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33. whom refers to the English people understood in the words “ the realmpreceding.

P. 78, line 7. Which of all the titles that might be we consider to be the most valid.

15. established is in the original here but is clearly an error for “ establish,” which is given in the text.

16. And we ask of God to live no longer than while we attend to the securing of its (the realm's) advancement.

as his fantasye gaue hym, i.e. as his fancy suggested to him. 30. for the manner sake=by reason of the way of proceeding.

not bee a-knowen=not seem cognizant, seem to be ignorant of. For the word, which is not usual, cf. Shaks. Othello 111. 3. 319, where Iago having obtained from Emilia the handkerchief says to her: “Be not acknown on't. I have use for it,” meaning “Don't let it be known what has become of it. Keep it a secret. Cf. also Chaucer, Court of Love, 1999,

“Eek Shamefastnes was there, as I took hede,

That blushed red, and durst not ben aknow

She lover was, for thereof had she drede,' i.e. she durst not admit to herself or seem aware that she was in love.

32. bulles. The writs from the Papal Court which secure his election.

33. and thoughe = even though. The and here is the word sometimes written an, and mostly=if. Sometimes we find the double form an if or and if exactly equivalent to if. Cf. Shaks. Tempest, 11. 2. 120,

“These be fine things, an if they be not sprites.” But this same word an sometimes=though. See Shaks. 2 Hen. VI. IV. 7. 112, “He shall die, an it be but for pleading so well for his life,' and More's text here gives an instance of and (or an) though=though.

P. 79, line 5. sowter (Lat. sutor)=a shoemaker. 6. can.

In its earlier sense of ken=to know. "If one should know so little as to shew at an untimely moment, &c.

8. tormentors. In the plays the Sultan was always attended by executioners and agents for punishing wrongdoers. For the word cf. Bacon's Hen. VII. (Pitt Press Series), 114. 5, “two butchers or tormentors.'

9. and worthy. An elliptical expression=“ and he is worthy of being so treated,” “and serve him right.”

P. 80, line 6. the saintuary by, i.e. close by, near at hand. For the protector was in Westminster Hall. See 79. 18.

9. a vanityera mere empty parade and show.

13. Halle says the “nineteenth day of June," and states that the coronation took place "on the 6th day of July.“ Also after line 17 there is introduced, in Halle, an account of the coronation.

22. the beste death. More speaks of it thus because it was the best thing for the nation to be rid of this king.

manner.

him.”

26. infortune=misfortune. Cf. Chapman, Homer, bk. XX.,

“Jove doth decree Fortunes, infortunes to the mortal race.” 29. Perken Werbecke. Perkin Warbeck pretended to be Richard, Duke of York, the brother of Edward V. For his whole history cf. Bacon, Henry VII. (Pitt Press Series), pp. 140 seqq., with the notes thereon. 33. so couertly demeaned, i.e. conducted in such an underhand

For demean in this active sense, cf. 22. 8. P. 81, line 3. Because of the common habit of secret and underhand dealing people held it in their hearts, always in suspicion, just as a multitude of good imitations make real jewels doubted of.

18. which he before had intended, i.e. to make himself king.

19. his minde gaue him, i.e. suggested to him. Cf. Shaks. Corol. IV. 5. 157, “My mind gave me his clothes made a false report of

23. kindly=natural. Cf. kindly fruits of the earth,” Pr. Bk., Litany. The sense is: This act would make him a king of a proper kind, a king such as he ought to be.

27. credence. We say now "credentials,” “tokens of trust and which can be trusted to."

30. kneling before our Lady, i.e. Grene found him at his prayers before an image of the Virgin.

31. to dye therfore, i.e. to have to die himself for so doing.
33. yet in his way, i.e. still on his road to Gloucester.
P. 82, line 4. went, i.e. weened, thought, considered.

6. on your paylet without. Halle gives “in the palet chambre without,” alluding to the antechamber where was a small bed for a body

9. meaning this by sir James Tyrell, “ by.” here=concerning. Cf. 1 Cor. iv. 4, "I know nothing by myself," i.e. no wrong concerning myself.

14. sore longed vpwarde, i.e. very much desired to rise, was very ambitious.

18. namely=especially; as in many other places of this history.

20. by secrete driftes, i.e. by underhand contrivances. Cf. Dodsley, Old Couple, XII. p. 52, "if my brain fail not, I have found out all your drifts.

21. Wherefore when this occasion offered, out of very special friendship he embraced the opportunity, &c.

P. 83, line 1. strange, i.e. reserved, shy of undertaking anything. Cf. Shaks. Romeo, II. 2. 100,

“But trust me, gentleman, I'll prove more true
Than those that have more cunning to be strange.
I should have been more strange, I must confess,
But that thou overheard'st, ere I was ware,
My true love's passion.”

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toke himself as king, i.e. put himself in the position of king, regarded himself as king.

anii see them sure. Halle has "and iiij. other to see them sure,” cf. below, line 26.

20. pointes, laces used in fastening the clothes. Cf. Shaks. Hen. IV. (pt. 1) 11. 4. 238, “ Their points being broken, down sell their

21. rought, the past tense of reck, to heed, to care for.

27. fleshed. Halle has “fleshe bred." The first idea is of a brute fed with flesh and made fierce, and satiated. Then of some one fed with flesh for the first time, and so= initiated. Cf. Shaks. Hen. IV. (pt. 1) V. 4, 133, "full bravely hast thou fleshed thy maiden sword.”

31. sely=innocent, harmless. In later English it was written ‘sisly.” Cf. Shaks. Hen. VI. (pt. 3) 11. 5. 43, “Shepherds looking on their silly sheep.”

P. 84, line 3. Smored, smothered, choked to death. The primary sense is “to stifle by smoke," cf. Prompt. Parv. p. 461, "smore, with smoke, fumigo. Só Sylvester's Du Bartas,

'Some undermines, som other undertook

To fire the gates or smore the towne with smoke.” Also Du Bartas, History of Judith, p. 377,

“Some dying vomit. blood, and some were smored." 19. kynge. Halle adds here, “For he would recompense a detestable murther with a solemyne obsequy."

21. by the occasion of his deathe, i.e. by reason of his death.

22. light. Halle inserts here, “ For some saye that Kynge Richard caused the priest to take them up and close them in lead, and to put them in a coffyne full of holes at the endes, with ij. hokes of yron, and so to cast them into a place called the Blacke deepes at the Thames mouth so that they should never rise up nor be sene agayn.”

P. 85, line 3. Which thinges on euery part wel pondered, i.e. And if men will well ponder on these things in every part (they will see that) God never gave, &c.

9. Sainct Martens. Halle adds "le graunde."

10. Dighton. For this sentence Halle has, “John Dighton lyved at Caleys longe after, no less disdayned and hated then poincted at and there dyed in great misery."

14. haryed. The verb “harry” is much more frequently used of the ravaging of a country, or chasing an enemy. Cf. North's Plutarch, p. 442,

“The Armenians continually harried them (the Parthians] out of their skins.”

But here it is used of the rough conveyance of the dead body.

17. of the mischiefe that he dyd. The sentence is clearly imperfect. Halle continues it thus: “in three monethes be not comparable,” i.e. there is no comparison between the mischief that he underwent in less than three years and the mischief that he inflicted in three months.

RICH.

I 2

21. chamberers. Attendants in a chamber, chamberlains. Cf. Berners' Froissart, 11. 61, “nother chamberer nor varlet entred with them.” See below, 86. 10.

23. his body priuily fenced. His body was secretly protected, i.e. he wore a coat of mail under his clothing.

27. a nightes=of nights, i.e. by night.

29. sterte. This, with leape and runne in the next line are past tenses=started, leapt, ran. For the last of the three Halle gives loked =looked.

33. outward means in his external circumstances and surroundings as opposed to his internal agitation of mind.

P. 86, line 1. in rest. At this point Halle has a long account of Richard's journey to the north of England, and his triumphal reception in York, as well as a notice of some good laws which he enacted.

5. pretended=set forth, related, without any of the modern sense of pretence.

7. Kyng Edward, i.e. King Edward IV. On the funeral honours paid elsewhere to this king, see 1. 23 note.

9. Persal. Halle gives the name here “Persivall,” but in another place “Persall.”

19. He (Buckingham) would take the same line as he (Gloucester) would, and would wait upon him with a thousand good fellows.

25. sixe C., i.e. six hundred, and below, line 29, CCC = 300.

32. lightli, easily, with small provocation. Cf. Mark ix. 39, “ No man which shall do a miracle in my name, can lightly speak evil of me."

P. 87, line 5. duke of Herfordes landes. Halle rightly reads "erle" for “duke.” On the claim see notes on 43. 1.

13. feared=feared for. An unusual sense.

17. come ride. For come thus followed by an infinitive without to intervening; Cf. Shaks. Merchant of Venice, 11. 7. 43,' To come view fair Portia,” also Lear, 111. 4. 157, “To come speak with you ;” and Othello, III. 4. 50, To bid Cassio come speak with you,” where there are two verbs following bid in this manner.

18. wherupon. Here Halle gives, “ Whereupon gorgeously apparelled and sumpteously trapped with burnynge carte naves of golde embrodered he roade before the Kyng through London with an evill will and woorse harte.”

19.., that notwithstanding means “and yet in spite of the King's threat."

26. at the daies=at that time. The article still retaining somewhat of its original force as a demonstrative pronoun.

28. in that grene world, i.e. while all was new and untried. For this figurative use of green cf. Shaks. Richard III., II. 2. 13,

“Yet since it (the compact) is but green, it should be put To no apparent likelihood of breach.” 32. and vtterly men think=and men entirely believe. Halle gives “surely” for “utterly.” For “utterly” in this sense cf. Bp. Cover

66

was

dale's Works, p. 83, “Holy men served God, and knew nothing utterly of the pope's religion,” i.e. absolutely nothing.

P. 88, line 3. euyll could beare, i.e. could ill bear, tolerate.

8. wel knowen. The ” from the previous clause must be carried on.

10. high behestes, i.e. important orders entrusted to him.
15. waxed, i.e. he waxed.

10. The sense is, Whose (i.e. the bishop's) cleverness abused his (the duke's) pride so that he got free and the duke was destroyed.

23. neuer came home. The conjunction and is here omitted. to the field. Halle adds “at Barnet."

24. the tother, i.e. the king Edward IV., to whom after the death of Henry, Bp. Morton was attached.

29. by the tirant, i.e. the protector Richard. 30. this duke, i.e. of Buckingham.

31. in his top. The expression, which I have not found elsewhere, seems to mean “upon him.” “Set Buckingham upon attacking Richard.”

King Henry, i.e. he who became afterwards King Henry VII.

32. King Edwardes doughter, i.e. Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV.

2.

P. 89, line 1. bothe his masters, i.e. Edward IV., the father of Elizabeth of York, and Henry VII., her husband, with whom Morton came into great favour, as is stated below.

trvoo bloodes, i.e. the two families of York and Lancaster. 3. enquieted=unquieted, disquieted. If en be not a misprint for un in the original. I have met with one similar instance, Dodsley, Return from Parnassus, IX. 211,

“Where serpents tongues the penmen are to write,

Where cats do brawl by day and dogs by night

There shall engorged venom be my ink.” In which passage engorged seems to=disgorged.

ended them, i.e. he ended them. Cf. 88. 15 for a like omission of the pronoun, which is very common in this book. 15. driftes.

Cf. on 82. 20. 18. balke. The word is cognate with “belch.” To utter a little sound of envy against the glory of the King. Cf. Pilkington, Works, p. 293, “Priests with drunken nowls said matins and belked out with good devotion as they thought.”

19. breide. The word means a noise, and is connected with the verb “ bray" which now is used only of asses, but formerly was applied to the sound of trumpets, and also to the noises of more noble animals, as elephants and horses. More has the noun again, Works, p. 442, “He bringeth to the matter after his two years musing...only a rashe maliciouse frantike braide."

ethe to fal out, i.e. ready for a quarrel. 23. rather semed him, i.e. rather made himself appear.

20.

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