages to society ; the subject is thus ingeniously explained.
" THE effects of the division of labour in the general business of society, will be more easily understood by taking an example from a very trifling manufacture; namely, the trade of a pin. maker. This business is divided into a number of branches, of which the greater part are pe. culiar trades. One man draws out the wire 3
another straightens it ; a third cuts it; a fourth points it; a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the head ; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations ; to put it on is a dis, tinct business; to whiten the pins is another ; and it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper.
“ Pin-making being thus divided into distinct operations, a small manufactory composed of ten persons, and but indifferently accommo. dated with the necessary machinery, can produce forty-eight thousand pins in a day. Each person may therefore be considered as making four thousand eight hundred pins in a day ; but had they wrought separately and indepen. dently, the best workman among them could not have made twenty, and perhaps not one pin in a day.
“ A great part of the machines made use of in manufactures in which labour is most subdi. vided, were originally the inventions of common workmen ; who, being each of them em. ployed in some very simple operation, natu. rally turned their thoughts towards finding out easier and readier methods of performing it.
“ In the first fire-engines, a boy was con. stantly employed to open and shut alternately the communication between the boiler and the cylinder, accordingly as the piston either as. cended or descended. One of these boys, who loved to play with his companions, observed, that by tying a string, from tbe handle of the valve which opened this communication, to another part of the machine, the valve would open and shut without his assistance, and leave him at liberty to divert himself with his play. fellows. One of the greatest improvements that have been made upon this machine since it was