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he was very much hated by all the gods, because they did not subdue him amongst the Trojans, or in the hands of his friends, when he had spun out the toil of the war. Then for him would all the Grecians have made a tomb, and he would have obtained mighty renown, even for his son hereafter. But now the Harpies have snatched him away ingloriously. But I am out of the way amongst the swine; nor do I go to the city except by chance prudent Penelope encourages me to come, when intelligence arrives from any where. But they sitting near him, inquire every thing, both those who are grieving for our long absent king, and those who rejoice, consuming his livelihood with impunity. But to me it is not pleasant to inquire and ask, from the time since an jEtolian man deceived me by his tale, who indeed having slain a man, having wandered over much land, came to my abode; and I cherished him very much. He said that he saw him with Idomeneus amongst the Cretans, repairing his ships, which the tempests had shattered: and he said that he would come, either in the summer or the autumn, bringing many possessions, with his godlike companions. And do thou, O much-sorrowing old man, since the deity has brought thee unto me, neither gratify me at all with falsehoods, nor soothe me at all. For I shall not on that account reverence or entertain thee, but [as] fearing hospitable Jove, and pitying thee."

But him much-planning Ulysses answering addressed: "Surely thou hast a certain incredulous mind in thy breast, Thee alone, having made an oath, I have not brought over, nor do I persuade thee. But come now, we will make a covenant; but let the gods also, who possess Olympus, be witnesses unto both [of us]. If thy master shall return to this house, having put a cloak and tunic as garments upon me, send me to go to Dulichium, where it is pleasing to my mind [that I should go]: but if thy master shall not come, as I tell thee, having charged thy servants, cast me down a great rock, that another beggar also may avoid to flatter [with false hopes]."

But him the divine swineherd answering addressed: "O stranger, thus indeed for me there would be glory and excellence amongst men, both immediately, and for the future, if I, when I had brought thee into my tent, and bestowed hospitality on thee, I should afterwards slay thee, and take away thy dear life, willingly then should I supplicate Jove, the son of Saturn. But now it is time for supper; very soon will my companions be within, that we may prepare an abundant supper in the tent."

Thus they indeed spoke such words to one another. But the swine drew near, and the men who feed the swine came: they fenced them in their accustomed places to sleep; and an immense clamour arose from the swine entering their sty. But he, the divine swineherd, exhorted his companions: "Bring the best of the swine, that I may sacrifice it for my guest from afar; but besides we will ourselves enjoy it, who have toiled for a long time, suffering on account of the whitetusked swine; but others are consuming our labours with impunity."

Thus having spoken, he cleft wood with the hard steel; but they brought in a very fat sow of five years old; they immediately placed it on the hearth; nor was the swineherd forgetful of the immortals, (for he possessed an excellent disposition,) but, having offered the first-fruits, he threw the hair of the head of the white-tusked sow in the fire, and prayed to all the gods, that wise Ulysses might return to his home. But he struck it with a splinter of oak, lifting [it] up, which he left there, having cut it; and life left it: but they cut up and roasted it; and they quickly singed it; but the swineherd put the raw parts over the rich fat, taking away on all sides some flesh for sacrifice28 from the limbs. And he threw other parts in the fire, having sprinkled them with the fruit of meal, and they cut up the other parts, and stuck them on spits, and roasted them skilfully, and drew it all off:29 and they threw it all together on the dressers:30 and the swineherd stood up to carve it (for he understood in his mind what was right); and carving it, he distributed the whole into seven parts: one part, indeed, having made a vow, he gave to the Nymphs, and to Mercury, the son of Maia, and the rest he distributed to each: but he honoured Ulysses with the continuous back of the white-tusked sow: and he delighted

28 I am indebted to Buttman for this correct explanation of dpxofs"OcSee Lexil. p. 169. 28 See Buttm. Lexil. p. 304, 2.

30 I am indebted to the note of the old translator for this rendering of iXtoic, which Eustathius interprets, raXg fiayupiicotg TpairkZaig.

the mind of the king; and much-planning Ulysses speaking addressed him: "Mayest thou be so dear to father Jove as thou art to me, since thou honourest me, being such a one, with good things."

But him thou didst address in answer, O swineherd Eumaeus: "Eat, 0 divine one of guests, and delight thyself with these things, such as are present; for God bestows one thing, and refuses another, whatever he wills in his own mind; for he can [do] all things."

He spoke; and made the first offerings to the immortal gods: and having made a libation of dark wine, he placed it in the hands of city-destroying Ulysses, and he sat near his share. And Mesaulius portioned out bread to them, whom the swineherd himself alone31 had purchased, when his master was absent, without the knowledge of his mistress and of old Laertes. But he bought him from the Taphians with his own possessions. And they stretched out their hands to the viands lying ready before them: but when they had taken away the desire of drinking and eating, Mesaulius took away the food; and they, satiated with bread and flesh, hastened to bed. But an evil dim-mooned night came on, and Jove rained all night: and the mighty West wind, that ever brings rain, blew. And Ulysses addressed them, trying the swineherd, if any how he would take off his cloak and give it to him, or would urge some one else of his companions to do so: since he took great care of him:

"Hear me now, O Eumaaus, and all ye others his companions, I shall speak some word boasting: for maddening wine encourages me, which has excited even a very wise man to sing out loudly, and has set him on to laugh affectedly,32 and to dance, and has given vent to a word, which was better unspoken. But since I have first cried out, I will not conceal it. Would that I were as young, and my strength as firm, as when we led an ambush under Troy, having contrived it. But Ulysses and Menelaus, the son of Atreus, led, but with them I the third ruled: for they desired me. But when indeed we came to the city and the lofty wall, we lay down near the fortifications amongst the thick bushes, crouching under our arms amongst the reeds and marsh: but an evil night

31 i. e. with his own money

s- Cowper well renders airaXbv yeXaaai, to titter.

came on, the North wind having fallen, frosty, but above there was snow, like as hoar-frost, cold, and ice was congealed around our shields. There all the others had cloaks and garments, and they slept quiet, wrapping round their shoulders with their shields; but I, having set out with my companions, foolishly left my cloak, since I did not suppose that it would be excessively cold: but I followed, having a shield only and a shining girdle. But when it was now the third part of the night, and the stars had departed, then I addressed Ulysses, being near me, nudging him with my elbow (but he readily listened): 'O noble son of Laertes, muchcontriving Ulysses, I shall no longer be amongst the living, but the weather overcomes me; for I have not a cloak: a deity deceived me, so that I should only have one garment: but this can now no longer be avoided.' Thus I spoke, but he immediately had this plan in his mind, such a one was he to take counsel, and to fight. And speaking in a low voice, he thus addressed me: 'Be silent now, for fear some one else of the Grecians should hear thee.' He spoke, and he held his head upon his elbow, and spoke: 'Hear me, friends, a divine dream has come upon me in my sleep; for we have come very far from the ships: but let some one go to tell Agamemnon, son of Atreus, the shepherd of the people, in order that he may incite more [men] to come from the ships.' Thus he spoke, but Thoas, son of Andraemon, quickly arose, and he threw off his purple cloak, and set out to run to the ships; but I lay in his garment gladly ; and golden-throned Morning shone. Would that I were now thus young, and my strength was firm, then some one of the swineherds in the stalls would give me a cloak, on both accounts, through love and through reverence of such a man: but now they disregard me, having evil garments on my body."

But him thou didst address in answer, O swineherd Eumoeus: "0 old man, the story is blameless for thee, as to what thou hast related, nor hast thou spoken any profitless word contrary to what is right. Therefore thou shalt not now be in want of a garment, nor of any thing else of the things that are needful for a suppliant who has undergone much, and entreats one; but in the morning thou shalt shake thine own rags about thee. For there are not many cloaks and change of garments here to put on, but one only for each man. [But when the dear son of Ulysses returns, he himself will give thee a cloak and tunic as garments, and will send thee wherever thy heart and mind commands thee."]

Thus having spoken he leaped up; and he placed a bed for him near the fire, and on it he threw skins of sheep and goats. Then Ulysses lay down; and he spread over him a thick and large cloak, which afforded him a change, to put on, when any terrible storm arose.

Thus then Ulysses slept there, and the young men slept near him, but a bed there did not please the swineherd, to sleep away from the swine: and going out, he armed himself; and Ulysses rejoiced, because indeed he took care of his property when he was at a distance. First then he girt a sharp sword around his sturdy shoulders, and put on a very thick garment, to ward off the wind, and he took the fleece of a large, well-nourished goat, and he took a sharp javelin, for a warder off of dogs and men. And he set out to lie down where the white-tusked swine slept under a hollow rock, under shelter from the North wind.



Telemachus, whilst staying at Laccdsemon with Pisistratus, son of Nestor, is admonished by Minerva in a dream, aad sets out for Ithaca. After a brief stay at Pherae, he reaches Pylos, when, just as he is on the point of embarking, Theoclymenus, an Argive prophet, entreats him to take him on board, as he was a fugitive, having committed murder. Meanwhile Eumoeus relates to Ulysses how he reached Ithaca. Telemachus arrives at Ithaca, commands his companions to take the ship to the city, commits Theoclymenus to the care of one of them, and himself goes to Eumaeus.

But Pallas Minerva went to wide1 Lacedaemon, to put the glorious son of magnanimous Ulysses in mind of his return, and to incite him to go back. And she found Telemachus and the glorious son of Nestor sleeping in the vestibule of renowned Menelaus: the son of Nestor indeed [she found] overcome with soft sleep; but sweet sleep did not possess Telemachus, but in his mind he raised up cares for his father throughout 1 See Loewe on vi. 4.

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