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Physical Society, June 8.-Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S., in various parts of the United Kingdom. July is the month president, in the chair.—The solution of problems in with the largest number of thunderstorms over Great diffraction by the aid of contour integration : H. Davies.
Britain as a whole, and August at some places in the The method adopted is to obtain a solution for unbounded north of Scotland and north-west of England, while June space as a contour integral. The special boundary con- is the stormiest month at nearly all the Irish stations. ditions are then accounted for by adding terms to the For the whole year the largest number of thunderstorms previous expression. When the complete expression has is over the northern and eastern parts of England, where been obtained it is then evaluated in the form of a series more than fifteen occur, while there are less than five by the aid of Cauchy's residue theorem.-). Goold's ex- in the west and south of Ireland and at most places in periments with a vibrating steel plate : Newton and Co. the north of Scotland. The summer distribution of thunderThe phenomena peculiar to this plate may be classified storms is very siinilar to the annual distribution, while under two heads :-(1) beats, simultaneously audible and the winter distribution is quite different, when the largest visible; (2) dispersion figures. In addition to these, vortex- numbers occur along the west coasts of Ireland and Scotvibration, resonance-effects, and many other experiments land and extreme south-west of England.—Typical squall may be exhibited by using suitable clamps, &c. "The dis- at Oxshott, May 25, 1906: W. H. Dines. During the persion figures are due chiefly to the interaction of two morning there was a steady wind from the south-west of systems of vibrations of the same pitch working at right more than ten miles per hour until 11 a.m., when there angles to each other.-Fluid resistance: Colonel R. was some falling off for fifteen minutes, then a rise to de Villamil. Prof. Hele-Shaw, in a paper on the motion more than twenty miles per hour, accompanied by a sudden of a perfect fluid, remarks that one of the most perplexing increase of barometric pressure and a fall of a few things in engineering science is the absence of all apparent hundredths of an inch of rain. After the squall the wind connection between the higher treatises on hydrodynamics dropped suddenly, and there was almost a dead calm for and the vast array of works on practical hydraulics. The about twenty minutes. The author, who was flying a kite reason for this appears to be the immense difference at the time, gave some account of the changes in the wind between the flow of an actual liquid and that of a perfect at a considerable altitude above the earth. At 11.26 a.m. one, owing to the property of viscosity. According to the the squall struck the kite, which was then at a height of author, this is not the only reason. There appear to be 2400 feet. Two minutes later the velocity at the kite two fundamental difficulties to be got rid of before they had risen to fifty-eight miles per hour, and the wire broke can be reconciled. Engineers assume that a liquid can be under a strain of 180 lb. Three minutes later the kite * pushed" in any rectilinear direction. This, though a fell at a spot 2} miles distant from Oxshott. very popular notion, is not correct. The other difficulty is
EDINBURGH. the assumption that in a perfect fluid there can be no resistance of any kind to any body moving in it at any
Royal Society, June 4.-Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S., vicevelocity. It is only in an infinite ocean of perfect fluid
president, in the chair.-Recherches sur la Glauconie : Drs. that there would be no resistance.
Léon W. Collet and Gabriel W. Lee. The paper contained
a careful examination of the chemical composition of the Society of Chemical Industry (London Section), June 11.
mineral glauconite, which was found in what Sir John -Mr. A. G. Salamon in the chair.—Purifying and stabil. Murray called, in the Challenger expedition reports, the ising guncotton : Dr. R. Robertson. This communication
blue and green muds of the ocean beds. It was shown that -published by permission of the War Office-deals with
glauconite was ferric silicate, and not ferrous silicate, as large-scale experiments having for their object the best
had been stated by Calderon and Chaves, of Madrid.—A means of obtaining a pure and stable guncotton by a rare dolphin, Delphinus acutus, recently stranded on the boiling process. For the elimination of impurities from
coast of Sutherland : Sir William Turner, K.C.B. There the guncotton and the rapid attainment of a stable pro- were very few previous records of this species having been duct, boiling in dilute acid at the beginning of the process found in the vicinity of the Scottish shores.-Contributions is superior to an alkaline treatment, which has the
to the craniology of the people of the Empire of India, additional disadvantage of tending towards undue
part iii., natives of the Madras Presidency, Thugs, Veddahs, hydrolysis of the ester itself. The acid hydrolysis must Tibetans, and Seistanis : Sir William Turner, K.C.B. not be unduly curtailed, or elimination of the impurities Among the skulls exhibited were those of some of the will be rendered difficult.-The determination of indigotin famous Thugs who practised highway murder with such in commercial indigo and in indigo-yielding plants : C. skill and secrecy as to elude for long the authorities in India. Bergtheil and R. V. Briggs. The authors have investi
Their crimes were regarded by themselves as a religious gated the standard methods of estimating indigotin in duty. The skulls were all well formed, with no resemblance cominercial indigo. It is shown that all the methods dealt to what some have called a criminal type. Of the two wilh are trustworthy when applied to pure indigotin, but
Tibetan skulls, one was of Mongolian type, but the other that in application to commercial indigo the impurities was that of a Kham warrior from eastern Tibet, and its present lead to errors; only those methods depending on dolichocephalic form supported Grierson's theory of the the Oxidation or reduction of solutions of sulphonated Tibeto-Burman stock. The three skulls from Seistan, in indigo are found to be applicable in this case. --Recent
south-west Afghanistan, belonged
types, progress in the cement industry: B. Blount. The author approximating to the Afghan and the other the compares the condition of the cement industry in 1886
Beluchistan type.--Interpolation for a table of fractions, and at the present time, pointing out that at the former
with a notice of synthetic division and its use : Dr. James date somewhat crude methods of manufacture were in
Burgess, C.I.E. All fractions with denominators under 100 use, wherras now improved processes are in operation and numerators less than 50 were tabulated in order of under scientific control. The world's production of Port- magnitude. The formulæ q=n'd=(n+9)/(d+1) suggested land cement has increased from 2,500,000 tons to some a simple and rapid way of dividing by any number differing 11,0m, ono tons in the last twenty years, and the centre
by unity from a simple multiple of 10, 100, 1000, &c.of the industry has shifted from Europe to the United The length of the normal chord of a conic : Prof. Anglin. States. The second part of the paper deals with improve- - The hydroids of the Scottish National Antarctic Expediments in controlling the quality of cement in the works tion : James Ritchie. The collection brought home by and by the user which have been made during the last the Scotia was very large. There were forty-five specitwenty years.
mens giving one new genus, nine new species, and several Royal Meteorological Society. June 20. – Mr. Richard new varieties. The new genus had been named Brucella, Bentley, president, in the chair.-The mean prevalence of in honour of Mr. W. S. Bruce. The Scotia collection also thunderstorms in various parts of the British Islands during extended our knowledge of the geographical range of the twenty-five years 1881-1905: F. J. Brodie. The hydroids, especially towards the Antarctic regions.-Prof. author gives the mean number of days on which thunder- D. J. Cunningham exhibited a photograph taken from a storms, or thunder only, occurred in each month, each bridge of a large number of salmon resting in the Corrib season, and in cach year at fifty-three stations situated River, Galway.
gave on analysis no trace of nitrogen, showing the sepur. Academy of Sciences, June 11.-M. J. Poincaré in the ation to be complete. Details are given for the processes chair.—Some points relating to the study of the specific recommended for the analysis of butter, cheese, and milk. heats and the application to these of the law of correspond- | -Researches on the development of Botrytis cinerea, the ing states : E. H. Amagat. It has been shown in a cause of grey rot in grapes : J. M. Quillon.-Note on the previous note that the specific heat at constant volume, bathypelagic Nemerteans collected by the Prince of Monaco : following an isotherm, undergoes a discontinuity at each L. Joubin.--Impregnation and fertilisation : E. Bataillon. intersection of this isotherm with the saturation curve. In -The motility of the echinococcic scolex: J. Sabrazės, the present paper the question is discussed as to whether L. Muratet, and P. Husnot.—The graphitic schists of this discontinuity persists in the neighbourhood of the Morbihan : M. Pussenot. The local winds in the neighcritical point. The products of the reaction, at a high bourhood of the Canaries : H. Hergesell. temperature, of sodium isobutylate and propylate of camphor : A. Haller and J. Minguin. Camphor, heated
DIARY OF SOCIETIES. at about 230° C. with sodium isobutylate, gives sodium
THURSDAY, JUNE 28. isobutyrate and isobutylcamphol, various derivatives of
ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30. -Sex-determination in Hydatina, with some which have been prepared. The general action of sodium Remarks on Parthenogenesis: R. C. Punnett.-On the Julianiacem, propylate on camphor at a high temperature is similar to a New Natural Order of Plants: W. B. Hemsley, F.R.S.-On ke that of sodium isobutylate, but the yields are not so good.
generation of Nerves : Dr. F. W. Mott, F.R.S., Prof. W. D. Halliburton, -Some attempts made in the German Navy to utilise photo
F.R.S., and A. Edmunds.- The Pharmacology of Ethyl Chlorile: D.
E. H. Embley.-The Alcoholic Ferment of Yeast Juice, part ii. The graphy in voyages of exploration : A. Laussedat.-The Co.ferment of Yeast Juice : Dr. A. Harden and W. J. Young.-Total orthography of the word caesium : M. de Forcrand.- Eclipse of the Sun, August 30, 1905, Account of the Observations made
by the Solar Physics Observatory Eclipse Expedition and the Officers Vaccination against tuberculosis by the digestive tracts :
and Men of H.M.S. l'enus at Palma, Majorca : Sir Norman Locayo, A. Calmette and C. Guérin. The authors summarise the K.C.B., F.R.S., and others.--Researches on Explosives, part iv: Sir views put forward by them in previous papers as to the Ardrew Noble, Bart., K.C.B., F.R.S.-Tidal Regime of the River exact mechanism of tuberculous infection, laying stress
Mersey as affected by the Recent Dredgiogs at the Bar, in Liverpool Ewy.
J. N. Shoolbred. - The Refractive Indices of Water and Sea.vater: upon the fact that the tubercle bacilli are probably absorbed J. W. Gifford. --The Ionisation produced by Hot Platinum in Different by the digestive tube, and find their way to the lungs Gases : O. W. Ricbardson - The Action of Plants on a Photographic indirectly, and not directly
Plate in the Dark: Dr. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.-On the Ultra Violet as usually assumed. It has
Spectrum of Ytrerbium : Sir William Crookes, F.R.S.-On tbe Kew" been found that it is possible to vaccinate young calves Scale of Temperature and its Relation to the International Hydrogen by the simple intestinal absorption of tubercle bacilli Scale: Dr. J. A. Harker.–Nore on the Production of Secondary Kay modified by heat, and that this method of, vaccination is
by "a" Rays from Polonium: W. H. Logeman.-The Hygroscopic
Action of Cotton : Prof. Orme Masson, F.R.S., and E. S. Richards. quite free from danger.-Remarks by M. Emile Roux on
THURSDAY, JULY 5. the preceding paper. The results of experiments carried CHEMICAL Society, at 8.30.-Saponarin, a New Glucoside, Coloured on by M. Roux since November, 1905, are in general
Blue with Iodine: G. Barger. --The Constitution of Umbellulone: F.
Tutin.-Electrolytic Oxidation : H. D. Law.-The Action of Ethy! agreement with those described in the preceding paper; it
Jodide and of Propyl lodide on the Disodium Derivative of Diacetyl. is possible to give immunity to cattle against tuberculosis acetone : A. W. Bain. by means of the digestive tracts. The problem of the elliptical cylinder : Mathias Lerch.--Specific inductive
PAGE power and conductivity. Electrical viscosity : André The Organisation of Agriculture. By E. H. G. 193 Broca.--The aurora borealis : P. Villard. A complete | The Manufacture of Cyanides. By Dr. T. K. Rose 195 theory of the aurora is given, and, using this as a guide, A Year on the “ Siboga
106 it is shown that the characteristic features of the aurora Yorkshire Fungi
196 can be reproduced by means of a large spherical bulb Our Book Shelf: placed between the conical poles of an electromagnet.- Macfarlane : "The Principles and Practice of Iron The liquefaction of air by expansion with external work :
and Steel Manufacture"
197 Georges Claude. Details are given of the arrangements Blythe : "On Models of Cubic Surfaces'
197 for compound ” liquefaction, this constituting an advance Distant: “A Synonymic Catalogue of Homoptera". 197 on the previous results. Whereas spontaneous liquefaction McHardy : “ lona"
197 under atmospheric pressure gave the author only 0.2 litre Letters to the Editor:of liquid air per horse-power hour, the second step, lique- Kew Publications. —Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, faction under pressure, gave 0.66 litre per horse-power K.C.M.G., F.R.S. hour, whilst the compound liquefaction raises the yield A Remarkable Lightning Discharge.—Sir Edw. Fry, to 0.85 litre per horse-power hour.—The magnetic proper
P.C., F.R.S. ties of the compounds of boron and manganese : Binet The Magnetic Inertia of a Charged Sphere in a Field du Jassonneix. Of the two manganese borides MnB and
of Electric Force.-G. F. C. Searle, F.R.S. 199 MnB,, the former alone possesses magnetic properties, and The Date of Easter.-Dr. J. L. E. Dreyer; Rev. the permeability of ingots of manganese boride obtained C. S. Taylor
199 from the electric furnace is proportional to the amount of Musical Thunder.-G. H. Martyn MnB present.-The iodomercurates of magnesium and How do Inquiline Bees find the Nest of their Host?manganese : A. Duboin. These salts give rise to solutions
Oswald H, Latter
200 of densities approaching 3.0, and various crystalline double The Disturbance of Greenwich Observations. iodides were separated and isolated. The reduction of (Ilustrated.) antimony selenide: P. Chrétien. The determination of The Sea-Serpent. By R. L. the fusing points of mixtures of antimony and selenium The Royal Society Conversazione
203 in various proportions indicated the existence of three new National Physical Laboratory. (Illustrated.)
205 compounds of selenium and antimony, SbSe, Sb, Ses, and Notes
206 Sb, Se,.-The attack of platinum by sulphuric acid : L. Our Astronomical Column :Quennessen. In the case of the sulphuric acid of the Astronomical Occurrences in July .
210 usual strength sold, it is the oxygen of the air which inter- The Figure of the Sun
as the oxidising agent. In the absence of free Discovery of Algol Variables , oxygen with acids of high concentration, the necessary An Interesting Minor Planet
210 oxygen for the solution of the metal is furnished by the Observations of Jupiter in 1903 and 1905-6 sulphur trioxide in solution in the acid.— The chlorination Photometric Observations of Saturn's Satellites 210 of wool : Leo Vignon and J. Mollard.—The estimation of New Double Stars albuminoid and gelatin materials by means of acetone : The International Congress of Anthropology and F. Bordas and M. Touplain. The authors have shown Prehistoric Archæology that egg-albumin, casein, and fibrin are completely in- Summer Temperatures of the North Sea solublc in pure acetone. Diastases and peptones are also University and Educational Intelligence
212 precipitated by acetone. In all cases the aqueous solu- Societies and Academies
214 tions separated by centrifugal action from the precipitate Diary of Societies ..
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