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and partly during the debate to which it refers. Some circum. ftances,' it is added, prevented its being delivered at the time. Immediately on coming home from the houfe, the Author committed the principal heads and out-lines of it to writing; and has occafionally employed his leifure-time fince, in extending and drawing them out in that free ftyle of difcourfe, in which he would have addreffed the Speaker of the Houfe of Commons. In that form it is now fubmitted to the public judgment, with the addition of fome notes and illuftrations.'
In this treatife, for we muft no longer call it a fpeech, the Author ranges the whole field of our American difputes; he defends the con. duct of government with regard to the main queftion, the first coercive measures against the colonies, but condemns them on certain fubordinate points, particularly the late unfuccefsful commiffion, which he cenfures as the worst of all poflible measures. He is fevere on the gentlemen in oppofition, whom he confiders as largely acceffary to the existence, protraction, ill fuccefs, and evil confequences of the war. He concludes with advifing a continuance of our military efforts in America, with fuch degrees of energy or moderation as opportunities may happen to require: which, we imagine, is pretty nearly the ca binet idea at prefent. Mr. G. writes well, and reafons plaufibly, at leaft, if not conclufively.
AMERICAN CONTROVERSY. Art. 15. An Address to the Natives of Scotland refiding in America, being an Appendix to a Sermon preached at PRINCETON, on a general Fast appointed by the Congress. By John Witherspoon, D. D. Prefident of the College at New Jersey. 8vo. 6d. Fielding and Walker. 1778..
This fhrewd and able writer has diftinguished himself in the caufe of the Americans, and it is faid, is admitted a member of the Congrefs. The Faft fermon at Princeton, to which this Addrefs is an Appendix, we noticed at the time of its republication in England *. The Appendix then omitted, has fince been published separately. The Writer firft attempts a vindication of his countrymen, the Scots, from the reproach fo generally caft upon them in the American controversy; and expreffes himself with what fome will think a more than just feverity against John Wilkes, Efq; and his adherents. He then endeavours to ftir up the minds of the natives of Scotland, refident in America, to unanimity in oppofing the claims of the British government, and fets before them the following arguments in favour of American independency:-That it is become abfolutely neceffary-that it will be honourable and profitable to America-and that it will be no injury, but a real advantage to the island of Great Britain. Under the fecond of thefe heads, he reprefents in a very flattering light, the opportunity the Americans will have for forming plans of government upon the most rational, juft, and equitable principles. I confefs (fays he) I have always looked upon this with a kind of enthufiaftic fatisfaction. The cafe never happened fince the world began.' What the Author urges on the last head, the advantages of American independence to Great Britain itself,' appears, if it be not yet too late, worthy the ferious confideration of the
Vid. Rev. March, 1778, p. 246.
British legislature. He fhews that the taxation intended would increafe the influence of the crown, and the corruption of the people; and that for every fhilling gained by taxes, we fhould lofe ten in the way of trade. In anfwer to the objection against allowing the Americans a free trade, he fhews, that an exclufive trade is not easily maintained, and that where it is, the reftriction is commonly more hurtful than beneficial.' But the circumftance which he apprehends will contribute moft to the intereft of Great Britain in American independence is, its influence in peopling and enriching that great continent. For what he advances on that head we must refer to the pamphlet itself.
N. B. We are informed that a fifth edition of the fermon has been advertised with this Appendix, price is.
Art. 16. A Propofal for Peace between Great Britain and North America; upon a New Plan. In a Letter to Lord North. By D. M. Knight. Svo. 6d. Baldwin. 1779.
The plan propofed by Mr. Knight is-that the Americans be acknowledged by Great Britain, a free and independent people; that the whole be united into one body, and a great council or parliament established in America like that of Great Britain; that an army and navy be kept by them for their protection; that no article be demanded by Great Britain from America, but what should be recipro cally granted by Great Britain to America ;-that the United Colonies in America fhall acknowledge George, Prince of Wales, for the Sovereign of their empire, with all the powers and privileges enjoyed by the Kings of Great Britain, and under the fame regulations as the kingdom of Great Britain; that the government of the mothercountry fhould ferve as a model for that to be erected in America.— Those who wish to fee the rest of our Author's propofals, must have recourse to the pamphlet,,
Art. 17. Genuine Abstracts from two Speeches of the late Earl of Chatham; and his Reply to the Earl of Suffolk. With fome introductory Obfervations and Notes. 8vo. 1 s. 6d. Dodfley.
The first of the fpeeches, of which we have here an abstract, was made on January 20th, 1775, accompanying á motion for removing his Majelty's troops from Bolton.-The fecond was made on November 20th, 1777, and his Majesty's moft gracious fpeech of that day is prefixed, that the confidence and hopes expreffed in it by his Majefty's minifters, may fairly ftand in contraft, fays the Editor, with the opinions of Lord Chatham.-He leaves it to history to form the comment.
As few, if any of our Readers, can be fuppofed to be unacquainted with the fentiments which Lord Chatham expreffed, with fo much fpirit and energy, on these two memorable days, we shall give no extract from his fpeeches,-of the authenticity of which there is no reafon to doubt.
In his preface the Editor explains the manner in which the abstracts have been preserved, and tells us with what allowances they must be read.-The encomiams he paffes on Lord Chatham's oratory are fuch as in our opinion, muft force a fmile from the most enthufiaftic of his admirers.
Art. 18. The Planter's Guide; or, Pleafure Gardener's Companion: giving plain Directions, with Obfervations, for the proper Difpo. fition and Management of the various Trees and Shrubs for a Pleafure Garden-Plantation. To which is added, a List of hardy Trees and Shrubs for ornamenting fuch Gardens: concisely exhibiting at one View, the Genera, Clafs, Order, and Species of each Kind; the Countries they are Natives of; the Height each ufually grows to; their Foliage, Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds; the Soil they thrive beft in and their Propagation.-Embellished with Copper-plates. By James Meader, late Gardener to the Duke of Northumberland. Price 3 s. 6d. Robinson. 1779.
This Book is intended to reform a glaring impropriety, which we have often remarked, even in our most celebrated GREAT GARDENS, or ornamental Plantations; and which our Author thus reprehends in his Preface: The reafon,' fays he, why many plantations after eight or ten years planting, appear unfightly, is owing to an improper intermixture of the plants; whereas, had they been rightly difpofed, we should not fee fo many hollows or openings, nor bottoms of trees with decayed branches, but the whole covered with verdure, down to the very front, in an easy, theatrical manner, and in fummer fcarce a ftem vifible; but how often may be feen a tall growing tree near the front of a plantation, and further back various humble fhrubs, rendered still more diminutive by the over spreading branches of fuch tree, whofe proper place fhould have been behind those lefs growing plants, where they might more freely enjoy the benefit of fun and air, fo neceffary for vegetables.'
The Author adds many obfervations on this circumftance of injudicious arrangement; likewife on the common error of mixing, where the plantations are not very large, deciduous trees with evergreens. He lays down particular directions with refpect to the methods of planting,
the feafons-the foils, &c. &c. and gives a catalogue of the principal varieties of each species of the trees and shrubs proper for fuch plantations as are here treated of.
PHILOSOPHICAL. Art. 19. A Phyfical and Moral Enquiry into the Caufes of that internal refleffness and diforder in Man, which has been the Complaint of all Ages. By James Vere, Esq. 12mo. 2s. 6d. White. 1778.
A grave but not very profound attempt to explain the ftructure and operations of the human mind, in which thofe who are accustomed to metaphyfical fpcculations, will meet with nothing new or interesting. The Author indeed talks much concerning certain fomethings which make a part of the human conftitution, to which he gives the title of animal or corporeal Spirits, and which he describes as paffive agents auxiliary to the foul: but till he has more clearly proved their existence, explained their nature, and ascertained the laws by which they act, he will not be thought to have contributed materially to the extension of science, on the difficult subject of human nature.
Art. 20. An Essay on the evil Confequences attending injudicious Bleeding in Pregnancy. By George Wallis. M. D. 8vo. 1 s. 6d. Bell.
We are far from understanding, with this gentleman, that indifcriminate bleeding in pregnancy is the general practice at prefent in this country. We are certain that if the agreement of all the best modern writers and lecturers on the fubject, have weight with the public, it cannot. If any thing is wanting to confirm the dictates of their experience, we fear it must not be expected from the diffufe reafonings in the prefent work, which is only a prolix commentary on a very fimple aphorifm, viz. that when the ftate of body is weak, it is hurtful to weaken it further by the lofs of blood. Art. 21. A Physical Journal kept on Board his Majesty's Ship Rainbow, during three Voyages to the Coast of Africa and the Weft Indies, in the Years 1772, 1773, and 1774: To which is prefixed, a particular Account of the remitting Fever which happened on Board of his Majesty's Sloop Weafel, on that Coaft, in 1769. By Robert Robertfon, Surgeon of his Majefty's Navy. 4to. 25. Dilly, &c.
The Author of this work evidently appears to be a man of industry and obfervation, and well skilled in the branch of his profeffion which he has undertaken. He offers feveral practical remarks to his brethren in the fame line, which we doubt not, they may attend to with advantage; at the fame time we are obliged to obferve, that they are fo confounded in a mafs of tedious and uninterefting materials, as to be much less ftriking and useful than a better writer might have rendered them. The long diaries of weather, longitude and latitude, &c. will, we apprehend, be thought extremely dry and uninftructive by the generality of readers; and of the cafes related, we imagine a great proportion will fall under the fame imputation.
Some reasons offered for a government fupply of that invaluable remedy the bark to the fhips of war employed on foreign fervice, appear deferving of the attention of thofe in power. The Author has clearly fhewn, that the navy furgeons, cannot poffibly afford out of their pay to purchafe fuch a quantity of it as may be neceffary in the malignant epidemics of hot climates, and for the want of which a fhip's crew may fuffer more feverely, than from all the other cafualties to which they are expofed.
Art. 22. A Letter to Dr. Hardy, Phyfician, on the Hints he has given concerning the Origin of the Gout, in his late Publication on the Devonshire Cholic. By Francis Riollay, Phyfician at Newbury, Berks, and late Fellow of Hertford College, Oxford. 8vo. Oxford printed; and fold by Rivington, London. When Dr. Hardy fported his hypothefis that lead taken internally was the cause of the gout, we thought it too manifeftly chimerical and extravagant to excite any public notice. The Author before us, however, has thought it a bafis fufficient to build a pamphlet upon, which will at least serve to fhew that he has made this fashionable diftemper the subject of his contemplation. It cofts him little pains to refute Dr. Hardy's idle notion; which he does by a few remarks
that lead him into a train of reafoning, the purpofe of which is to prove, that arthritic diforders rather proceed from debilitation of the nervous fyftem, than any morbific matter received into the conftitution. His arguments on this head are fenfible enough, but fuch as are well known to every Edinburgh ftudent, who has attended Dr. Cullen's lectures; the copious fource whence fo many new opinions in medicine (often as unacknowleged as in the prefent inftance) are derived.
One piece of information, however, we have gathered from the work before us, which is, that people of middling condition are people of no condition at all. This evidently appears, from comparing two paffages within three pages of each other. The Writer first afferts, P. 10, that most people of any condition make a daily moderate ufe of wines; and then, p. 13. that there is not an hundredth part even of those of middling condition, that can be faid to make a common use of wine.' Thefe middling people therefore are nobody; an idea that seems, indeed, at prefent, very generally to prevail.
Art. 23. An Epistle from the Rector of St. Anne, to the Vicar of Rochdale. Dedicated, without Permiffion, to the Lord Bishop of London. 4to. 2 S. Bew. 1779.
More fruit from the tree of Difcord planted fome time ago, in the parish of St. Anne, Weftminster. The produce of this tree, of which we have, more than once, given our Readers a tafte, hath proved harsh and difagreeable to fome palates, though perhaps not altogether unpleafant to others." It is bitter," quoth my Lord of London : "It is four," faith Dr. Richardfon +: "It is both bitter and four," exclaimeth Dr. Hind : "It bath a fine flavour," cry the friends of Mr. Martyn--[the Gentleman fuppofed to have been chiefly concerned in plucking and diftributing this fruit] "It hath fomewhat of the Sub-acrid, to which we are not much averfe," say the Monthly Reviewers.
In plain fpeech, the dedication to a Bifhop, of this Epiftle to a Vicar, is a long, laboured, biting fatire, in profe; founded, if we rightly collect, from the dedication itself, on his Lordship's having (officially) interfered in the quarrel between the late Rector of St. Anne's and his Curate,-contrary to what the latter had been led to expect from a declaration made by his Diocesan, that he would not interpofe at all, perfonally, in the difpute.-How far the Bishop's afterward licenfing a fucceffor to Mr. Martyn, in the curacy, was a breach of this promife, we leave to the decifion of thofe who are more deeply verfed than we are in ecclefiaftical casuistry.
The Epiftle to the Vicar of Rochdale is a poetical flight to the
"Ye Commons and Peers
"Come lend me your ears.
And is equally fevere upon the Doctor who is fuppofed to fend it, and the Doctor to whom it is fent; but we do not think it is quite
*See Review for November laft, p. 392.
+ The prefent Rector of St. Anne's.
The late Rector of St. Anne's: now Vicar of Rochdale.