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aorists in each voice; indeed, as Veitch has pointed out, it is one of the very few verbs that have the second aorist active and passive in actual use,' (though the former is very rare, while in Attic prose
neither is ever found). Again, as compared with some other verba impura, with a consonant for their characteristic letter, it has this advantage; that the stem-vowel remains unchanged throughout, and is thus identical in, for instance, the aorist and present participle alike (TUT-eis and τύπ-τ-ων), whereas in λείπω, φαίνω, τήκω as compared with έ-λιπ-ον, έ-φάν-ην, ε-τάκ-ην, the stern-vowels which appear in the aorist have suffered modification in the present; also the consonantal relations between the different tenses are simpler than in the case of some other verbs; thus, while B in é-Bláß-ov becomes a in Blám-t-W, no such alteration is necessary in passing from the -TUTof the second aorist to the strengthened form TUTT- of the present.
The verb is not without an interest of its own in the history of grammar;
and though it may
be rash to conjecture whether it owed its first selection to the grim humour of some plagosus Orbilius of old times, intent on bringing each tense's meaning home to his pupils' memories by the help of his ferule, it may be interesting to note that this particular paradigm is found in the early Greek Grammars which appeared in Italy at the revival of learning, as for instance in the Erotemata of Chrysoloras, a distinguished scholar, who in the dedication of a copy in my possession, printed at Venice at the Aldine press in 1517) is described as Manuel Chrysoloras, qui primus Iuniorum reportauit in Italia literas græcas*. The paradigm may also be traced still further
* On Chrysoloras, see Mullinger’s History of the University of Cambridge, pp. 391–396, where the Erotemata is called the
back to the Canons of Theodosius, an Alexandrine
grammarian of the age of Constantine the Great, who expounds all the parts, regardless of usage, and at considerable length (viz. on pp. 1008-1044 of Θεοδοσίου γραμματικού εισαγωγικοί κανόνες περί κλίσεως ρημάτων in Bekker's Anecdota Græca, vol. 111.) The Grammar of Theodosius is in its turn founded on that of a more celebrated Greek scholar, Dionysius the Thracian, who taught at Rome in B.C. 80. The τέχνη γραμματική of the latter is a short work, occupying only pp. 629—643 in Bekker's Anecdota Græca,
it was a standard text-book for many centuries and is the original basis of all subsequent grammars. I quote a few words from chap. xv, which bear on our present subject : διαθέσεις δέ εισι τρεις, ενέργεια, πάθος, μεσότης ενέργεια μεν οίον τύπτω, πάθος δε οίον τύπτομαι, μεσότης δε ή ποτέ μεν ενέργειαν, ποτέ δε πάθος παριστωσα, οίον πέπoιθα, διέφθορα, εποιησάμην, έγραψάμην*. Shortly after, he proceeds : αριθμοι δε τρείς, ενικός, δυϊκός και πληθυντικός· ενικός μεν ολον τύπτω, δυϊκος δε οιον τύπτετον, πληθυντικός δε οιον τύπτομεν" πρόσωπα δε τρία, πρώτον, δεύτερον, τρίτον πρώτον μεν οίον τύπτω, δεύτερον οίον τύπτεις, τρίτον οίον τύπτει.
But however well this verb may be adapted as a typical form for the beginner, and however interesting it may
be as a tradition of the earlier grammarians, it canGreek Grammar of the first century of the Renaissance.' 'It served Reuchlin for a model at Orleans, was used by Linacre at Oxford and Erasmus at Cambridge, and long continued to hold its ground against formidable rivals,' p. 395. The date of his arrival in Italy was 1396, The Aldine edition above referred to is of course a reprint.
* It is quoted étuyaunu in Graefenhan, Geschichte der Classis. chen Philologie, II. p. 481, q. V.; but Dionysius appears in the rest of the chapter to confine himself to tenses in actual use and is therefore likely to have avoided έτυψάμην. P. S. D. ΙΙ.
not be too clearly understood that very few of the tenses are really used by the best Greek authors. The tenses given in the paradigm are all formed regularly on the principles of analogy alone, regardless of the opposite principles of anomaly which prevail in the usage of the Greek writers themselves. In Attic Prose none of the tenses given in the grammars are found except the present and imperfect, active and passive, TÚTTW and έτυπτον, τύπτομαι and έτυπτόμην. The future active is not τύψω but τυπτήσω, and the aorists in use are borrowed from other verbs, and are really επάταξα and επλήγην. čtuya is never found in Attic Prose, and the reference to Lysias, fragment 10, 2, given in Veitch's Greek Verbs, and repeated, apparently without verification, in Liddell and Scott's Lexicon, supplies us with no real exception. The passage, when examined, proves to be part of an exposition by the late rhetorician Theon (Progymnasmata 2 p. 165) of a possibly genuine speech of Lysias. The words are εγκυμονα τις έτυψε κατά γαστρος και κρίνεται φόνου, where Lysias himself would undoubtedly have written énáTAŠEV, as is proved by a passage in Or. 13 § 71, ó Opacúßoulos τύπτει τον Φρύνιχον και καταβάλλει πατάξας. The following passages will further illustrate the prose usage of this defective verb, Lysias, Or. 4 & 15, mótepovénnynv émáraga; id. Or. 1 SS 25-27, where tátatas katalow is followed by the corresponding passive forms anyeis κατέπεσεν, Dem. Οr. 4 $ 40, ο πληγείς καν ετέρωσε πατάξης, Τhuc. VΙΙΙ. 92, ο Φρύνιχος πληγείς followed by ο πατάξας débuyev. Again in Plato's Laws, p. 879 D-E, we have τίπτοντα and τύπτεις followed by πατάξαι, and soon after, τύπτει τη μάστιγι followed by όσας αν αυτός πατάξη : 80 in p. 880 Β, εάν τις τύπτη τον πρεσβύτερον...τη του πληγέντος rdeklą, and in p. 882 the last two forms occur twice over. Cf. Aristot. Eth. V. 4. 4, όταν ο μεν πληγή ο δε πατάξη,
ομοία και ει ισχυρός ασθενή πατάξαι ή πληγήναι προκαλέσαιτο, Eth. V. 5. 4, εί αρχην έχων επάταξεν, ου δεί αντιπληγήναι, και εί άρχοντα επάταξεν, ου πληγήναι μόνον δει αλλά και κολασθήναι. Rhet. Ι. 15, 29, πατάξαι η πληγήναι, de απλα Β, 8, p. 419 6 15, το τύπτουν και το τυπτόμενον... αν πληγή, p. 420 α 24, ου δη παν ψοφεί τυπτόμενον και τύπτον, οίον εαν πατάξη βελόνη βελόνην, p. 423 6 16, πληγείσα επάταξεν, Soph. Elench. p. 168 α 6 άν τις τύπτη τούτον και τούτον, άνθρωπον αλλ' ουκ ανθρώπους τυπτήσει, and Meteorologicα, p. 368 α 18, τύπτων...τύπτον...τύπτεται, p. 371 6 10, ή μέλλει πατάξειν, κινείται πριν πληγήναι, while three lines below we find δ εαν πατάξη.-Among other parts similarly borrowed we have πέπληγα, πέπληγμαι, πεπλήξομαι and πληγήσομαι.– So in Latin, ferio, percussi, etc.
But one of the best studies on this point of usage is the Speech of Demosthenes katà Kóvwvos, where we find the following forms; in 8 81 τύπτειν, in 8 17 τύπτων, in 8 4 έτυπτον, in SS 32 and 35 τυπτόμενον, with the verbal τυπτητέος in $ 44. Again in $ 31 we have πατάξαι (not τύψαι or πλήξαι), and in $ 33 επλήγην (not έπατάχθην, or ετύπην, much less ετύφθην). Further in $ 25 πατάξαντι stands side by side with τύπτειν; and lastly we have the phrases πληγές ενέτειναν (S 5) and ειληφέναι και δεδωκέναι πληγας (S 14), which assist in making up for the defective tenses. It is reserved for the late writer who composed the Argument to use the unclassical form τετυπτήσθαι.
For the usage of this verb in Attic Verse, see Veitch's excellent book on Greek Verbs, where it will be noticed that almost the only part used besides those found in Prose is TUTELS; the student should also read the interesting criticisms of Cobet in pp. 330—343 of his Variae lectiones.
EXCURSUS (B). On the quantity of čutrvos (Or. 54 $ 12). In Soph. Phil. 1378, the phrase čutivos Báous is used with reference to the festering foot of Philoctetes, but the position of the words, at the end of an iambic line, leaves the quantity undetermined. This
however be ascertained (i) by the accent of the word from which it is derived, viz. muov, which according to the express statement of the grammarian Arcadius should never be written Tov; (ii) by the fact that Empedocles makes the first syllable of múov short. We may further notice that the adjective and its derivatives occur (as might be expected) not unfrequently in Hippocrates and the medical writers; and that one of these, Galen (lib. xiii. p. 876), quotes in full an Elegiac poem in which Andromachus the elder, in describing the virtues of his potent antidote, or Onplakn di éxidvôv, has the following couplet, which determines the quantity of the word:
και μογερων στέρνων απολύσεται έμπυον έλύν
πινομένη πολλούς μέχρις επ' ήελίους. Hence we conclude that the lexicons of Liddell and Scott, and of Dr Pape (in their latest editions), are unwarranted in marking the penultimate as long;—an oversight which does not occur in the fourth edition of the former lexicon, and is doubtless due to a confusion between the quantities of To Trúov, the Latin pus, and o mūós, the Lat. colostra (or beestings).
EXCURSUS (C). On the meaning of avtolýkubos (Or. 54 S 14). The exact meaning of this word is difficult to de termine, and the Grammarians content themselves with giving us a wide choice of conflicting explanations. Harpocration, for instance, has the following article.