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in the latter the root of that passion for their appellations, had been deprived of
It has been a much controverted question Although it is impossible at this time to to which of the two great races from whom estimate the full effect produced on the char- the population of the principal part of acter of the British people by the Roman Europe appears to be derived--the Celts or occupation and dominion of four centuries, Goths — the ancient Belgæ or maritime yet it is certain that the influence of Roman Britons are to be considered as belonging. institutions and ideas was far less in Great It must be admitted that the point is an Britain than in Gaul and in other provinces. exceedingly doubtful one.
The distinction, The Britons retained their language and in respect both of language and of lineage, many of their manners and customs, modi- between the Celtic and the Teutonic, Gerfied by the early introduction of Christianity. manic or Gothic races, may be said to be
It is generally admitted that the numer- the fundamental canon of the modern phious population which the Romans found in losophy of the origin and connection of the occupation of the southern part of the nations, but it is not very long since its imisland of Britain, about half a century before portance came to be understood. The most the commencement of the Christian era, was elaborate discussion the subject has met principally a wild race called Cymri, wbo with, is that which it received from the late had in all probability been immediately de- John Pinkerton, a most learned and acute rived from the neighboring country of Scottish antiquary, in all whose historical France, then known by the name of Gallia. investigations the radical distinction between Julius Cæsar, the first of the ancient writers the Celtic and the Gothic races, and the who saw the people, or who has described inherent inferiority of the former, are mainthem, informs us that their buildings were tained with as much zeal and vehemence as almost similar to those of the Gauls, and that if the writer had a personal interest in the their religion was the same; and it appears establishment of the point. The correctness also that a close political alliance existed be- of the new views, in so far as respects the tween Britain and Gaul, and that the Gauls general position of the non-identity of the were all along aided by the Britons in their Celtic and Germanic nations, and also their contests with the Romans.
importance to the elucidation of the whole Cæsar makes a marked distinction be- subject of the original population of Europe, tween the inhabitants of the coast of Britain are now universally admitted. and those of the interior, not only describing Mr. Pinkerton, after long and laborious the latter as much more rude in their man- investigation, thinks he has established the ners, and less advanced in civilization than fact, that the Belgæ, who were a German or the former, but also expressly declaring Gothic people, and did not speak the Celtic them to be of a different race. Cæsar but the Gothic tongue, came into Britain could speak from personal knowledge only about three centuries before the Christian of the tribes that dwelt near the mouth of era. Their descendants were those Britons the Thames. These he informs us were of whom Cæsar saw, and who resisted the Belgic descent. Their ancestors had, at no Roman army with such remarkable and very distant period, invaded the island, ex- continued bravery. The people of the inpelled the original inhabitants from the terior were, says Pinkerton, palpably the coast, and in their new settlements still re- Welsh, afterwards called Britons, as the tained the names of the parent states. The most ancient inhabitants, for all memory of number of the inhabitants in the districts the Gael or Celts who are supposed to have which fell under his observation astonished preceded the Cymri in their emigration to the Roman general, and there is reason to Britain, was unknown to the Roman and believe that many other districts were Saxon writers. equally well peopled. The population of It is also contended by Pinkerton, that the whole island comprised above forty the Picts or Caledonians were also of the tribes, of which several, while they retained | Gothic or Scythian race, and, emigrating
from Scandinavia, settled in Scotland about to the Romans under the name of Germans. the same period as the Belgæ-a kindred They occupied all the continent but the Gothic tribe from Belgic Gaul-settled in Cimbric peninsula, and had reached and South Britain, or about three centuries be even passed the Rhine. One of their divifore the Christian era. The Picts, it is sions, the Belgæ, had for some time estabasserted, are the ancestors of the Lowland lished themselves in Flanders and part of Scotch, while the Highlanders of Scotland, it France, then Gaul. It is most probable, is well known, are Celts. We may here add says Sharon Turner, that the Belgæ in that many antiquaries consider the Low- Britain were descendants of colonists or inlanders as of Anglo-Saxon descent. The vaders from the Belgæ in Flanders (now proportion of real Gael or Celts in Scotland Belgium) and Gaul. On this point, it will and its isles, was estimated by Pinkerton, be observed, Turner agrees with Pinkerton. who wrote over sixty years since, at four Although classed under one general head hundred thousand, or about one quarter of as Saxons, there were three tribes of Anglothe inhabitants of that part of the British Saxons which composed the adventurers isles. The north of Ireland, it is well who conquered England. These tribes were known, is mainly peopled with the descend- the Jutes, the Angles, and the Saxons. ants of the Lowland Scotch, who emigrated | Bands of adventurers from the Frisians and to that quarter principally during the seven- other German tribes joined the invaders, and teenth century. It is from the stock of also settled in Britain. These promiscuous Lowland Scotch, it should be remembered, conquerors have been since known in history that most of the Scotch and Irish emigrants by the common appellation of Anglo-Saxons. to America in the seventeenth and eighteenth When Beda wrote, in A. D. 731, or nearly centuries came, and but few were of the Celtic three centuries after the first appearance of race.
the Saxons in England, he informs us that The Anglo-Saxons were the people who there were four languages spoken in Britain, transported themselves from the Cimbric pe- namely, English, Pictish, British or Cumraig, ninsula (now Denmark) and its vicinity, in and Scottish or Irish. Hence, Pinkerton inthe fifth and sixth centuries
, into England. fers that as the name of Angli was given to They were branches of the great Saxon con- all the possessors of South Britain except federation, which, from the Elbe, extended the Welsh, this speech, which Beda calls itself at last to the Rhine. According to Anglie, (or English,) was in fact the Belgic, Sharon Turner, the Anglo-Saxons, Low- with a new name.
Pinkerton also thinks land Scotch, Normans, Danes, Norwegians, that the Latin language was very little used Swedes, Germans, Dutch, Belgians, Lom- by either Belgians or Welsh. Tacitus, in bards and Franks, have all sprung from Agricola, tells us indeed that the filii printhat great fountain of the human race, dis- cipum of Britain used the Latin ; and it tinguished by the terms Scythian, German, seems to have been always confined to the or Gothic. The first appearance of the upper ranks, for all Roman Britain did not Scythian tribes in Europe may be placed, produce one Latin author, although Spain according to Strabo and Homer, about the and Gaul did many: as Mela, Lucan, Seneighth, or, according to Herodotus, in the eca, Martial, Sidonius, Ausonius, and others. seventh century before the Christian era. The most important conclusion arrived at The first scenes of their civil existence and by Pinkerton is, that at the conquest of Engof their progressive power were in Asia, to land by the Anglo-Saxons, the Belgic Britthe east of the Araxes. Here they multi- ons were not exterminated.
While the plied and extended their territorial limits, Cymri were driven into Wales and Brittany, for some centuries, unknown to Europe. the Belge, he supposes, having been so lost Their general appellation among themselves in the luxuries of Rome during the dominion was Scoloti, but the Greeks called them of that power, that they seem to have toScythians, Scuthoi, or Nomades. They tally abandoned their character of the have become better known to us in recent bravest of the Gauls, could not exist without periods under the name of Getæ or Goths, Roman protection, submitted to their Saxon the most celebrated of their branches. In conquerors, and became their serfs and vasthe days of Cæsar, the most advanced tribes sals. The Jutes, 'Saxons and Angli were of the Scythian or Gothic race were known I really the Gothic brethren of the Belgæ, but
finding them so defenseless, usurped their stock, may seem a misnomer ; but it should power, and became their masters. Admit- be recollected that names are often arbitrary ting the Belgæ only to the ranks of coloni or accidental, and applied incorrectly, of and villani, their natural enmity to the which we have abundant instances on this Cymri induced them to give them no quar- continent; but long-continued custom sancter, till driven to the highlands of Wales and tions what cannot be strictly approved by the rocks of Cornwall, after an extermina- the
rules of criticism or abstract propriety. tion of nearly a third, and expulsion to We have thus endeavored to give our France (Brittany) and Ireland of nearly views of what races and people composed another third. The Belgæ Pinkerton rather the Anglo-Saxons or English, at the time of extravagantly estimates to have amounted at the Norman Conquest, since when Scotland that time to three millions, whereas, he says, and Ireland, with the colonies, have been their Anglo-Saxon conquerors never appear to added to the British empire. From that have exceeded one hundred thousand. The period until the seventeenth century, when numerous coloni and slaves of the Saxons, the settlement of the British colonies in even down to the Norman invasion in 1066, America commenced, no change of imporsurprise historians who know that the Cymritance occurred to affect the relative position or Welsh were expelled, but forget that such of the different races inhabiting the British a people as the Belgæ existed. No traces Isles. Probably very little amalgamation of Welsh names being found among the took place between the descendants of the Saxons, these numerous coloni must all have Gothic and Celtic races. The Welsh, who been Belgę, who, by intermarriages, &c., we have seen are the descendants of the gradually changed their fortunes, so that be- Cymri, have doubtless mixed more with fore the Norman times the Saxons and Belga their English neighbors than have the had nearly coalesced into one people; though Scotch and Irish; and of the emigrants to even then Domesday Book shows that the America, particularly to New-England, it coloni and villani possessed the far greater was often difficult to distinguish between
of the lands in England. “When the the Welsh and English who came over English history becomes studied by English together. There were, however, a few Welsh writers," Pinkerton sarcastically remarks, colonies in the United States in the last cen" and it is universally perceived that the tury, where the emigrants retained their lanBelgæ, a Gothic people, who fought in this guage, manners and customs. Such is the isle against Julius Cæsar, are the real ances- county of Cambria in Pennsylvania, and tors of three quarters of the present English, some smaller settlements in New-York and it may prove a national question whether the other States. Belgæ or Picts were the first Goths who The British colonies in America forming took possession of Britain. This question the original thirteen States were settled by might be agitated for ever, for it is abso- colonists, a large proportion of whom were lutely impossible to decide it. All author- natives of Great Britain. No considerable ities, facts and reason warrant us to believe emigration of Celtic Irish, or other people of that the Belge entered the south and the Celtic origin, took place to this country, unPicts the north of Britain, about one and the til after the commencement of the present same time."
century. The New-England States, NewAdmitting the probability of Mr. Pinker- Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, ton's conclusion, we have the interesting fact, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and that what are now by general consent termed Georgia were mainly settled by Englishmen, Anglo-Saxons, at the time of the Norman as is well known. New-York, the only Dutch conquest included not only the descendants colony, passed under English_dominion, of the Saxon conquerors of the fifth and with a small population, partly Dutch and sixth centuries, but those of the ancient Bel- partly English, in 1674. The Dutch regic inhabitants
, besides the Danes and other cords of 1673 say: “They, and as many Scandinavians who made inroads in Britain, of the Dutch nation as are yet residing under in the ninth and tenth centuries; and among this Government, are calculated to amount, all these were few or none of Celtic blood. The women and children included, to about six term Anglo-Saxon applied to such a people, thousand." In 1698, the total number of even after the Norman graft on the original l inhabitants in the colony was 18,067, and
in 1723, the whites had increased to 34,393, possessions British colonies, and the English and the blacks to 6,171; total, 40,564. This people their kindred and of the same origin. was under the English Government. A few We neel only quote as an example, the Dutch and Poles settled in New-Jersey, a paragraph from the Declaration of Indepenfew Swedes in Delaware, many Germans in dence, drawn up by Jefferson, who surely Pennsylvania, where they afterwards became was not remarkable for his Anglo-Saxon one third of the population, and some French attachments : Protestants, called Huguenots, in New-York and South Carolina. Settlements of Low- “Nor have we been wanting in our attention to land Scotch and Scotch-Irish from the north our British brethren. We have warned them from of Ireland were made in Pennsylvania and the to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us.
time to time of attempts made by their Legislature Carolinas, and a small number of Irish Prot- We have reminded them of the circumstances of estants settled the town of Londonderry, in our emigration and settlement here. We have apNew-Hampshire. With the exception of a pealed to their native justice and magnanimity, few Scottish Highlanders who settled in and we have conjured them by the ties of our
common kindred to disavow these usurpations North and South Carolina, and Georgia, which would inevitably interrupt our connections we believe no Celtic colony is to be found and correspondence. They too have been deaf to among the American settlements of either the voice of justice and consanguinity. We the seventeenth or eighteenth centuries. At must therefore acquiesce in the necessity which the revolution in England in 1688, that is, hold the rest of mankind—enemies in war,
deuounces our separation, and hold them, as we
in eighty-one years after the first settlement in
peace friends." Virginia, and sixty-eight after that of Plymouth in New-England, the population of
Of the fifty-six signers of the Declaration the colonies, then twelve in number, Georgia of Independence, thirty-six are believed to being a subsequent settlement, was estimated have been of Anglo-Saxon origin; five Pictat about two hundred thousand, of which ish or Lowland Scotch ; seven Welsh or 75,000 were in New-England, and 50,000 in Cymbric; four Anglo-Irish; one Scotch-Irish; Virginia.
one Austro-Irish; one Swedish ; and one We thus see that the British North Amer- Spanish. On examining the list of delegates ican colonies were settled almost exclusively from the various States to the Continental by Anglo-Saxons, and their rapid progress Congress, from 1774 to 1788, we find that was owing in a great degree to the energy two hundred and forty-eight were of Angloand vigor peculiar to the
race to which they Saxon, three of Anglo-Norman, thirty-one of belonged. The Rev. Dr. Baird, in his work Scotch, ten of Irish, twenty-four of Welsh, entitled "Religion in America," has some seventeen of Huguenot or French, eleven appropriate remarks on this subject :
Dutch, three German, one Swedish, and one
of Spanish origin. Total, 349. The Anglo* The Anglo-Saxon race possessed qualities pe
Saxons represented the States in the followculiarly adapted to successful colonization. The ing proportions, viz.: New-Hampshire, 17; characteristic perseverance, the spirit of personal Massachusetts, 20; Rhode Island, 12; Confreedom and independence that have ever distin- necticut, 23; New-York, 12; New-Jersey, bor and isolation necessarily to be endured before 17; Pennsylvania, 27; Delaware, 13; Maryhe can be a successful colonist. Now, New-Eng. land, 27; Virginia, 25; North Carolina, 19; land, New Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania, South Carolina, 19; Georgia, 17. with the exception of Dutch and Swedish ele- An examination of the names of the leadments, which were too inconsiderable to affect the general result, were all colonized by people of ing officers of the Revolutionary army would Anglo-Saxon origin. And assuredly they have doubtless show a similar result to that of the displayed qualities fitting them for their task Congressional list, but we do not deem it such as the world has never witnessed before." important to enter into the examination. If
our Revolutionary fathers, when signing the But how did the people of the colonies Magna Charta of Independence, did not hesithemselves view the question with regard to tate to recognize the ties of kindred in those their common origin? The documents the from whom they were separating, there is patriots of the American Revolution issued no occasion at this day to deny the truths to the world, abundantly show that they of history, and refuse to acknowledge our considered themselves as Anglo-Saxons, their common origin as a nation with that Anglo
Saxon people, against whom we have con- | laws, manners and customs, induces us to tended in two wars for independence, but believe that our national character will not who still hold us in commercial subjection, be materially changed by the effects of imiin consequence of our false system of legisla- gration. It should be the duty of all true tion; which, contrary to the spirit of our Americans to discourage the separate action Anglo-Saxon ancestors, refuses to protect and trans-atlantic attachments and associa: our own industry
tions of the foreigners who come to reside The effect of the mighty stream of imi- among us; and to impress upon them the gration which Europe is now pouring upon our truth, that as all meet here on equal ground, shores is yet to be determined by the events so all distinctions of race should here be of the future. But our former experience as lost sight of, and all denizens, from whatever a nation in receiving the people of various land or clime, should be anxious to be races who have sought this favored land as known in this republic only by the common an asylum, and the ready adoption by the name of AMERICANS. various masses of the Anglo-Saxon language,
I. Sir William Betham, a distinguished British antiquary, in a recent work expresses the opinion, founded on his investigations, that the Welsh and the Gael must have been a totally distinct and separate people; that the Welsh language differs totally from the Gaelic, and has not in fact the slightest affinity, unless it could be considered an affinity that a few words are to be found in each tongue which have the same or similar meaning. Lhuyd and Rowland, two of the most eminent Welsh writers, admit that a people who spoke the Irish language were the predecessors of the Welsh in Wales, and gave names to inost of the places in that country; and that Welsh names of rivers and places were only to be found in the eastern and southern parts of Scotland. “Therefore,” says Betham, “it appears clear that the Picts who inhabited that country must have been the ancestors of the Welsh, and that they conquered Wales, Cornwall, and Brittany, on the fall of the Roman empire ; and calling themselves Cymbri
, they were a colony of the Cimbri, a people who once inhabited the neighboring coasts of Jutland, (Denmark,) the ancient Cimbric Chersonesus, the country opposite the land of the Picts.” Sir William Betham concludes, that the Irish, the Gael of Scotland, (Highlanders,) and the Manks, (of the Isle of Man,) are now the only descendants of that ancient people, of Phænician origin, who speak their language.
11. The following are the names and origin of the twenty signers of the Declaration of Independence, who are not considered of Anglo-Saxon origin :
Lowland Scotch-William Hooper, Philip Livingston, George Ross, James Wilson, John Wither. spoon.
Irish.-Charles Carroll, Thomas Lynch, jr., Thomas McKean, James Smith, Matthew Thornton, George Taylor.
Welsh.-William Floyd, Francis Lewis, Joseph Hewes, Thomas Jefferson, Lewis Morris, Robert Morris, William Williams.
The name of Paca, we believe, is only to be found in the Spanish and Portuguese. William Paca, of Maryland, whom we consider of Spanish descent, was of a highly respectable family; but his origin is not mentioned in his biography.
Thomas Lynch, jr., of South Carolina, one of the signers, was of a distinguished family of Connaught, Ireland. His biographer says that the South Carolina branch of the Lynch family, from which he was descended, was originally of Austria, where it was called Lince or Lintz. They removed to England, and from Kent to Ireland.
The names of Thornton, Smith, Taylor, and Carroll, in Ireland, we believe to have been originally of Anglo-Saxon origin. We have some doubt of the latter. It may be Celtic; but we think it is either Saxon or Norman. The ancestor of the family, Charles Carroll, grandfather of the signer, came to Maryland with the early English Catholic colonists, sent out by Lord Baltimore. He was a native of King's County, Ireland, and was a clerk in the office of Lord Powis, in the reign of James the Second.
Among the names of the delegates to the Continental Congress, besides the signers of the Declaration, are Sullivan, Burke, Duane, and Kearney, which it is well known are Irish.
The Sullivans (O'Sullivan originally) are a distinguished ancient Celtic family in Ireland. The Burkes are descended from an Anglo-Norman, named De Burgb, who accompanied Strongbow in his expedition to Ireland in the reign of Henry the Second. (See Burke's Landed Gentry.)