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me in all things, and keep και καθως παρεδωκα υμιν, the ordinances, as I deli- τας παραδοσεις κατεχετε. vered them to you.

3 But I would have you 3 Θελω δε υμας ειδεναι, know, that the head of oτι σαντος ανδρος η κεφαλη every man is Christ : and ο Χριςος εςι κεφαλη δε γυthe head of the woman is

ναικος,

ο

ανηρ κεφαλη δε the man; and the head of Christ is God.

Χριςου, ο Θεος. 4 Every man praying 4 Πας ανηρ προσευχόμενος or prophesying, having his η προφητευων κατα κεφαλης head covered, dishonour

έχων, καταισχυνει την κεφαeth his head.

λην αυτου. 5 But every woman

5 Πασα δε γυνη προσευχοthat prayeth or prophesi- μενη η προφητευουσα ακαταeth with her head uncov• καλυπτω τη κεφαλη, καταισ

Ver. 4.-1. Having a veil upon his head, dishonoureth his head. The man who prayeth or prophesieth in the presence of women, with a veil upon his head, by wearing that sign of inferiority on such occasions, dishonoureth his head Christ, who hath subjected women to men, and in particular hath authorized men to teach them. See chap. xiv. 34, 35.

Ver. 5.-1. And every woman who prayeth or prophesieth. Because they who gave thanks, and praised the Lord with musical instruments, are said, 1 Chron. xxv. 1, 2. to prophesy with harps, &c.; and because the priests of Baal, who prayed and sang hymns to that idol in the contest with Elijah, are said, 1 Kings xviii. 29. to have prophesied till the time of tbe evening sacrifice, many, by the women's praying and prophesying, understand their joining in the public prayers and praises, as a part of the congregation. Yet as it is reasonable to think, that this praying and prophesying of the women, was of the same kind with the praying and prophesying of the men who acted as teachers, mentioned ver. 4. we may suppose the Corinthian women affected to perform these offices in the public assemblies, on pretence of their being inspired ; and though the apostle in this place, hath not condemned that practice, it does not follow that he allowed it, or that it was allowed in any church. His design here, was not to consider whether that practice was allow. able, but to condemn the indecent manner in which it had been performed. For the women when they felt, or thought they felt, themselves moved by the Spirit in the public assemblies, throwing away their veils, prayed and prophesied with their heads uncovered, and perhaps with their hair dishe. velled, in imitation of the heathen priestesses in their raptures. See Virgil, Eneid, lib. vi. 1. 48. Non comptæ mancere come, &c. This indecency in the manner of their praying and prophesying, the apostle thought proper to correct, before he prohibited the practice itself, because it gave him an oppor. tunity of inculcating on women, that subjection to the men, which is their ald have you

fast the traditions (see 2 praise you, brethren, because in geneThess. ii. 15. note 2.) as I ral ye remember me, and hold fast the delivered them to you.

traditions concerning the public,

worship, as I delivered them to you. 3 But I

3 But, that ye may understand know, that of every man the the reason of these traditions, I huad is Christ; and the head would have you know, that of every of the woman is the man; man the head, to whom in all reli(Gen. iii. 16. Eph. v. 23.) gious matters he must be subject, is and the head of Christ is Christ ; and that the head of the woGod. (See 1 Cor. iii. 23. man, to whom in all domestic affairs note, and chap. xv. 27, 28. she must be subject, and from whom notes.)

she must receive instruction, is the man ; and that the head of Christ, to whom in saving the world he is sub

ject, is God. 4 Every man who prayeth 4 Every man who prayeth or proor prophesieth, (see chap. phesieth in the public assemblies, xiv. 3. note) having a veil having a veil, which is a sign of subupon his head, dishonour. jection, upon his head, dishonoureth eth his head.

Christ his head, who hath made him

the head of the woman. 5 (A1, 101.) And every 5 And every woman, who prayeth woman who prayeth or or prophesieth with an unveiled head, prophesieth 1 with an un- dishonoureth the man her head, by veiled head, dishonoureth affecting an equality with him. Be

duty, though many of them are unwilling to acknowledge it. Women's praying and prophesying in the public assemblies, the apostle afterwards condemned in the most express terms, chap. xiv. 34. See the note there. We have an example of the same method of teaching, 1 Cor. viii. where, without considering whether it was lawful to join the heathens in their feasts on the sacrifice in the idol's temple, the apostle shewed the Corinthians, that although they thought it lawful because they knew an idol was nothing, yet the weak who had not that knowledge, but who believed the idol to be a real, though subordinate god, might by their example be led to join. in these feasts, and thereby be guilty of direct idolatry. This evil consequence the apostle thought proper to point out, before he determined the general question : because it afforded him an opportunity of inculcating the great Christian duty, of taking care never to lead our brethren into sin, even by our most innocent actions. See chap. viii. Illustration at the end.

2. With an unveiled heat. The apostle's reasoning concerning the covering and uncovering of the head, is to this purpose : women being put in subjection to men, ver. 2. ought in the public assemblies to acknowledge their inferiority, by those marks of respect which the customs of the countries where they live, have established as expressions of respect. And there

και

ει δε

ered, dishonoureth her χυνει την κεφαλην εαυτης εν head : for that is even all

γαρ εςι

το αυτο τη one as if she were shaven.

εξυρημενη. 6 For if the woman be 6 Ει γαρ ου κατακαλυπτεnot covered, let her also ται γυνη, και χειρασθω" be shorn : but if it be a αισχρον γυναικι το χειρασθαι, shame for a woman to be

η ξυρασθαι, κατακαλυπτεσθω. shorn or shaven, let her be covered. . 7 For a man indeed

7 Ανηρ μεν γαρ ουκ οφειλει ought not to cover his head,

κατακαλυπτεσθαι την κεφαforasmuch as h: is the

λην, εικων και δοξα Θεου υπαρimage and glory of God: but the woman is the glo- χων" γυνη δε δοξα ανδρος εςιν. ry of the man. 8 For the man is not of

8 Ου γαρ εςιν ανηρ εκ the woman : but the wo.

γυναικος, αλλα γυνη εξ ανδρος. man of the man.

9 Neither was the man 9 Και γαρ ουκ εκτισθη created forthe woman: but

αννης δια την γυναικα, αλλα the woman for the man.

γυνη δια τον ανδρα. Ο 10 For this cause ought 10 Δια τουτο οφειλει η γυthe woman to have power μη εξουσιαν εχειν επι της κεon her head, because of

φαλης, δια τους αγγέλους. the angels. .

fore, although with us it be a mark of superiority to be covered in a public assembly, and of inferiority to be uncovered, the apostle's reasoning still holds, because the customs of the east were the reverse of ours.—The veil used by the eastern women was so large as to cover a great part of their body. This appears from Ruth's veil, which held six measures of barley, Ruth iii. 15.--A veil of this sort, called a plaid, was worn not long ago by the women in Scotland.

3. It is one and the same with being sbaven. In the east, nit was reckoned immodest in women to appear unveiled before any of the male sex, except their nearest relations. Thus Rebecca veiled herself on seeing Isaac, Gen. xxiv. 65.—The immodesty of women appearing unveiled in an assembly of men, the apostle illustrated by observing that it was one and the same thing with being shaven; for, as he tells us, ver. 15. their hair was given them for a veil to improve their beauty.—The eastern ladies, considering their hair as their principal ornament, were at great pains in dressing it. Hence before Jezebel looked out at a window on Jehu, 2 Kings ix. 30. She painted ker face and tired her head. Hence also to deprive women of their hair, was considered as a great disgrace, Micah, i. 16. See the following note, and ver. 15. note.

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her head. (ras, 91.) Be- sides, for a woman to throw off the sides, it is one and the same veil in an assembly of men, is one with being shaven.3

and the same with being shaven. 6 (res, 93.) Wherefore, 6 Wherefore, if a woman in an asif a woman be not veiled, sembly of men be not veiled, even let even let her be shorn: but her hair which is her veil (ver. 15.) if it be a shame 1 for a wo- be shorn. But if it be a disgrace for man to be shorn or shaven, a woman to be shorn, let her preserve let her be veiled.

her natural modesty, by veiling herself in the public assemblies for wor

ship 7 Now man, indeed, 7 Now man indeed ought not to ought not to veil the head, veil the head in presence of woman, being the image 1 and glo- being the image of God in respect of ry of God: but woman is the dominion delegated to him, and the glory of man.

the glory of God by exercising that dominion properly. But woman is the glory of man by being subject to

him. 8 (rug, 91.) Besides, man 8 Besides, man is not of woman ; is not of woman, but wo- but woman is of man, being made of man is of man.

a rib taken from the first man. 9 (Kotug, 97.) And also, 9 And also, man was not created for man was not created (asc) the woman, but woman for the man : for the woman; but woman as is plain from what God said when for the man.

he created Eve, Gen. ii. 18. “I will

make him an help meet for him.” 10 (Ala TYTO, 68.) For 10 The creation of woman, leads this reason ought the wo- me to observe, that for this reason man to have a veil i on oug the woman, in the public asHer head, (dock, 112.) on semblies, to have a veil upon her head, account of the angels.? namely, on account of the seduction

of the first woman by evil angels.

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Ver. 6.–1. But if it be a shame for a woman to be sborn or shaven. How disgraceful it was for the Grecian women to be shaven, may be learned from Aristoph. Thesmoph. line 845.-The ancient Germans punished women guilty of adultery, by shaving their heads. So Tacitus tells us, De Morib. Germanorum. The Jews also punished adultresses in the same

Elsner thinks, that custom is mentioned Numb. v. 18.-Shorn, as distinguished from shaven, means to have the hair cropped.

Ver.7.-1. Being the image of God; namely, in respect of the dominion with which he is clothed. For in respect of mental qualities, the woman is also the image of God.

Ver. 10.-1. To have, terriar, a veil on her bead. Though there is no ex

manner.

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12 Ωσσερ γαρ

και ο

11 Nevertheless, nei

Π Πλην ουτε ανηρ χωρις ther is the man without γυναικος, ουτε γυνη χωρις ανthe woman, neither the δρος, εν Κυρίω. woman without the man in the Lord. 12 For as the woman is

η

γυνη of the man, even so is the

εκ του ανδρος, τω man also by the woman :

ανης

δια but all things of God.

της γυναικος" τα

δε σαντα εκ του Θεου. 13 Judge in yourselves: 13 Εν υμιν αυτοις κρινατε is it comely that a woman pray unto God uncovered? πρεσον εςι γυναικα ακατακα

λυπτoν τω Θεω προσευχεσθαι και 14 Doth not even na- 14 Η ουδε αυτη η φυσις διture itself teach you, that δασκει υμας, ότι ανηρ μεν εαν if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him ?

κομα, ατιμια αυτω εςι. 15 But if a woman have

15 Γυνη δε

κομα, long hair, it is a glory to

εςιν ;

ότι η

εαν

δοξα αυτη

ample, either in sacred or profane writers, of the word sex ola used to denote a veil, yet all agree that it can have no other meaning in this passage. Benson, in his note on 1 Tim. ii. 8. 2d edit. gives it as his opinion, that because the Hebrew word radid (which comes from the verb radad, to have power) signifes a veil, the apostle uses the word εξεσία, power, to denote a veil, because the Hebrew women veiled themselves in presence of the men, in token of their being under their power. A like figurative sense of the word circumcision, we have, Acts vii. 8. where it is called a covenant, because it was the token or sign of God's covenant with Abraham.

2. On account of the angels. In scripture, the word angels sometimes signifies evil angels, 1 Cor. vi. 3. Do ye not know that we shall judge angels? Jude, ver. 6. The angels who kept not their first estate.-Eve having been seduced by evil angels to eat the forbidden fruit, she and all her daughters were punished for that sin, by being subjected to the rule of their husbands. The apostle therefore enjoined the eastern women, according to whose customs the wearing of a veil was a token of subjection, to be veiled in the public assemblies for worship, that remembering their first mother's seduction by evil angels, they might be sensible or their own frailty, and' behave with humility. See 1 Tim. ii. 14.-Others by the angels, understand the bishops, who are styled angels of the churches, Rev. i. 20. For they suppose the women were ordered to be veiled, when in the public assemblies they performed the office of teachers, to shew their respect to the bishops.. Others think good angels are meant here, who being ministering spirits, might be present in the religious assemblies of the Christians. Of these interpretations, that which is first mentioned, and which is espoused by Whitby, seems the most probable.

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