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continued reaction of the gas and liquid drives off the hydrochloric acid from the acid mixture in such a manner that sulphuric acid becoming more concentrated and poorer in hydrochloric acid sinks to the bottom and may be carried off in an entirely pure state at F, while the hydrochloric acid completely escapes at the top in the form of gas. This hydrochloric acid will not be absorbed, because during its passage up to a certain height of the tower it will only come into contact with mixtures which are saturated with hydrochloric acid, and is disposed of in a suitable

manner.

PROCESS OF MAKING ACETYLENE TETRA.

CHLORID.

Paul Askenasy and Martin Mugdan, of Nuremberg, Germany. Patent No. 804,516, dated November 14, 1905.

The process forming the object of the present invention enables the cheap and convenient production of acetylene tetrachlorid without danger and with a very slight loss of the intermediate substance.

Acetylene is fed into pentachlorid of antimony which should advantageously contain no free chlorin. The pentachlorid of antimony which may be diluted with a suitable medium, such as tetrachlorid and acetylene, will absorb two molecules of gas.

Chlorin is then led into the product obtained from pentachlorid of antimony and acetylene, four atoms of the chlorin being bound by each molecule of acetylene present, tetrachlorid of acetylene being formed and pentachlorid of antimony being re-formed. Acetylene is then fed into the same fluid, and then again chlorin, and so on alternately until, finally, if sufficient chlorin is fed, a mixture of pentachlorid of antimony, tetrachlorid of acetylene, and small quantities of the products of substitution of the latter body is obtained. If the pentachlorid of antimony is diluted to a very great extent by the tetrachlorid of acetylene produced, the reactions will still take place with sufficient speed for economical purposes.

In order to isolate the tetrachlorid of acetylene, the pentachlorid of antimony may be decomposed—for instance, by means of hydrochloric acid. It is, however, advantageous to subject the product of the reaction to a slow fractionated distillation, in which case the pentachlorid of antimony changes to trichlorid of antimony by splitting off the chlorin for the most part, partly as escaping gas, partly by chlorinating the tetrachlorid of acetylene to penta or hexa chlorethane. The trichlorid of antimony, which has a very high boiling-point, (220°,) may be easily separated from the tetrachlorid of acetylene, which boils at 146°.

PROCESS OF MAKING PROTOCATECHUIC ALDE

HYDE. Rudolf Johann Maria Sommer, of Vienna, Austria-Hungary, assignor to the firm of Franz Fritzsche & Co. Patent No. 804,682, dated November 14, 1905.

This invention relates to the manufacture of protocatechuic aldehyde intended to be used as raw material in the manufacture of vanillin and other chemicals.

According to a scientific publication heliotropin with hydrochloric acid of one per cent. gives when heated to a temperature of 200° C. protocatechuic aldehyde, carbon being at the same time separated. At a pressure of fourteen atmospheres—that is to say, at a temperature of about 195° to 200° C.-heliotropin begins to be carbonized; but nevertheless no extraction of protocatechuic aldehyde on a large scale is possible, only traces of it unfit for any technical purpose being obtained. It has been found that dilute acids, which, however, can be replaced by solutions of acid salts, such as bisulfates, bisulfites, or chlorids of metals, at twelve atmospheres—that is to say, at about 185° to 190° C.-and at a lower pressure or temperature easily produce the decomposition of heliotropin into protocatechuic aldehyde, so that nearly the whole theoretical yield is obtained.

PROCESS OF MAKING HYDROCHLORIC ACID.

Willis Eugeur Everette, of Tacoma, Washington. Patent No. 805,009, dated November 21, 1905.

The claims cover

1. A process of producing hydrochloric acid, which consists, first: in reducing a mixture of water, chlorin gas and compressed air to an intense crymic condition by contact with liquid air; second: subjecting said mixture while still in said intense crymic condition, to contact with intense heat by impact against incandescent silicia, whereby the nitrogen and oxygen are liberated, while the chlorin combines with a portion of the liberated hydrogen to form hydrochloric-acid gas; third: dissolving said gas in water thereby forming hydrochloric acid, and collecting the same for commercial use.

2. A process of producing hydrochloric acid which consists first: in reducing a mixture of water, chlorin gas, compressed air and chlorid of an alkali to an intense crymic condition with liquid air; second: subjecting said mixture, while still in said intense crymic condition, to contact with intense heat by impact against incandescent silicia, whereby disruption of said substances is caused; third: collecting a portion of said substances recombined with the aid of water as hydrochloric acid.

PROCESS OF RECOVERING AMMONIA AND HYDRO

CYANIC ACID. Walther Feld, of Hönningen-on-the-Rhine, Germany. Patent No. 806,467, dated December 5, 1905.

Inis process, according to this invention, has for its object to enable practically the whole quantity of ammonia and of hydrocyanic acid present in the gases to be recovered in one operation and to avoid the formation of sulphocyanids by neutralizing the whole of the free ammonia and the basic ammonia compounds and forming neutral ammonia salts immediately the gas comes into contact with the absorbing means and by absorbing the whole of the hydrocyanic acid in the same solution, forming an ironcyanogen compound. For this purpose the gases are treated with a liquid containing an iron compound or compounds, (especially ferrous compounds,) together with salts, as hereinafter explained, in such proportions that for each six molecules of cyanogen in the gas at least one atom of iron is used and that for each molecule of ammonia in the gas there is used at least one non-atomic equivalent of a salt which will be decomposed by free ammonia alone or by ammonia in the presence of carbonic acid, sulfureted hydrogen, or hydrocyanic acid, in yielding the corresponding neutral ammonia salt and the basic compound of the metal of the salt used. These salts are the acid and neutral salts of non-basic reaction of the alkalies, earth alkalies, and magnesia, and of those metallic earths and metals which are decomposed by basic ammonia compounds (ammonium hydroxid, ammonium carbonate, sulphide, and cyanid).

PROCESS OF MAKING CONCENTRATED FORMIC

ACID. Max Hamel, of Grünau, near Berlin, Germany. Patent No. 806,660, dated December 5, 1905.

The inventor claims that formic acid of any desired high concentration up to the so-called “ anhydrous

” state can be produced from formiates directly by a single distillation without fear of any decomposition of any kind if the formiate is dissolved in a solvent before treatment with concentrated sulphuric acid. The solvent should be free from water or contain water only in proportion corresponding to the desired degree of concentration of the formic acid to be obtained. By employing such a solvent all sulphuric acid is immediately combined with the base of the formiate without forming lumps or the like and effecting the thickening of the mass, so that the mass can be easily stirred, and therefore a rise of temperature can be easily removed by cooling. As solvent for the formiate there may be employed mainly highlyconcentrated or anhydrous formic acid itself; but also other solvents may be employed which have another boiling-point and can be sufficiently separated by distillation from the formic acid by keeping the correct temperature or which solvents remaining in the concentrated formic acid do not by their presence injure the practical or technical employment of the latter.

PROCESS OF MAKING ORGANIC-ACID ANHYDRIDS.

Rudolf Sommer, of Vienna, Austria-Hungary. Patent No. 806,932, dated December 12, 1905.

According to this invention the acids are transformed into their anhydrids by acting upon the heated dehydrated salts of the acids with tetrafluorid of silicon. It is found that by the employment of this substance, which is of low cost and easily obtainable, the anhydrids are produced with facility. It is also found that tetrafluorid is yielded from the residue obtained on the distillation of the anhydrids by treating it with sulfuric acid with the addition of some sand.

MANUFACTURE OF SUGAR FROM CELLULOSE.

Charles Frederick Cross, of London, England. Patent No. 807,250, dated December 12, 1905.

The claims cover

1. A process for the manufacture of a crystalline sugar from cotton-seed hulls, consisting in treating the hulls to isolate the cellulose, separating the cellulose into longer fibres and shorter fibres, hydrolyzing the said shorter fibres and crystallizing the product of hydrolysis.

2. A process for the manufacture of a crystalline sugar, consisting in subjecting cotton-seed hulls successively to the action of first an alkaline solution, second chlorin and third an alkaline solution, then separating the longer from the shorter fibres, and finally hydrolyzing the shorter fibres.

3. A process for the manufacture of a crystalline sugar, consisting in subjecting cotton-seed hulls successively to the action of first an alkaline solution, second chlorin and third an alkaline

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