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of virtue." Halle has here, “the thyng that enduced him to be procurer and &c.”

25. Halle gives the date " the thirtene daye of June.”

29. suttelties. These were arrangements of figures to make a Table decoration, and generally had verses attached to them. Fabyan in his Chronicle (ed. 1516) gives an account of the “sotylties” devised at the coronation banquet of Henry VI.

“(1) A Sotyltie of Seynt Edwarde and Seynt Lowys armyd and upon eyther his cote armour, holdyng atwene them a fygure lyke unto kyng Henry, standyng also in his cote armour, and a Scripture passing from them both sayinge, Beholde ii. parfyght Kynges under one cote armour: and under the fete of the sayd seyntes was wryten this balade...

(2) A Sotyltie of an Emperoure and a Kynge arayed in Mantellys of Garters, whiche figured Sygysmunde the Emperoure and Henry the V. And a fygure lyke unto Kynge Henry the VI. knelynge tofore theym with this balade takked by hym...

(3) A Sotyltie of our Lady syttynge with her child in her lappe and she holdynge a crowne in her hande. Seynt George and Seynt Denys on eyther syde presentyd to her Kynge Henryes figure berynge in hande this balade as foloweth..."

30. therfore=there for, i.e. for that (occasion). 32. comoning, communing, speaking in common.

See 46. 2. P. 46, line 2. Halle has, “bene a sleper."

5. Holberne. Ely Place in Holborn still marks the place of ancient residence of the Bishops of Ely in London.

require, i.e. request, not necessarily in our modern sense of demanding. See 30, 27, note.

messe, i.e. a dishful, used of meat and other things. Cf. Gen. xliii. 34, “He took and sent messes unto them.”

7. in al the hast. We generally now omit the article, and say “in all haste," but cf. Shaks. Lear, 11. 1. 26,

“He's coming hither; now, i' the night, i' the haste." See also below, 48. 21.

9. sette the lordes fast, engaged them busily.

14. froting, i.e. chafing. In the sense of rubbing, the word is found in Chaucer. Halle has here, “fretyng and gnawyng.” The sense of " froting" may be gathered from two examples of its use in Trevisa's translation of Higden's Polychronicon (Rolls Series). In vol. I. p. 163, he says of a language that it is “frotynge and unschape,” and Higden's text has “ita stridet incondita” where the sense is what we now call “grating” of sounds. Then, vol. III. p. 25, he says “they clawede and frotede the oliphauntes in the forhedes” where the Latin has “scalpo "=to scratch.

knawing, i.e. gnawing.

19. compasse and ymagine, i.e. bring about and plan. Cf. Shaks. Merry Wives, III. 3. 212, “The knave bragged of that he could not compass.Also 2 Hen. VI. 1. 2. 19, “When I imagine ill against my king."


22. astonied, i.e. astonished. Cf. Dan. iii. 24, " Then Nebuchadnezzar the king was astonied.

by=concerning. Cf. 44. 19, and see below, line 32.

23. clere, clear, innocent." Cf. Shaks. Merry Wives, III. 3. 123, If you know yourself clear, I am glad of it.” 28.

For he is going to charge her with doing him injury by witchcraft.

30. gretly abashed that fauoured her, i.e. those who were on her side were greatly downcast.

32. better content, that it was moued by her, then by any other, i.e. better satisfied that the charge was made about her than about anybody else.

P. 47, line 1. made of counsell, i.e. made a portion of the council, taken into counsel, entrusted with the secret. Cf. Shaks. Othello, III. 3. III, “He was of my counsel in my whole course of wooing.” See also below, line 17.

5. ware, i.e. aware, conscious. Cf. Shaks. Romeo, II. 2. 102, “ Thou overheard'st, ere I was ware, my true love's passion.'

8. Shoris wife, i.e. Jane Shore.

10. doublet, a man's inner garment. Cf. Shaks. Merry Wives, III. 1. 46, “In your doublet and hose this raw rheumatic day.”

11. werish, apparently=ill-shapen, foul, ugly. Cf. Ascham, Scholemaster, Bk 1, “A countenance not werishe and crabbed, but faire and comely."

as it was neuer other=as it had always been. 20. harme, i.e. the injury done to his person. But Halle and Hardyng print arm, which is most probably correct.

22. worthy. The fuller construction is worthy of. But cf. Shaks. Merry Wives, v. 5. 64, “ Worthy the owner and the owner it.”

24. Halle has “with yf and with and." The and in this sentence =if. On this word, cf. 37. 4 note.

33. let flee. We now say let fy: i.e. let a weapon fly, aimed a blow. Halle has, “let flye.Standley=Stanley.

P. 48, line 4. bestowed, placed. Cf. above on 16. 12. For the first part of this sentence, Halle gives “Then was the Archebishop of Yorke and doctour Morton bishopp of Ely and the lorde Stanley taken and divers other, which were bestowed in dyvers chambers."

6. shryue him, i.e. make his confession.
8. at aduenture, by chance, the first that came to hand.
15. entred, interred. We have the word spelt entered in 1. 24.
18. voided, i.e. avoided. Cf. on 2. 24. that= that which.

in al the hast. We now say " in all haste.” See 46. 7. requiring=requesting, cf. 46. 5.

24. raced=tore. The word is used by Chaucer, as also the form




27. the bore. The boar, being Richard's coat of arms, gave occasion to the rhyme,



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“The Cat, the Rat, and Lovel the dog,

Ruled all England under the hog." The Cat was Catesby, the Rat, Ratcliffe.

cognisaunce=coat of arms, by which mailed warriors in old times were known (cognitus).

After the word cognisaunce, Halle inserts “he ymagined that it should be he.”

28. throughly, i.e. thoroughly. Cf. Matth. iii. 12, “He will throughly purge his floor.” The sense is the same as utterly in line 22 above.

31. Ey. We write this interjection Ah! 32. leneth, i.e. leaneth=giveth heed to.

P. 49, line 1. fantasieth, i.e. fancieth. The noun fantasy was of common use in Elizabethan English, but the verb not so common. The p.p. is alone found in Shaks. King John, IV. 2. 144, “I find the people strangely fantasied.Cf. below, ini. 7, where the word means *took a liking for.”

3. plaine, downright, nothing else but. Cf. Shaks. King John, II. 462, “He speaks plain cannon-fire.”

7. likely. Here the sense of the expression seems to be “a cause which would probably make him race us," or "give him warrant for doing so." So the word likely=well-grounded, adequate.

On this word see 48. 24. 10. biding, i.e. staying where we are. nedes cost, of necessity. The simple word needs is common now.

leuer. More commonly spelt liefer=rather, by preference, Cf. Joy, Exposicioun of Daniel, I had liefer hem to be converted and live." The positive lief and the superlative liefest are found in Shakespeare, but not the comparative. Cf. also 6. 19 note, where the spelling is the same as here.

22. toward=impending, hanging over, near at hand. Cf. 3. 5.

25. enemiouse, i.e. the work of an enemy. Halle has enviouse, which probably is correct.

26. a knight. Here Halle adds, “Sir Thomas Haward sonne to the Lord Haward (which lord was one of the priveyest of the lord protectours counsaill and doyng).

28. Halle omits the words "wyth... auctorite.” They would be somewhat of a contradiction to the words quoted from him in the previous note.

33. brake his tale, i.e. interrupted his conversation. merely, i.e. merrily.

P. 50, line tother properly means "the other” or “that other," but so far had this become forgotten in common speech that we have here “that tother."


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6. sene a signe, i.e. observed (to be) a sign.

7. I shall rather let anye thinge passe me, i.e. I shall notice such a matter even before anything else.

sone after. Here Halle adds "as a man might wel caste a balle.”


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11. and of their meting. We should now say " by their meeting.” Cf. Latimer, Rem. p. 240, “That the Scripture of God may be read in English of all his obedient subjects.”

18. fere of himselfe, i.e. fear for, on account of, himself. 22. while he was therin, i.e. in the danger and jeopardy.

23. art thou remembred. To be remembred is an old English expression="to recollect.” Cf. Shaks. Taming of Shrew, IV. 3. 96, If you be remembred, I did not bid you mar it."

28. els, i.e. few else, few beside me.
31.' but nothing ware, i.e. but was in no degree aware.

P. 51, line 4. After the word suerty, Halle adds “I praye God it prove so (quod Hastynges). Prove (quod he)? Doubtest thou that ? Nay, nay, I warraunt the : And so in maner displeased he entered into the Towre, where he was not long on lyve, as you have heard.”

12. passing, i.e. exceedingly. Cf. Shaks. Othello, 1. 3. 160, “'Twas strange, 'twas passing strange.

17. to set some colour vpon, i.e. “ to give reason or excuse for it.” Cf. Shaks. Wint. Tale, iv. 4. 566, “What colour for my visitation shall I hold up before him?”. See also 53. 19 below.

18. sembstauncial. Halle has " substancial."

20. harnesed, &c.=armed in old ill-looking coats of mail. Halle has “evil-favoured briganders.'

next to hande, i.e. nearest, first to hand. 32. required, i.e. requested. Cf. 46. 5. P. 52, line 2. in al the hast, see on 48. 21. Cf. also 51. 17. 3. herode. Halle has “heralde.” 16. sinister procuring, i.e. wrongful contrivances. 21. put vnto. As we say now put to death."

27. in makyng, i.e. while (or for the purpose of) making. Cf. Shaks. Cor. iv. 6. 131, cast your caps in hooting at Coriolanus' exile."

29. politikely, i.e. in accordance with wise policy.

33. curiously, with much care, carefully. Cf. Shaks. Much Ado, V. 1. 157, “If I do not carve most curiously, say my knife's naught.”

so wel a set hande, i.e. in a hand so well written. This inversion of the order of words is common with the author.

P. 53, line 1. processe, used here of a legal document. We still call the officer of a law court who serves the writs, “a process-server.”

2. prepared before. Here Halle has prepared and studyed be. fore (and as some men thought by Catesby).”

4. bare writing, i.e. mere writing out; cf. 1 Cor. xv. 37, bare grain = nothing but grain.

all had it bene, i.e. although it had but been on paper, i.e. and not so grandly engrossed on parchment.

7. of chaunce. We now say “by chance."

9. He means “Here is a fine grand work of skill, shamefully spoiled by hurrying.” Of course he was speaking in irony on the excellent composition done apparently in so short a time. 11. by profecy, i.e. prophetically.

“ This Cymon

I 2. the protector sent. Here Halle inserts “Sir Thomas Hawarde.” 15. i.e. two or three thousand marks.

16. laide unto her, for the maner sake, i.e. laid against her, accused her, for

appearance sake. 31. out of al array=without any dress but her kirtle (i.e. petticoat with a jacket above).

33. rud. Halle has red. But for the interchange of vowels cf. ruddy.

P. 54, line 7. worshipfully frended. Halle has “well frended.”

10. proper. This word is frequently used of the form and outward appearance of persons. Cf. Burton, Anatomy, p. 575, was a fool, a proper man of person, and the governor of Cyprus' son, but a very ass.

17. After charnel house;" Halle substitutes for the remainder of the sentence: "and this judgement was in the tyme of Kyng Henry the eyght, in the xviii yere of whose reigne she dyed, when she had nothyng but a reveled skynne and bone."

18. ryuilde, i.e. rivelled, shrivelled. Cf. Holland's Plinie, XIII. 21, “The leaves be somewhat longer and thicker, with long cuts or lines wrinkled and rivelled throughout.'

19. whoso wel aduise, i.e. whoso should well look at.

23. rede wel. Reading and writing were not such common accomplishments in the fifteenth century as they are now.

P. 55, line 3. rather gay then rich, i.e. gifts which rather made a show than were costly.

15. The sense is: “with all those who in those days had business which they wished to set forward."

30. lordes and knightes. Halle gives the names: “the earle Ryvers, and the lorde Richarde the quene's sone, Syr Thomas Vaughan and Sir Richard Haute.”

P. 56, line 3. secret with himra sharer of his secrets, a confidant. 14. to nigh to the quene= too near akin to her.

After this sentence Halle adds: “In so much as Sir Thomas Vaughan, goyng to his death, sayed: I, wo worthe them that toke the prophecie that G. should destroy King Edwardes children, meaning therby the duke of Clarence, Lord George, which for that suspicion is now dead, but now remaineth Richard G, duke of Gloucester, which now I se is he that shal and will accomplishe the prophecie and destroy Kyng Edwardes children, and all their alyes and frendes, as it appereth by us this day: whom I appele to the high tribunal of God for his wrongful murther and our true innocencye. And then Ratclyffe sayed: You have well apeled, lay downe youre head. Ye, quod syr Thomas, I dye in right; beware you dye not in wrong. And so that good knight was beheaded and the other three, and buryed naked in the monastery at Poumfret."

16. out of the way. This is followed in Halle by : “then the protectour caused it to be proclaymed that the coronacion for divers great and urgent causes should be deferred tyll the seconde daye of November, for then thought he that whyle men mused, &c."

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