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9. Explain the mechanism and acts by which the elephant imbibes fluids.
10. Sugar is produced in the liver of vertebrates and is mixed with the blood of the hepatic vein : by what organ, principally, and in what form is it again eliminated from the system in the healthy state ?
11. Describe the embryonic urinary organ of vertebrate animals: in what cavity is the product of its secretion collected: in what class of vertebrates is the organ persistent?
12. From consideration of the relations and number of bones of the anterior extremity in the common frog, shew that supination of the limb is impossible.
13. Indicate the peculiarities of structure and composition in the head, neck, and trunk of a bird which fit it for flying.
14. Over what automatic functions, especially, does the medulla oblocgata preside? Name the afferent and efferent nerves which conduct these fur tions respectively under ordinary circumstances.
15. By what characters, chiefly, are the instinctive actions of animals distinguished from those which are voluntary?
16. What is the simplest form of the auditory organ; how is it complicated by the addition of other parts in the ascending scale of animals ?
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. 1. DESCRIBE and name the different kinds of apertures or orifices that are found in the shell of an Echinus, assigning their uses respectively.
2. By what character are Insects as a class distinguished from Arachnids : by what character from Crustaceans?
3. Name the subdivisions of the trunk in a hexapod insect. What are the appendages that may be attached to each of these respectively? De. scribe the parts of which one of the inferior appendages is composed.
4. How is respiration effected in the aquatic larva of the gnat ?
5. What, according to Milne Edwards, is the normal number of rings in the body of a Crustacean? Shew what are the modifications which the appendages of the thoracic rings undergo in the decapod tribe.
6. Explain the arrangement and structure of the respiratory organ in a solitary Ascidian, and the course of the water that is received and expelled. In the same animal describe the plan of the circulation and the course of the blood.
7. What is the form of the kidney in gasteropod molluscs ? Describe the situation of the organ, the course and termination of its excretory duct in the common snail.
8. Which is the least perfect animal of the vertebrate type hitherto known? What are the principal features of imperfection in it? What is the form of its respiratory organ?
9. What is the structure of the electric organ in fishes? What is its position in Gymnotus electricus and in Silurus electricus ? From what nerves is it supplied in each animal?
10. Describe the ganglionic masses which make up the brain of fishes. Which of them are in pairs, which single?
11. Name and describe the bones which form the osseous belt that sustains the anterior limbs in the frog. Which of them contribute to form the articular surface for the humerus ?
12. Explain the peculiarities of the two jaws in serpents, in virtue of which the capacity of the mouth is capable of great enlargement.
13. Describe the position of the lungs in a bird, and the mode in which they are kept in position: the way in which the bronchi subdivide into canals of different orders: the course of the larger canals, and how the pulmonary cells are disposed on the finer tubes.
14. In the Grampus and many other cetaceans, there are two zygomatic arches seen on each side of the head. How are they formed and which of them corresponds to the zygoma of Man?
1. When Nitric oxide is prepared by the action of Nitric acid on copper, shew by symbols how much acid is reduced to the state of Nitric oxide.
2. Illustrate, by formule, the decompositions that take place in the common process for the formation of Sulphuric acid.
3. What is a Basyle? Give instances of simple and compound Basyles. 4. How is Iodine prepared from Kelp, and Hydriodic acid from Iodine?
5. What is the composition of Ferridcyanogen, and how does its radical differ from that of the yellow prussiate of potash?
6. If the combining measure of Oxygen be taken as unity, what are the combining measures of N., C.02, N.O., and N.HZ?
When one measure of Oxygen combines with two of Hydrogen, what is the volume of the compound and its specific gravity?
7. What is the composition of Chloroform ? how is it prepared, and from what chemical fact does it derive its name?
8. The radical of Acetic acid, according to Dumas, is Etherine; but according to Liebig is Ethyle: how may the formula for the acid be derived from either radical?
9. It has been assumed that equal volumes of different gases contain an equal number of Atoms; state the arguments for and against this Hypothesis.
10. 500 grains of water are frozen by Leslie's process : what quantity of water has been absorbed by the Sulphuric acid ?
11. Vermilion, Arsenite of Copper, Chromate of Lead, Prussian blue, Sulphate of Lime, and Alum, are used in the adulteration of food: detect them.
12. Why are chemical compounds decomposed by Voltaic electricity ? Give instances of true and false Electrolysis.
GEOLOGY. 1. What is the mean density of the Earth? What is the law of its temperature below the surface, so far as the law can be determined experimentally?
2. Give the arguments for, and against, the internal fluidity of the earth, at great depths below the surface.
3. Has any general theory been suggested for the shifting of the centers of volcanic action, and for the continuity of that action, during long successive Geological periods ?
4. Describe some of the most striking phenomena presented by the summer and winter “ isothermal lines ” of the British Isles. How are the phenomena accounted for, so far as they appear to be anomalous ?
5. Describe the variations of the rain-gauge in the eastern, central, and western parts of England. Specify and explain some of the cases of extreme variation.
6. What is understood by the Glacial period? What proofs have we of such a period, in the phenomena of Alpine Glaciers ?
Explain the chief phenomena of the Bowlder drift. What appears have been the condition of the British Fauna before, and during the period of that drift?
7. Describe the superficial deposits near Cambridge—specifying the finer Flint Gravel of the plains; the coarser Mixed Gravel of the hills; the great Brown, or Bowlder Clay; the Marsh and Fen Lands; and the river Alluvion.
Describe the most remarkable organic remains found in each deposit, whether land, marine, or fresh water; pointing out those species which have disappeared from the present British Fauna.
8. Describe, and illustrate by sections, the Tertiary deposits which are found on the coasts of Yorkshire, Norfolk, and Suffolk. What are the climatal conditions indicated by the respective Faunas of these deposits? Mention some of the species on which your conclusions are based.
Is the per-centage theory of Sir C. Lyell applicable to the Red-Crag of Suffolk ?
9. Describe, by help of natural sections, the successive Tertiary groups of the London, and Hampshire basins, agreeably to the published scheme of Mr Prestwich, giving a few of the most characteristic fossils of each group.
10. Put the above groups in approximate co-ordination with the Tertiary groups of Belgium, and also of the Paris Basin; pointing out where the co-ordination is defective. Are there, among the British Eocene deposits, any indications of a variation of climate ?
11. Describe by detailed sections the secondary groups in the neighbourhood of Cambridge from the Chalk to the Oxford Clay. Point out in what respects the sections are defective; and enumerate the principal fossils found among the phosphatic nodules of the upper Green Sand.
12. Give a descriptive section of the Oolitic series, as developed in the south-western counties of England; also a similar section of the same series as seen on the coast of Yorkshire. Indicate the points in which the two sections most nearly agree; also the points in which they chiefly differ.
13. What is understood by the Triassic group of the Continent? Enumerate some of its most remarkable fossils and minerals. In what respects is this group defective in the English series ?
14. By what anatomical characters has it been shewn that certain bones found in the Slates of Stonesfield belong to Marsupial Mammals ? What is the exact place of those Slates in the Secondary System of England ? Enumerate all the British localities in which Mammal remains have been found in rocks of the Secondary period.
15. Enumerate, and describe, the most remarkable Reptilian remains of the Palæozoic period. Give the Reptilian Orders according to the scheme of Owen, and the grounds on which he established them. During what geological period did Reptiles reach their highest organic development?
16. Explain the terms Cephalopoda, Gasteropoda, Lamellibranchiata, Brachiopoda. What is their respective grade on the organic scale? Enumerate and describe the characteristic Cephalopoda found in the Cretaceous series near Cambridge.
17. How do we prove that certain rocks are metamorphic? Define the terms Granite, Gneiss, Porphyry, Trachyte. By what arguments is it shewn that Granite is of igneous origin? By what evidence can we define the age of an igneous rock?
18. By what arguments did Humboldt establish a connexion between certain volcanic vents which geographically are very widely apart?
19. Enumerate and describe the different classes of springs and wells which are found near Cambridge. To which of the classes do you refer the supply of the new water-works on the Gogmagog Hills ? Under what conditions is it possible to have a supply of water from Artesian Wells ? Describe the great Artesian Well of Paris, and its bearing on the question of internal temperature.
BOTANY. 1. N.B. The season of the year is ill adapted to a botanical examination on account of a deficiency of fresh specimens. Eighteen papers with dried plants (chiefly British) have been labelled A to R, and are suspended for inspection, but are not to be touched. All the characters or peculiarities called for are either quite conspicuous, or readily deducible from the general habit of the specimens selected. Reply to each separately. A. Character of Stem. Form of Leaf. Difference between the
flowers on 1 and 2. B. Form of Leaf. Inflorescence. Chief peculiarities in the Peri
carps and Embryos of the Order. C. Form of Leaf. Linnean Classes under which species of this Order
might be distributed. D. Form and arrangement of Leaf. Numerical relations of the parts
of the floral whorls in this Genus. E. Form of Leaf. Kinds of Pericarp found in this Order. F. Form and Arrangement of Leaf. Inflorescence. Two important
commercial products obtained from certain species of this Genus. G. How many species do you consider these 15 specimens include?
Group them by their numbers attached. Which are British? and what peculiarity is noticeable in one of these British species in
regard to the numerical relations of the parts of the flower? H. Form and peculiarity of Leaf. Inflorescence. General structure
of the flowers and fruit of the Order. Are the seeds albuminous
or exalbuminous ? I. Form of Leaf. Inflorescence. Character of Pericarps in the Genus. J. Form of Leaf. Numerical relations of the parts of the tower in
this Genus. K. Nature of the spines. Linnean Classes to which species of this
extensive natural Order might be referred. L. Character of Root. Inflorescence. Direction and construction of
the Flower. How is another supposed British species distinguish.
able from No. 2 on the paper?