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25. bost, i.e. boast = to praise. Cf. Shaks. Tempest, IV. 9,

“Do not smile at me that I boast her off.” 30. I.e. the son of King Henry VI. and not King Edward IV.

33. with a dead man, i.e. on the side of a dead man strive against the living P. 90, line 6. he left, i.e. left off, ceased speaking.

As being a subject not entirely without danger. 28. bonch, a bump or protuberance. So Richard III. is called bunch backed. Shaks. Richard III. 1. 3. 246 and iv. 4. 81, though there is a various reading hunch backed, in both places.

a great pace. We now say at a great pace. 33. by=concerning. Cf. above on 82. 9.

P. line 2. and (sometimes written an)=if. What if he call it one? Cf. Dodsley, Every Man, I. p. 142,

" Beware, for and they (his good deeds) be small

Before God he hath no help at all.” Also, The Ordinary, XII. p. 25,

“I'll save your worship that labour, an't (=an it) please you.”

5. the bore. In allusion to the coat of arms of the duke of Gloucester. See p. 48. 27.

pyke. For this figurative use of pick=to find out, discover, cf. Shaks. Mids. N. D., v. 100, “Out of this silence yet I picked a welcome.'

18. for the better store. A sentence of much flattery, implying that in spite of the good store of abilities possessed by the protector, those of Buckingham were of a higher quality.

21. of youre grace. Halle completes the discourse and after that the character of the language differs in toto. The continuation of Hardyng merely adds after “of youre grace" the words “and there left of agayn,” thus shewing a break which Halle has filled up.

P. 92, line 13. Henry, earle of Richemonde. Afterwards King Henry VII.

15. King Edwardes death, i.e. the death of Edward the IVth. during the latter part of whose reign both the earl of Richmond and the earl of Pembroke had been kept in a sort of honourable confinement by Francis duke of Brittany. See Lingard, iv. 96.

16.' with, i.e. in the custody of.

24. Reynold Breye, i.e. Sir Reginald Bray. He was Steward in the household of the Lady Margaret, King Henry VIIth's mother. He died in 1503. See Bacon's Hen. VII. (Pitt Press Series), 18. 27 and notes.

P. 93, line 5. rested no more, i.e. there remained nothing else to do. 33. Cicile. Cf. p. I. II and note.

P. 94, line 2. mastresse. This orthography shews the connection with master.

13. appoinct. We still use the expression that a man or a house

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is well “appointed,” when all belonging to them is in good order. So here the verb means "to order," arrange.” Cf. 95. 8.

In Materials illust. of reign of Hen. VII. (Rolls Series), we find, p. 26, that Hugh Conway was, on 21 Sept. 1485, appointed for life, keeper of the great wardrobe, by King Henry. He was also made a Commissioner of King's mines on 27 Feb. 1486. But he afterwards came into disgrace and was removed from his office. See 3 Aug. 1487.

23. Among the same entries we find a grant, 29 Sept. 1485, to Sir Richard Guldeford, Knt. of the office of master of the ordnance and master of the armoury, and a grant for life of the houses and grounds upon the wharf of the Tower of London. He has to do with the preparations for the Coronation (23 Octr. 1485). He is made guardian of the property of a Minor (14 July, 1486) and there are numerous entries of payments made to hin.

25. in maner=alınost, cf. 12. 33; 106. 18, and for an example 51. 4, note.

P. 96, line 2. enfarced, i.e. stuffed full. The more common word is farced. Cf. Jewell, Reply to Harding, p. 233, “The see of Rome, farced up and set out with lies.” The verb is the root of force-meat = stuffing.

13. and that he might bee asserteined, &c. = And that he (the King) might be made certain, assured, &c.

25. at one tyme, i.e. at the same time.

Thomas, Marques of Dorcester. This was Thomas Grey, Marquis of Dorset, formerly Earl of Huntingdon, and before that Lord Grey of Groby. See above, 8. 31.

29. Edward Courtenay was earl of Devonshire.

P. 97, line 4. disparkle=to scatter, disperse. Cf. Holland, Ammianus, p. 422, Considering a great number of the horsemen were disparcled asunder.”

embatailed, set in battle array. Cf. Shaks. Merry Wives, 11. 2. 260, “Her defences which now are too strongly embattled against me." So Milton, Tractate on Education (Pitt Press Series), p. 17,

They have solidly united the whole body of their perfeted knowledge like the last embattelling a Roman legion.”

to bee come, i.e. to get him unto. We feel no difficulty in the corresponding phrase " whither to be gone.”

P. 98, line 1. helth. In the wider sense of welfare, security.

4. Peter Curtney, bishop of Exeter, received a grant from Henry VII. on 11 October 1485, of the temporalities of the see of Salisbury forfeited by Thomas, bishop of Salisbury, through rebellion against the king and his royal dignity. See Mat. Illust. of Reign of Hen. VII. Vol. 1. p. 81.

7. John Bourshere had been made Lord Berners in 1455 and he seems to have died about this time, for in 1485, 25 Sept. a bailiff is appointed by Henry VII. over the estates during the minority of his son, who is called Lord Berners. Ibid. I. 57.

8. Edward Wooduille, Knt. receives a grant for life (16 Sept. 1485), of the office of keeper of the castle and town of Porchester, and

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of the survey and government of the town of Portsmouth, and the king's place there. The office had been held by John, earl of Salop. Materials, 1. 7.

9. Robert Willoughby. A faithful servant of Henry VII. and greatly trusted by him. Mention is constantly made of him in the Materials above quoted, where his name is the first mentioned. He was made Lord Willoughby in 1483.

Giles Daubeney. Afterwards Lord Daubeney. He was made deputy of Calais by Henry VII.

Thomas Harondell. This may be Thomas Arundel, Knt., Lord Matravers, to whom Henry VII. granted on 6 July, 1486, an annuity of 300 marks. See Materials, I. 482.

Sir John Cheyne is often mentioned in the Materials, where 1. 151, he is called “the King's full trusty Knight,” and a grant is made to Cheyne's servant Roger Penne “for faithful true service done to the king in the parts beyond the sea and ever since.” Several persons of the name Cheyne are mentioned, and presumably among them are the "two brothers ” of our text.

William Barkely, Knt. of Bernerston was appointed (17 Sept. 1485) “master and operator of the King's monies, and keeper of the King's exchange within the Tower of London, the kingdom of England and the town of Calais.” Materials, I. 7.

Sir William Brandon, who had been “Marshal of the Marshallsie of the King's Bench,” but was “so put in drede of his lyfe by Richard, late in deed and not of right, King of England the iiia that he was faine for salvacione of his lyfe to take tuition and priviledge of the seinctuarie of Gloucester and there abode from the second year of the said Richard, unto youre comeing into this realme sovereign lord” was restored to his office by Henry VII. in 1485. Materials, 1. 125.

Sir Richard Edgecombe is often mentioned in the early notices of Henry VII. On 20 Sept. 1485, he was made one of the Chamberlains of the Exchequer, and on 7 June 1486 (in consideration of services as well in parts beyond the sea as in the kingdom of England), he received a grant of the manors of Totnesse, Comeworthy, Huesshe, and Lodeswell.

13. John Halwell, Knt. is mentioned as Sheriff of Devon. Materials, I. 549.

Robert (not Edward) Pointz is often mentioned in the Materials, and on 25 Sept. 1485 was made Steward of Barton Hundred, &c. during the minority of Edward, son of George, late duke of Clarence. This seems most likely to be the person intended in the text.

14. Christopher Urswicke. He was for some time master of King's Hall (now Trinity College) in Cambridge. He was chaplain to Lady Margaret, Henry VIIth's mother, and afterwards employed as am. bassador by Henry himself.

24 a bondman. It appears from this that villainage, or servitude to the land, had not yet entirely disappeared.

25. his pardon. It was presumed that if he knew enough to turn informer he must be connected with the movements of Buckingham, and so guilty in the eyes of the party of King Richard. He would



therefore be encouraged if it were proclaimed that he should have no punishment.

29. The addition of not which is wanting in the original is clearly needed here for the sense.

32. in all that he might, i.e. as far as ever he could.

P. 99, line 1. to Britain ward. The coasts that looked toward Brittany.

8. or for losyng, i.e. for fear of losing.

hym, i.e. the Duke of Buckingham, who had taken refuge with him. Cf. 97. 23. 9. furth-with all.

As one word. We now only use forthwith. 17: behedded. Halle tell us that it was done “ upon Allsoules

20. forbode. By this sentence it is implied that the allegiance of Buckingham to the protector had at one time been such that for his sake he would have disregarded all God's prohibitions. He had served him to the uttermost.

23. Britons. Meaning "soldiers of Brittany."

24. of his departure. Of” is not here=“ for," but the construction is “the appointed day of his departure,” “the day of his departure which had been appointed.”

P. 100, line 3. Poole. On the coast of Dorsetshire.

4. harnessed=equipped with armour. Cf. Bp. Pilkington's Works, p. 30, David, a young man with a sling and stone, kills Golias so strongly harnessed."

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a land. We still say ashore. Cf. line 20, below. 19. cleane, i.e. utterly, altogether. Cf. Bp Pilkington's Works, p. 308, “The wicked worldlings, that have not God afore their eyes, seek clean contrary ways." See 103. 20.

26. arested =rested. A form unusual because of the other word “arrested.” But cf. Grafton's Chronicle R.d i. anno 8, “ When he had arested hym a litel while he then Notingham."

29. Charles. This was Charles VIII. who reigned from 1483 to 1498. He was the son of Louis XI. who died in 1483.

30. of libertee, i.e. for liberty. Cf. Shaks. Othello, III. 3. 212, I humbly do beseech you of your pardon.” Cf. 102. II, 107. 7. P. 101, line 8. stomacke=courage. Cf. on 5. 6.

15. Veneti. The town of Vannes in Brittany whence Henry fled afterwards into France.

For frame in the sense of “ to go on well,” 'to succeed,” cf. Dodsley, Roister Doister, ill. 10,

“Now this year beginneth for to frame.24. Rhedon, i.e. Rédon, on the river Vilaine, some way south west of Rennes in Brittany:

sent the Marques, i.e. sent the Marquis word, &c.

27. rejoysed, i.e. they rejoiced. This omission of the pronoun is common.



I 2.

32. prepensed=previously designed or intended. We have the word in * malice prepense."

P. 102, line 3. that. The second that is superfluous.
7. did take hym, i.e. did receive, accept, hold him for king.
ii. of. Cf. 100. 30, and note, also 107. 8.

reputed and taken, i.e. regarded and esteemed. Cf. 103. 4.
P. 103, line 12. neither that she should not. Another instance of
the use of the double negative.

19. borderers. The Englishmen dwelling on the frontier of Scotland.

P. 104, line 8. put theim. Not the ambassadors, but Henry and the lords who were with him.

Peter Landose. Landois, the Breton minister, was induced to take the side of Richard by large bribes. See Lingard, iv. 122.

17. desiered hym instantly, i.e. asked him urgently. Cf. Ps. lv. 18, (Pr. Bk.). Also Latimer, Serm. p. 231, “He prayeth now the third time, He did it so instantly, so fervently that it brought out a bloody sweat."

32. took no place=came to no result.

P. 105, line 16. few a counsaill. Few of counsel, i.e. took few into his counsel. Cf. 1. 8; 85. 27. 18. Penbroucke, i.e. Pemb ke.

with al that euer thei might. With all speed that ever they could.

25. Angeow, i.e. Anjou, and so they were in French territory.

P. 106, line 6. recouered=reached. Cf. Shaks. Tempest, III. 2. 16, "I swam, 'ere I could recover the shore, five and thirty leagues.” 17. in maner=in some degree, almost. Cf. Shaks. Rich. 11.

“You have in manner with your sinful hours made a divorce betwixt his queen and him.”


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21. takyng the matter so vnkyndely, i.e. being so much grieved. P. 107, line 1o. of whom, i.e. by whom.

13. to take no care, i.e. not to be over anxious. The king does not mean that Henry is to be less earnest and diligent in his own cause, but only that he is not to let anxiety press too much on him. Cf. Phil. iv. 6.

, 17. before spoken. The previous mention was in the continuation of Hardyng, not in More's narrative. John, Earl of Oxford, is constantly mentioned among those to whom grants were made at the commencement of Henry VII.'s reign. See Materials, pp. 23, 19.

Hammes. In Andrew Borde's Introduction of Knowledge (E. E. T. S.), p. 147, we have an account of the “welfavered towne of Calys, the which doth stand commodyously for the welth and succor of all Englande. In the whyche towne is good fare and good cheere, and there is good order and polytike men, greate defence and good ordynaunce for warre. The sayde towne hath anexed to it for defence, Gynes, Hammes and Rysbanke, Newman Bridge, and a blocke-howse at Gravelyng in Flanders.”

31, &c.

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