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ΥΠΟΘΕΣΙΣ. 'Αρίστων Αθηναίος δικάζεται Κόνωνα αικίας, λέγων υπ' αυτού και του παιδός αυτού τετυπτήσθαι, και μάρτυρας τούτου παρεχόμενος. ο δε Κόνων αρνείται το πράγμα και μάρτυρας αντιπαρέχεται, ούς ο Δημοσθένης ού φησι πιστούς βεβιωκέναι γάρ φαύλως 1256 και ευχερώς έχειν προς το ψεύδεσθαι.


Υβρισθείς, ώ άνδρες δικασται, και παθων υπό Argument 1. 2. τετυπτήσθαι.] of Greek usage, as will further In Classical Greek, we should appear in Excursus (A) at the have had the phrase πληγάς end of the speech. ειληφέναι. The tenses from 6. ευχερώς έχειν κ.τ.λ.] make * τυπτέω, with the exception of no difficulty about lying. Or. 21 the future τυπτήσω (used in (Meid.) 8 103, τον μιαρόν και Attic Prose and Comedy), are λίαν ευχερή, τον κονιορτών Εύκτήcharacteristic of late Greek. μονα. So ραδίως ομνύναι mfra Thus, in the first Argument to 8 39. P.] the Midias, we have retÚTTTNKEV S$ 1,2. I was grossly assaulted and τετυπτημένος, and in Lucian by the defendant Conon, and, for (Demonax § 16) we read: érei a very long time indeed, my life δέ τις αθλητής...επάταξεν αυτόν was despaired of. When I was εις την κεφαλήν λίθω και αίμα restored to health and strength, ερρύη, οι μεν παρόντες ήγανάκτουν instead of going beyond my ως αυτός έκαστος τετυπτημέ- years by bringing against him νος, where επάταξεν is correctly a public indictment for brutal used (as in Classical Greek outrage, I followed the advice Prose) instead of the aorist of my friends and took the active of τύπτω, while τετυπτη- easier course of instituting a μένος is only a late form, for private suit for a common which writers of the best age assault. I ask for your indulwould have written either gent hearing, while I briefly πεπληγμένος Or πληγήν ειλη- relate to you my wrongs, and φώς.

I trust that, if I prove my case, The κατά Κόνωνος affords an you will help me to my rights. instructive study on this point 1. υβρισθείς-ταυτηνί.] The

Κόνωνος τουτου τοιαύτα ώστε πολύν χρόνον πάνυ μήτε τους οικείους μήτε των ιατρών μηδένα προσδοκών περιφευξεσθαι με, υγιάνας και σωθείς απροσδοκήτως έλαχον αυτή την δίκην της αικίας ταυτηνί. πάντων δε των φίλων και των οικείων, οίς συνεβουλευόμην, ένοχον μεν φασκόντων αυτόν εκ των πεπραγμένων είναι και τη των λωποδυτών απαγωγή και ταϊς της opening sentence is best ren- the same time, the Archon dered by treating υβρισθείς and decided by lot the order in παθών as principal verbs, and which they were to be heard beginning a fresh sentence with (κληρούν τας δίκας); hence the the word üridvas, e.g. 'I was applicant for leave to bring an the victim of wanton outrage, action is commonly said λαγand I suffered such maltreat- χάνειν δίκην. ment at the hands of Conon

της αικίας.] “ the assault in the defendant, that, for a very question. Ariston, as he further long time indeed, neither my explains in the next sentence, friends nor any of my medical is bringing against Conon a attendants expected my reco- private suit for assault (aiklas very. Contrary to expectation, δίκη), instead of a public inI was restored to health and dictment for wanton outrage strength; and I thereupon (ύβρεως γραφή). The penalty brought against him the pre- in the former was light, namely, sent action for the assault in a pecuniary fine paid to the question.'

plaintiff ; in the latter, it was This exordium is quoted by either a fine paid to the state, the rhetorician Hermogenes as or, in extreme cases, death. an example of perspicuity and The former implied that the directness of expression. (καθαρ- complainant had been simply ότης. Spengel, Rhetores Graeci assaulted and struck, the latter ΙΙ. 276.) Here, as in Or. 45, that he had been subjected to the keynote of the whole speech malicious and brutal indigni. is struck by the opening word, ties. υβρισθείς.

αικία διαφέρει βρεως, ότι πολύν χρόνον πάνυ.] For this αικία μεν ή διά πληγών, ύβρις position of πάνυ, separated from δε και άνευ πληγών μετά προπηλαπολύν, the word which it

κισμού και επιβουλής» διο και obviously qualifies, cf. Plato, ευθύναι ελάττονες της αικίας Hipp. Maj. 282 Ε εν ολίγω (Lexica Segueriana p. 355). xpóvw trávu and (Dem.) Prooem. συνεβουλευόμην...συμβουλευόν18 βραχύ τί μοι πεισθήτε πάνυ. των.] consulted”... “counselled.”

έλαχον...δίκην.] lit. obtained The active and middle senses his suit by lot,' had it allotted of this verb are also found to him,' i.e. obtained leave side by side in Xen. An. II. (from the Archon) to bring 1. 17, ξυμβουλευομένοις ξυνεβούthis action. Where several λευσε τάδε. lawsuits

instituted at τη των λωποδυτών απαγωγή.]




ύβρεως γραφαϊς, συμβουλευόντων δέ μοι και παραινούντων μη μείζω πράγματα ή δυνήσομαι φέρειν επάγεσθαι, μηδ' υπέρ την ηλικίαν ών επεπόνθειν έγκαλούντα φαίνεσθαι, ούτως εποίησα και δι' εκείνους ιδίαν έλαχον δίκην, ήδιστ' άν, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι, 'the summary process directed 'to incur the imputation of against footpads,' i.e. ósum- going beyond my years in mary arrest and imprisonment undertaking to prosecute for the for highway robbery.'

The maltreatment I had received.' plaintiff's friends meant that The task of instituting and Conon might have been cap- carrying to its issue a ypaon tured flagrante delicto, and üßpews would be more laborious carried off to prison as a λωπο- and would require greater skill δύτης (lit. a clothes-stealer'). and experience than was inAccording to the plaintiff's volved in a δίκη αικίας. A subsequent statement, this

young man like Ariston would would be actually true,

find himself in an awkward Conon and his friends had and invidious position, as prostripped him of his cloak and secutor in so ambitious a case carried it off (8 8 εξέδυσαν, and & γραφή ύβρεως, not to 8 10 απεκομίσθην γυμνός, ούτοι mention his being unequally δε ώχοντο θοιμάτιον λαβόντες

matched against an unscrupuμου). Cf. Isocr. de perm. 8 90, lous opponent who was older τούτον άπαγαγών ανδραποδιστών

than himself and had numeκαι κλέπτης και λωποδύτην,

connexions to support Dem. Or. 22 § 26, Aeschin, him. He would also be deterred Timarch. § 91 and Lysias Or. ( (though he does not here con. 10 8 10.

fess it) by the rule requiring ύβρεως γραφαΐs.] here con. the prosecutor to pay a fine of trasted with αικίας δίκη.-Har- a thousand drachmae in the pocr. γραφή: δημοσίου τινος event of his not obtaining at εγκλήματος όνομα. δίκη: ιδίως least one-fifth part of the votes. λέγεται επί ιδιωτικών εγκλημά- The construction is, εγκατων, ως σαφές ποιεί Δημοσθένης λούντα τούτων α επεπόνθειν. εν τώ κατά Κόνωνος.

[υπέρ την ηλικίαν may mean, [The plural γραφαί shows "beyond the resentment suited that more than one public to my years,' implying that a indictment could have been young man ought to put up framed. See also Or. 21 (Meid.) with a little affront, and not 8 28, και δίκας ιδίας δίδωσιν ο make a serious matter of it. P.] νόμος μου και γραφήν ύβρεως. ιδίαν.] αντί του ιδιωτικήν ΔηP.]

μοσθένης εν τώ κατά Κόνωνος. επάγεσθαι.] « to take upon my ελέγετο δε το ίδιον και ιδιωτικών shoulders a greater burden ως ο αυτός ρήτωρ εν τώ κατά than I should be able to bear.' Ζηνόθεμιν (S 32 πράγμα ίδιον). –πράγματα, in taking legal Harpocration. action. P.]

[ήδισταν κρίνας, for καίτοι υπέρ την ηλικίαν- φαίνεσθαι.] ήδιστ' άν έκρινα, well illustrates



θανάτου κρίνας τουτονί. και τούτου συγγνώμην έξετε, ευ οίδ' ότι, πάντες, επειδάν απέπονθ' ακούσητε δεινής γαρ ούσης της τότε συμβάσης ύβρεως ουκ ελάττων ή μετά ταύτ' ασέλγειά έστι τουτουί. αξιώ δη 1257 και δέομαι πάντων ομοίως υμών πρώτον μεν ευνοϊκώς ακούσαι μου περί ών πέπονθα λέγοντος, είτ', εαν ήδικησθαι και παρανενομήσθαι δοκώ, βοηθήσαί μοι τα δίκαια. εξ αρχής δ' ώς έκαστα πέπρακται, διηγήσομαι

προς υμάς, ως άν οδός τε ώ διά βραχυτάτων. 3 Εξήλθομεν, έτος τουτί τρίτον, είς Πάνακτον φρου

the fondness of the Greeks for participial construction. The sense is, though I would most gladly have brought him to trial on the capital charge.' P.]

θανάτου.] The penalty of death was inflicted in cases of λωποδυτών απαγωγή, and even in special cases of ύβρεως γραφή. For the former, cf. Χen. Mem. Ι. 2. 62, εάν τις φανερός γένηται λωποδυτών ή βαλαντιοτομών ή τοιχωρυχών, τούτοις θάνατός έστιν ή ζημία, and for the latter, Lysias, fragm. 44, καίτοι τις ουκ οίδεν υμών ότι την μεν αικίαν χρημάτων έστι μόνον τιμήσαι, τους δε υβρίζειν δόξαντας έξεστιν υμίν θανάτω ημιούν.

2. δεινής-τουτουί.]“The original outrage, atrocious as it was, does not surpass the subsequent brutality of the defendant.' See § 26. The first clause may perhaps be taken as a geni. tive absolute.

παρανενομήσθαι.] The passive is formed just as if the verb were directly transitive in the active, i.e. as if the active construction were hapavoueîv τινα, and not είς τινα. So also the active παροινείν είς τινα has παροινείσθαι for its correspond

ing passive. (See below § 4
init. and § 5 fin.)

βοηθήσαί μοι τα δίκαια.] “as-
sist me to my rights. For the
phrase and the context, cf.
Οr. 27 8 3 δέομαι υμών..μετ'
ευνοίας τ' εμού ακούσαι καν ήδι-
κησθαι δοκώ, βοηθήσαί μοι τα
δίκαια, ποιήσομαι δ' ως άν δύνω-
μαι δια βραχυτάτων τους λόγους.
A fuller phrase may be noticed
in 8 42 of this speech, βοηθείν
και τα δίκαια αποδιδόναι.

The exordium has several points of coincidence with that of Or. 45. See p. 50.

In the next four sections the plaintiff states the origin of the bad blood between the defend. ant's family and himself. The narrative, though part of the διήγησις which naturally follows immediately after the προοίμιον of a forensic speech, is only preliminary to the recital of the facts on which the suit is really founded. It is to this portion of the statement of the case that Rhe. toricians like Theodorus of Byzantium would have given the name of προδιήγησις (Arist. Rhet. ΙΙΙ. 13).

88 3––6. Two years ago, we were ordered out to Panactum

ράς ημίν προγραφείσης. έσκήνωσαν ούν οι υιείς οι Κόνωνος τουτουί εγγύς ημών, ως ουκ άν έβουλόμην η γαρ εξ αρχής έχθρα και τα προσκρούσματεκείθεν on garrison duty, and, as ill fals. leg.) 8 326, περί...της προς luck would have it, the sons of Πανάκτη χώρας μεθ' όπλων εξερConon pitched their tents close χόμεθα, δ έως ήσαν Φωκείς σώοι to our own. They picked quar- ουδεπώποτ' εποιήσαμεν. If these rels with our servants and were expeditions are identical, the persistently guilty of drunken speech was delivered in B.C. and indecent conduct at the 343 or 341, according as we expense of our attendants and place the historical event in ourselves. My messmates and B. C. 345 (with Clinton) or 343 myself represented the case to (with Westermann).-A. Schaethe general, and he reprimanded fer, however, plausibly connects them severely for their treatment the event in question with of ourselves and for their mis- certain military operations in behaviour in the camp. Not- B.C. 357, and thus obtains for withstanding, they burst in upon the date of the speech B. c. 355, us on that very evening and the year before the delivery of violently assaulted us; indeed the orations against Leptines serious consequences might have and Androtion (Dem. und seine ensued, but for the arrival of Zeit, III. 2. 251). the officers on the scene of dis- On Panactum, or Panactus, order. On our return to Athens, Harpocration has this article: there was naturally some ill Πάνακτος: Δημοσθένης κατά Κόblood between Conon's sons and νωνος" πόλις έστι μεταξύ της myself, but I simply made up 'Αττικής και της Βοιωτίας. He my mind to have nothing more further notes that Thucydides to do with them. However, as makes the word neuter and the result proved, my collision Menander masculine. with the sons in the camp led φρουράς..προγραφείσης.] being to my being grossly maltreated ordered out on garrison duty.' by their father the defendant, For apoypápelv, in the sense who instead of rebuking his of 'putting up a public notice' sons for the original outrage, at head-quarters, compare Arist. has himself been guilty of a Aves 448, ακούετε λεώς τους much more shameful aggression. οπλίτας νυνμενί | ανελομένους

3. έτος τουτί τρίτον.] two θώπλαπιέναι πάλιν οίκαδε, Ι years ago’ (sc. εστί). Dem. σκοπείν δ' ό τι άν προγράφωμεν Olynth. 384 απηγγέλθη... τρίτον εν τοις πινακίοις, and Aristotle ή τέταρτον έτος τουτί, Ηραίον εν Αθηναίων πολιτεία (quoted by τείχος πολιορκών.

Harpocration 8. τ. στρατεία), The present passage places όταν ηλικίαν εκπέμπωσι, προγράthe date of the speech in the φουσιν από τίνος άρχοντος έπω. "third year after,' or, as we νύμου μέχρι τίνος δεί στρατεύεσθαι. should say, 'two years after,' ως ουκ αν έβουλόμην] sc. σκηan expedition to Panactum, a νώσαι αυτούς, and would to fort on the borders of Attica heaven they had not !' and Boeotia. Of such an ex- προσκρούσματα.] collisions.” pedition we read in Or. 19 (de Οr. 39 8 18, πολλοίς προσκρούει

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