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sular dignity. A war was also declared against the Egyptian queen by the senate. While hostile preparations were making on both sides, Antony was so immersed in dissipation, that his military ardour became extinguished. At the battle of Actium he escaped in a small vessel, where, finding himself deserted by his friends and troops, he fell upon his sword, and afterwards expired in the arms of Cleopatra, aged fifty-six years.

APICIUS. Three antient Romans of that name, eminent for their gluttony, or, to soften the term, for their talents in the science of eating. The first lived under Sylla, the second under Augustus and Tiberius, and the third under Trajan. Of these, the second is the most illustrious personage of the three: he instituted a kind of academy of gluttony at Rome, and spent immense sums in providing delicacies for his voracious appetite. His ingenuity was frequently displayed in new-invented dishes, insomuch that several sorts of cakes, jellies, &c. were called by his name. Finding himself reduced by his extravagance, to about 120001. he poisoned himself, from the apprehension of being starved. There is a treatise, De Re Culinaria, under the name of Cœlius Apicius, which, though ancient, is supposed not to have been produced by either of the persons above-mentioned. The third, Appius, invented a method of preserving oysters.

ARAM (EUGENE), a self-taught genius, was born in Yorkshire. He received from his parents a very scanty education; but, by the most



persevering industry, he obtained a good knowledge of the mathematics, and an extensive acquaintance with the Latin and Greek languages, together with the Hebrew and Chaldee. He taught Latin and writing at a school in London; and afterwards was employed as usher, or assistant, to the Rev. Mr. Anthony Hinton, at his boarding-school at Hayes, in Middlesex. In 1744 he murdered Daniel Clarke, which was concealed fourteen years, and then discovered by the accidental finding of a skeleton, supposed to be that of Clarke. This was a mistake, but it led to a discovery. He was apprehended on suspicion, tried at York in 1759, and found guilty on sufficient evidence, corroborated by the testimony of his own wife. His defence was uncommonly curious, and plausible. After conviction he confessed the justice of his sentence, and endeavoured to destroy himself, by opening an artery in his arm with a razor; in that condition, however, he was taken to the gallows at York, and there executed after which he was hung in chains on Knaresborough forest. Part of the fourteen years between the perpetration of the murder and the discovery, Aram was assistant to Mr. Hinton above-mentioned. It was frequently observed by Mr. Hinton, as a strange kind of singularity, that whenever Aram saw a worm or any other insect in the gravel-walks of the garden at Hayes, he carefully removed it to a securer situation. When the murder of Daniel Clarke was discovered, and Aram convicted, it occurred to Mr. Hinton, that this murderer vainly

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vainly supposed he should atone for his horrid crime by preserving the lives of animals; and that by frequently shewing mercy and tenderness to brutes, the murder of one man would be obliterated, or the crime very much extenuated. That Aram was a notorious thief, Mr. Hinton at length discovered; for hearing some person in his garden very early one morning, he was determined to be satisfied of their proposed errand, and, repairing to the place from whence he supposed the sound proceeded, the pilferer was fled from the premises, but had left behind him almost a sackful of potatoes, which he had dug up. Mr. Hinton, thinking he had a sufficient clue to detect the thief, caused the sack and its contents to be exhibited to the neighbours; one of whom claimed the sack as his own, and declared that Mr. Aram, who lodged with him, had borrowed it of him. On this information Mr. Hinton discharged Aram, but previously insisted upon examining his box; the contents of which bore ample testimony of an almost infinite number of petty thefts, which he had been daily in the habit of committing.Many hundreds of old shoe and knee-buckles, balls of worsted and cruel, of all colours; penknives, garters, spoons, or whatever else could be secretly conveyed into his repository, were now exhibited as evidence of his numerous petty larcenies. To fill up the measure of his infamy, he was found to have had incestuous intercourse with his own daughter for some years, and lived with her as his wife, at Hayes. This coming to the mother's ears, she was so enraged

enraged, that she came to a resolution of bringing the monster to condign punishment; after eluding the hands of justice for fourteen years, during which time, it is said, Aram and his wife lived at a remote distance from each other, till the latter appeared on the trial to corroborate the evidence of the other witnesses, and facilitate the murderer's conviction. ARCHIMEDES, a celebrated mathematician, born at Syracuse, in Sicily, and distantly related to Hiero, king of Syracuse. His application to mathematical studies was so great, that his servants were sometimes obliged to take him from them by force. He declared to Hiero, that if he had another earth whereon to fix his machine, he could remove this which we inhabit. His method of discovering the fraud of a jeweller, who had been employed to make a crown for Hiero, displays his extraordinary penetra tion. That monarch, suspecting that the crown did not contain the whole quantity of gold delivered to the workman, desired Archimedes to find out the fraud. Thinking of this problem when he was in the bath, he observed that a quantity of water overflowed equal to the bulk of his body. This convinced him how the problem was to be solved, and he ran homewards, crying out, "I have found it, I have found it." Then procuring two masses of gold and silver, of equal weight with the crown, he carefully noticed the quantity of water which each displaced; after which he observed how much the crown caused to flow over; and, on comparing this quantity with each of the former, he was

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enabled to ascertain the and silver in the crown.

proportions of gold Archimedes acquired

great fame by his curious contrivances whereby the city of Syracuse was so long defended when besieged by Marcellus; yet notwithstanding the utmost efforts which his prolific genius could sug gest, the place at length was taken; but the Roman commander ordered the soldiers to pay par ticular attention to the safety of Archimedes. He was, however, unfortunately slain by a soldier who did not know him, while he was deeply engaged in solving a geometrical problem, and wholly inattentive to the noise and uproar occasioned by the subjugation of the city. This happened about 208 years before the birth of Christ. Several of his works are still extant, but some of the most valuable are lost. Those which remain, were printed at Basil in 1554, and in London in 1792. When Cicero was quæstor in Sicily, he discovered Archimedes's tomb, with an inscription upon it. ARETIN (PETER) called the scourge of princes, was born at Arezzo, about 1491. He was so famous for his satyrical powers, that princes courted his friendship by presents, on which he had the audacity to get a medal struck, on one side of which he is represented, with the the following inscription, The divine Aretin." And on the other side, sitting upon a throne receiving the ablations of sovereigns. It was his perpetual boast, that his lampoons were more serviceable to the world than sermons; and it was generally said of him, that he subjected more princes by his pen, than the great


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