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Predicates of propositions also are frequently not expressed by a single term, but consist of several words, as: "The affair is of importance.'



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Use the following expressions as predicates of propositions.

At home-Not far off— In the garden -A state of pilgrimage — Wrapped in his cloak-Quite aware of his purpose

- Not much better · Plunged in a deep reverie

- Far from being of the same opinion - Under the necessity of refusing — In good health Wholly without assistance

In great fear of the consequences - A man of reserved habits In doubt as to the result - In a terrible passion — Unequal to the task

- In great confusion In considerable danger.



All expressions which are added to a proposition are called its complements.

The word 'complement' means that which fills up, or completes, the sense of a proposition.

In the proposition, 'The boy was reproved,' the sense is perfectly intelligible; but when we say, “The idle boy was sternly reproved by his master,' we have much fuller information; for the sort of boy, the manner of the reproof, and the person who reproved, are all made


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Complement' is derived from the Latin verb complēre, 'to fill up or complete,

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known to us. It will then be understood that when we have discovered the subject, copula, and predicate, in sentences containing but one proposition, all the other words or expressions in that sentence are complements to that proposition.


Copy out the following sentences, and point out all their parts, thus

complement. subject. complement. (Last night), the old tree (at the bottom of our garden) cop. predicate.

complement. was blown down (by the violence of the wind).

Music and song were early cultivated among the Hebrews. Fables are undoubtedly of great antiquity. During this age, poetry was feeble and mechanical. Cicero's moral character was never blemished by the stain of any habitual vice. As a step towards this end, Wallenstein now demanded the cession of Mecklenburgh. Both Badajoz and San Sebastian were set on fire by their French garrisons, as a means of defence. That work must have been very tedious for one man to execute. Their proficiency excited universal admiration. I have before referred to this custom. The same thing was enjoined by the council of Pavia. There is another point referred to in this extract. The custom of reading at meals was not exclusively monastic.

Classification of Complements. Complements may be classified as referring to cir



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cumstance, time, place, manner, object, agent, person, qualification, intention, &c., thus :

1. Of circumstance ; as, Though surrounded with difficulties, the king effected his escape.'

2. Of time ; as, "The Norman Conquest of England took place about the middle of the eleventh century.'

3. Of place; as, 'A revolution broke out in France.'

4. Of manner ; as, “The governor read the proclamation with a calm and steady voice.'

5. Of the object; as, 'He determined to investigate this matter.'

6. Of the agent; as, 'The book was brought home by the printer's boy.'

7. Of the person ; as, "John gave his brother a penknife, as a New Year's gift.'

8. Of qualification; as, The contented man is happy.'

9. Of intention ; as, 'I went out to purchase some books.'



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Explanation. In No. 1. of the above propositions, the expression though surrounded with difficulties' shows the circumstances in which the king was when he effected

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his escape.

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In No. 2. about the middle of the eleventh century' informs us of the time when the Conquest took place.

In No. 3. 'in France' expresses the place where the revolution in question broke out.

In No. 4. 'with a calm and steady voice' shows the manner in which the proclamation was read.

In No. 5. "to investigate the matter' is the object of his determination."

In No. 6. by the printer's boy' shows the agent or person who acted on the occasion. 1

In No. 7. "his brother'expresses the person receiving the object of the verb.

In No. 8. the term contented' qualifies the subject man.'

In No. 9. the expression to purchase some books' shows the intention with which I went out.




Complements of Circumstance. Let the learner use the following complements of circumstance in propositions of his own composing.

Having settled this matter to our satisfaction Being in doubt as to the result In the deepest anguish of mind — Full of hope — Tormented with raging thirst — Being well acquainted with the subject -- Being ignorant of his rank and condition Without the means of procuring food for his children – The inmates of the house being in a deep sleep Speaking the language fluently — In this dreadful emergency

Thus situated — Having received no tidings of their friend, &c.


Complements of Time. The following complements of time are to be introduced into propositions of the learner's composing.

· The complement of the object can be used only after an active, and the complement of the agent only after a passive, form of proposition.

Next morning — Last night- In the course of the week— Before the end of the holidays—In the tenth century-To-morrow afternoon - On ny arrival at the inn — In all my life— During the ceremonyAfter breakfast—The next day-On the meeting of Parliament— Before the beginning of spring-During the summer months—On the first of September, &c.


Complements of Place. Use the following complements of place in written propositions.

In the Northern parts of Europe - Not far from the house — At the foot of the mountain- In the bed of the river — Close to the fountain Seated in an arbour - Near the town— In a corner of the library - At some distance from the village— In this country-Five miles further on- - Outside the walls — Within the city

- In the Southern States of America - Beyond this point-In many provinces—On the equator - In this

spot, &c.


Complements of Manner. Introduce the following complements of manner into propositions.

With the greatest kindness—In a haughty tone--With the utmost caution—In a conciliating spiritVery politely — With violence — With great reluctance - By degrees— With expression-In an audible voice - Unconsciously-In silence— With a hearty appetite

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