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262 (B) Sometimes the adverb preserves a genuine but obso

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'Aonvale for 'Aonvao-de, "to Athens."

Obs. 1 In these terminations the principal changes are the follow

-θεν becomes -θα, -δα, -δον, -δην, τει, -τι, -5.

-0 becomes -, -ot, and even -ov.

-de becomes -dis, and in derivatives from pronouns it is alwas -σe.

Obs. 2 The locative termination -σ or has often a moveable v (above, 85), which is sometimes represented by s, also moveable, and sometimes by the open vowel a (above, 107). Thus we have, on the one hand, πέρυσι and πέρυσιν, πάλι and πάλιν; then ἄχρι and ἄχρις, αύθι and αὖθις, πολλάκι and πολλάκις; then ἄρτι, ἔτι, ὕψι, &c. without any s. Again, we have ἀεί, αἰεί, αιέν, αἰές, but αὖτε, ὄψε, τῆλε, without any consonantal affix or representative even of Again, we have adverbs both in -a and -er, as ἕνεκα and ἕνεκεν, ἐνταῦθα, ἐντεῦθεν, ἔνθα and ἔνθεν; and both in -a and -us, as ἀνάμιγα by the side of ανάμιξ, μέγα by the side οι μόγις, μάλα by the side of μόλις ; but also adverbs in -a without any trace of a consonantal affix, and in s without any further trace of the formative insertion, as τάχα, ὦκα, κάρτα, ἀλλά, σάφα, αὐτίκα, and πύξ, λάξ, ὀδάξ, γνύξ, άλις. Finally, we have adverbs in -ov, like σήμερον, avρiov, Tλnσiov, which must represent an original termination -au or -aiv. This appears not only from internal evidence, but from the changes of the person-endings of verbs from - to -ov or -a, and from comparatives like πλησιαίτερος.

Obs. 3 The greatest irregularity is that which we observe in relative and interrogative adverbs. Thus instead of

80, "where," Tó, "where?" we find ou, ou, which are properly equivalent to ὅθεν, πόθεν:

and instead of

oσe, "whither," Tóore, "whither?" we find ol, roî, which are properly equivalent to ὅθι, πόθι.

263 (7) The most common form of the adverb is when the gen. is assimilated to -ws. There is hardly any adjective which cannot furnish an adverb of this form, thus:

σοφός, “ wise,” gen. σοφοῦ, adv. σοφῶς, “ wisely.”

ndús, "sweet," gen. «déos, adv. ýdéws, “sweetly.”

xapieis, “graceful," gen. xapíevros, adv. xapiévτws, "gracefully." evdaíμov, “happy," gen. evdaíμovos, adv. evdaiμóvws, "happily."

We have seen, however, that it is only with nouns in F that we practically find this gen. in -ws as a case. Many of these adverbs cast off the final -s; as apvw, "suddenly;" avew, “silently;" oπíσw, “behind;" and this is always the case with those derived from prepositions; as avw, "upwards;" káтw, "below;" elow and čow, "within;" ěžw, "without;" πрóσш and πóррw, "afar." We have both ourws and ourw (above, 85). But it may be doubted whether the latter forms are not connected rather with the dat. than with the gen., to which we assign the adverbs in -ws. Dialectical variations, such as è§oî, ëğw, would seem to point to this; but these forms are in many instances so mutilated and corrupt, that we can scarcely hope to arrive at a certain analysis. Thus, in the correlative adverbs, those in -ws refer to manner, as πos, "how?" πws, "somehow;" os, "in what way," &c. And yet the shortened form w refers to time, as in ouπw, nondum, "not yet," i. e. "at no previous time." If Te is added to the crude form, another relawhen ;” ποτε, tion of time is expressed; for Tóre means "when;" 66 at any time;" TÓTE, "then" or "at that time;" őre, "at which time;" Oй TOTE, "not at any time,' never," nunquam, either of past or present time; où πάжоте, "never yet," πώποτε, "never at any previous time." In perhaps the only passage in which we appears as an interrogative (Eschyl. Agam. 1507), it is obviously synonymous with πώς.

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The following table shows how these irregular adverbs are used to express place, time, and manner.

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" in this way” ή, “where,” “in which way"

We have also πηνίκα, “at what particular time?” with its correlatives ὁπηνίκα, τηνίκα, τηνικαύτα, τηνικάδε and ἡνίκα.

264 Adverbs in -ws are often formed from participles; thus we have not only τεταγμένως, “in an orderly manner;” ἀνειμένως, "negligently," &c. from participles in -os, but also similar forms from present and perfect participles of the active form, as πρεπόντως, “becomingly;” λυσιτελούντως, " profitably;” εἰκότως, "probably." And even when the participle governs a case, as νουνεχόντως οι ἐχόντως νοῦν (Plat. Legg. 686 E), “sensibly;" whence we should, with Dobree, read in Herod. iv. 36: γελῶ ὁρέων· οὐδένα νόον ἐχόντως ἐξηγησάμενον, “I am amused to see that no one has given a sensible explanation."


265 (δ) Participial adverbs in -δα, -δον, δην, express the mode of action; thus we have κρύβδην, " secretly,” from κρύπτω ; συλλήβδην, “ concisely,” from συλλαμβάνω; πλέγδην, “interwovenly,” from πλέκω ; σποράδην, " scatteredly,” from σπείρω ;

ἐπιτροχάδην, “ cursorily,” from ἐπιτρέχω; ἀναφανδόν, ἀμφαδόν, àμpadá, “openly," "visibly," from avapalvw. These correspond to another class in -T, TEL; as ovoμaorí, "namingly," from ovoμάζω; ἑλληνιστί, " in the way of speaking Greek,” from έλληνίζω; αὐτοσχεδιαστί, “extempore,” from αὐτοσχεδιάζω; ἀδακρυτί, ȧvwμwкtí, άotevarтí, "without weeping, wailing, or groaning," from δακρύω, οἰμώζω, στενάζω. These affixes are still farther softened into -e, -s, or even -a attached to the simple stem (above, 262, Obs. 2): compare ἀμαχητί, ἀμάχει; ἄπριγδα, ἀπρικτεί, ἀπρίξ; ἀναμίγδην, ἀνάμιγδα, ἀναμίξ, ἀνάμιγα.


266 Adverbs with this participial signification are often derived from nouns: thus we have λovтív-dny, "in the way of wealth;" avTOVUKTI, "that very night;" auroxepi, "with the very hand;" avôpiori, "after the manner of men;" aμiolí, "unhiredly;" Boтpu-dóv, "clusteringly;" ixa-dóv, "troopingly," catervatim; kvvn-dóv, “dog-wise;" κavayn-dá, "noisily;" evpáğ, “sideways," &c. And even from other adverbs, as vewσtí, “newly;" Téρi, "around." πέριξ,


267 To the same list belong a considerable class of adverbs in -iv-da, expressing the names of games (πaidiôv óvóμara, J. Pollux, IX. 110), such as ỏσтρак-lvda, “the game of the potsherd;" Baoiλívda, "the game of king," &c.

268 Although there is sometimes an apparent identity between the adverb and the nom. masc. of an adjective, what we have seen of the mutilations, which take place in these forms, will caution us against supposing that this identity is real. Thus eμmas or ἔμπα is obviously ἐν πᾶσιν; and although εὐθύς is an adverb as well as evoú1 (above, 85), the coincidence of the former with the masc. adjective is only the accidental result of a corruption, probably of the adverb with one of these locative or genitive endings.

We see in the prepositions and conjunctions, which are all pronominal adverbs, the extent to which this corruption may be carried.

1 In Attic Greek evú refers to place, as ev¤ù'äŋvŵr, "straight to Athens;" and eves to time, "straightways." Heindorf. ad Plat. Lys. p. 203 E.

§ VII. Degrees of Comparison.

(1) Regular Comparison in -TEPOS, -TATOS.

269 The usual method of expressing a comparison between two or more objects in regard to quality is by affixing, to an adverbial inflexion of the adjective denoting the quality, the syllables -Te-pos, when two objects are compared, and the syllables -Ta-Tos when more than two objects are referred to. The former, as we have already seen (77), expresses motion from a certain point, and away, and the latter, motion through a series of points. Consequently if koûpo-s expresses the quality of "lightness," koʊpóTEρOs means "light beyond or before a certain point or object," and KOVOÓ-TaTOS, "light beyond a series of such points or objects." And this is always the meaning of comparative and superlative adjectives.

270 As might be expected from the length of the increased word, the adverbs, to which these terminations are appended, always appear in an abridged or mutilated form, and we have seen that the endings of the adverbs themselves admit of almost unlimited disintegration. We may however recognize the terminations -ws, -a, -is, or the neuter of the adjective used adverbially (above, 261), and the Latin proves that the degrees of comparison are expressed by a formative affix appended to the adverbial inflexion, and not to the crude form of the adjective itself. The following are the rules for the degrees of comparison, so far as any general rules can be established.

(a) If the penultima is short, the adverb retains the w before these affixes; if long, o is the only representative of the original -ws, thus:




It is generally supposed that this change from a to o or vice versâ is merely a metrical affection occasioned by the exigencies of hexameter verse. That this is not the case, and that the w is the original vowel, which has yielded to the weight of the preceding syllable, according to a general principle of euphony, is shown by the fact that Homer has λαρώτατος (Od. II. 350), κακοξεινώτερος (Ib. 366), ὀϊζυρώτερον (Π. XVII. 446).

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